SUPPORTING TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SCHOOLS CERTIFICATE COURSE QUESTIONS ON UNIT ONE 1. 1. OUTLINE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEQUENCE AND RATE OF DEVELOPMENT. WHY MIGHT CHILDREN DEVELOP AT DIFFERENT RATES IN DIFFERENT AREAS? Sequence of development: the usual order in which development occurs. Ie. A baby’s physical development may begin with rolling over, then sitting up, crawling and then walking, whereas another baby may sit up, followed by walking but never actually crawls. Even though an element may be missed the development still proceeds in what is viewed as an expected pattern.
Rate of development: the usual time frame in which development takes place. Ie. Where one baby may achieve walking unaided at 10 months, another may achieve it at 12 months and another may achieve it at 16 months. There is no set ‘age’ for walking just a time frame for when this usually occurs. Every child is unique and will always develop at their own pace. Where one child may follow the same sequence of development as another child, the age at which they reach each stage will vary depending on the individual.
There are four main areas of development: Physical development: This includes their ‘Fine motor skills’, which involve the co-ordination and control of small muscles, and skills like holding a rattle, picking up crumbs and scribbling with a pencil or wiring; ‘Gross motor skills’ which involve the co-ordination and control of large muscles and skills like walking, sitting and running; ‘General co-ordination’ and ‘Hand-eye co-ordination’. This area of development will provide children with the abilities they need to explore and interact with the world around them.
However, Physical development really does encompass so many different tasks and abilities. Genetics, size at birth, body build, nutrition and culture can all influence motor and physical development. Social, behavioural, moral and emotional development includes many aspects of child development: Learning about the feelings of others and co-operating with others; learning to take turns and sharing; social skills and the development of self esteem and self-expression. This area of development will shape a child into what they will become later in life by teaching proper reactions to emotional matters.
Intellectual/cognitive development which will include: Decision making and problem solving; explanation and reasoning; developing creative and imaginative skills; and learning to use their skills in different ways. This area of development is not always easy to monitor, children’s brains develop as they have new experiences. You cannot see the brain developing, but you can see what new things the child can do. Communication development includes: Using language to explain reasoning; expressing feelings and the ability to describe events.
This area of development is not just about pronouncing words correctly: understanding language, putting sentences together correctly, speaking fluently, finding the right words, then being able to use your language appropriately in social situations – list is endless! Every child is different and will develop at their own rate. While one child may follow the same sequence of development as another child, the age and rate at which they reach each stage will vary depending on each child. Although development is often divided into different areas, it is important to remember that they are interconnected and link with one another. . DISCUSS TWO PERSONAL FACTORS AND TWO EXTERNAL FACTORS THAT COULD INFLUENCE A CHILD OR YOUNG PERSON’S DEVELOPMENT Every child’s development is influenced by a wide range of factors. Personal Factors: Learning difficulties: A child with a general learning disability may find it more difficult to learn, understand and do things compared with other children of the same age. Like all children, children with learning disabilities can continue to progress and learn throughout their childhood, but more slowly. The degrees of disability can vary greatly.
Some children with severe disability may never learn to speak and as they grow will continue help looking after themselves. Other children with mild learning disability can grow up to be independent. Also, a child can have a specific learning difficulty in reading, writing or understanding what is said to them, but have no problem with learning skills in other areas of life. A child who has learning difficulties should be encouraged to develop in all areas to the best of their ability and as much as they can. Health If a child suffers from poor health or a physical disability or impairment, this may affect their developmental opportunities.
For example, a child who has a medical condition or impairment may be less able to participate in some activities than other children. This may initially affect physical development, but may also restrict social activities, for example, on the playground. The child’s emotional development may also be affected, depending on their awareness of their needs and the extent to which they are affected. External Factors: Poverty and deprivation: Poverty and deprivation are likely to have a significant effect on pupil development.
Statistics show that children who come from deprived backgrounds are less likely to thrive and achieve well in school, as parents will find it more difficult to manage their children’s needs, which will in turn impact on all areas of their development. These will all affect the way in which pupils are able to respond to different situations. Looked after/care status: If a child is looked after or in care, this may affect their development in different ways. However, they will usually be monitored closely and there will be regular meetings with the school to ensure that they are making expected levels of progress.
Where there are any issues, these will then be addressed straight away. 3. EXPLAIN HOW THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND FRAMEWORKS TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT INFLUENCE CURRENT PRACTICE. There have been a number of theories of development and many of them will influence the way in which we approach out work with children. Many psychologists have different ideas about how children learn: some feel that a child’s ability is innate and other believe that it depends on the opportunities that they are given. This is often called the ‘nature versus nurture’ debate.
Theories of development include: • Cognitive (eg. Piaget) • Psychoanalytic (eg. Freud) • Humanist (eg. Maslow) • Social Learning (eg. Bandura) • Operant conditioning (eg. Skinner) • Behaviourist (eg. Watson) Piaget believed that the way children think and learn is governed by their age and stage of development, because learning is based on experiences which they build up as they become older. Children need to extend their experiences in order to extend their learning Freud stated that our personalities are made up of three parts: the id, the ego and the superego.
Each of these will develop with the child and each will develop in a subconscious way, driven by psychological needs. Maslow was originally interested in the behaviourism and studied the work of Watson. He also acknowledges Freud’s believe in the presence of the unconscious. However, he did not think those individuals were driven by it. He felt that knowledge of ourselves and our own needs was far more important. Humanistic psychology is based on our own free will, although we have a hierarchy of needs without which we will be unable to continue to progress.
Bandura’s approach was also one of behaviourism; it accepts the principles of conditions. However,Bandura stated that learning takes place through observing others rather than being taught or reinforced. Children will sometimes simply copy the behaviour or activities of adults or their peers without being told to do so, meaning their learning is spontaneous. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory states that our learning is based on a consequence which follows a particular behaviour. Basically, we will repeat those experiences which are enjoyable and avoid those that are not.
This is as relevant for learning experiences as it is for behaviour. Skinner called this positive reinforcement. Watson believed that we are all born with the same abilities and that anyone can be taught anything. It does not depend on innate ability, but on watching others. Frameworks to support development include: • Social pedagogy - It refers to a holistic approach to the needs of the child through heath, school, family and spiritual life, leisure activities and the community. Through social pedagogy the child is central through their involvement and interaction with the wider world.
The framework is socially constructed and may vary between cultures, contexts and the time at which it takes place. 4. OUTLINE THREE DIFFERENT METHODS OF MONITORING DEVELOPMENT Three different methods of monitoring development are: Observations, Standard measurements and Assessment frameworks. Observations: It is important to understand the purpose of observations as part of your role. This is because you will need to report back to the teacher, who will in turn report to parents and carers on pupil progress. Parents and teachers should share information about pupils to enable them to work together in the pupil’s best interest.
These observations may be carried out both formally and informally and there are advantages and disadvantages to each. Standard measurements: These are used to measure a child’s physical development and to determine whether they are growing at the expected rate for their age. It is unlikely that you will be required to carry out this kind of check, as it will be done by health practioners. Assessment Framework: This is the term given to the way in which a child is assessed, to determine whether they are in need and what the nature of those needs is.
In this way the child’s best interests can be planned for with regard to their stage of development. Standard measurements and assessment frameworks are extremely useful in deciding on whether the child is reaching expected milestones of development in different areas. 5. EXPLAIN THE REASONS WHY CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE’S DEVELOPMENT MAY NOT FOLLOW THE EXPECTED PATTERN. Children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern for a number of reasons. A child’s health will affect their development.
If they suffer from poor health or a physical disability, this may hamper their developmental opportunities. A child who has learning difficulties could have problems following the expected pattern and would need to be encouraged. There are also external factors that should be considered. A child’s background and family environment is also another reason why their development may be different. Every child comes from a different home environment which is constantly changing. Each change, whether it is a family break-up, illness or moving house will impact on a child’s development.
Poverty and deprivation are also likely to have a big impact on pupil development as will each individual child’s personal choices affect their development as they grow and decide on friendships groups, extra-curricular activities, academic involvement and more. If a child is looked after in care and if a child has come to school with no previous education, this is also a factor. All of these factors, and more, will need to be considered as well as all the developmental aspects of learning. 6. DESCRIBE HOW DISABILITY CAN AFFECT DEVELOPMENT.
Disability may affect development in a number of ways. Depending on each child’s needs, it may cause a delay in a particular part of their development – for example, a physical disability may affect their social skills if they become more withdrawn or their behaviour if they become frustrated. Development may also be affected by the attitudes and expectations of others – if we assume that a disabled person will not be able to achieve and do not allow them the opportunity to take part, we are restricting their development in all areas.
It is always important that the needs of each individual are looked at first, without focusing on the child’s disability or impairment. It would also be extremely unfair to have unrealistic expectations of any child. You must always consider their learning needs. For some, although not all, the curriculum will need to be modified and pupils may need support. 7. IDENTIFY FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROFESSIONAL INTERVENTION THAT COULD ASSIST A CHILD OR YOUNG PERSON WHOSE DEVELOPMENT WAS NOT FOLLOWING THE EXPECTED PATTERN
There are many different types of professional intervention that could assist a child or young person whose development was not following the expected patter. These are just four of them: Speech and language therapist: May be based in the school, but can be brought in externally. They will give a diagnosis of a particular communication delay or disorder and will also advise school and parents about ways in which they can support the child. Social Worker: Might be called upon if a child has been a cause for concern in the home environment or if parents have asked for support.
They will also liaise with the school regarding Looked After Children. Occasionally schools may contact social services directly if they have concerns about a child and their home environment. Nurse/Health Visitor: May be involved in supporting the development of some children where they have physical or health needs. They will usually come into school to advise and speak to staff, generally with parents present. Assistive technologies: These are technologies which enable pupils who have specific needs to access the curriculum.
They may range from computer programmes to specific items such as a speech recognition device or a hearing aid, and will give the individual an increased level of independence. 8. ANALYSE THE IMPORTANCE OF EARLY IDENTIFICATION OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION DELAYS AND DISORDERS, AND THE POTENTIAL RISKS OF LATE RECOGNITION. Language is crucial to learning, as it is linked to our thoughts. If a child has difficulties in communicating with others due to a speech or language delay or disorder, they will be working at a disadvantage, as they will be less able to express themselves.
As children become older and the curriculum becomes more demanding, the use of rational and abstract thought will become more important. The earlier the diagnosis of any form of speech, language or communication delay, the easier it will be for professionals and others to target the child’s needs so that they are able to give support and the more beneficial for the child, as the early years are a time of rapid learning and development. Pupils with language delay may also find it harder to form relationships with others. As a result they may become frustrated, leading to possible behaviour problems and a feeling of isolation.
Very young children in particular will not have the experience to recognise the reason for their feelings. 9. EXPLAIN HOW PLAY AND ACTIVITIES ARE USED TO SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH, LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION. Play is the most natural way for children to learn about their world and interact with those around them. During play children combine many skills such as movement, thinking, attention, seeing, listening and, of course, communicating. It follows that children with a difficulty in one or more of these skills can be helped to progress through play.
Play is important throughout life; this means that parents are often keen to learn how play can be used to help their child develop communication skills. Play experiences can enhance all areas of development and can be directed specifically to address individual areas such as speaking and listening, or can be used more generally to support all. Through play, children will learn both about themselves and about others, and will be using their speech, language and communication skills in order to interact in a non-pressured environment.
As they grow older, children will still need to be given the chance to enjoy activities and equipment which support their play, creativity and learning across the curriculum. It is important that they are given opportunities to use their own initiative, work with others and develop in all areas. 10. 2. DISCUSS THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANSITION, AND HOW THEY CAN AFFECT A CHILD OR YOUNG PERSON’S DEVELOPMENT. Emotional transition: (eg. bereavement, entering/leaving care) Personal experiences and their relationships with others will heavily affect every child’s emotions.
If these experiences or relationships are troubled or traumatic, it may be likely that that child’s emotional development will be affected. The child may find it harder to form trusting relationships with adults. Alternatively they may be more immature than their peers or seek attention. In a younger child, emotions may be affected for some time by incidents which are seemingly insignificant to adults, such as the loss of a favourite toy or the death of a small pet. Physical transition: (eg. oving home) This type of transition could be changing schools or moving house; as these are usually well planned, there should be sufficient notice given about changes like these and therefore everyone should be able to work together to discuss them and help the child prepare for them. Intellectual transition: (moving from pre-school to primary school, or Primary School to Secondary School) This type of transition may be because children are moving between key stages or need to change settings, for example, from nursery school to primary or from primary school to secondary school.
There are many ways in which each school can ensure the transition for the child is as stress free as possible. Some schools may arrange home visits for children who are starting Nursery, or opportunities to visit secondary schools and meet teachers and pupils before transferring to Year 7. When managing the needs of older children, you should have opportunities to discuss with them the kids of choices they will need to make. This may be the selection of GCSEs, A-levels or diplomas. They must also begin to consider their career options.
Opportunities to take part in external activities such as work experience, voluntary work and enterprise can be very beneficial, as it will support young people to develop their confidence, decision-making skills and selfreliance. 11. 3. EVALUATE THE EFFECT ON CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE OF HAVING POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS DURING PERIODS OF TRANSITION. It is vitally important for children to have positive relationships during periods of transition, as they will need to feel secure in other areas of their lives.
They may need to talk to someone about how they are feeling and there should always be opportunities for them to do this. If you have advance notice that a child will be going through a period of change, this will give you an opportunity to plan how you will support them. All children and young people need strong attachments. They need consistency, trust and a good bonding whether it is with their key worker, teacher or carer; having someone that they can trust will make transitions easier for the child.
Children with positive relationships during transitions can have long term positive impacts on their ability to cope and be more resilient. They are more likely to be more successful academically and socially they will feel cared for, valued and respected. Their learning development will continue instead of dip, they may have more confidence and self esteem, which in turn will help them feel more relaxed. If a child learns to cope well with transitions early on in their life, this should have a positive effect and help make it easier for transitions later in life. 4. 5. 6. 7.