LIDE Learning Center, Inc. 6539 Isabel, Leyte Synthesis of Aspirin An Investigatory Project Presented to: Edmundo A. Quinones Chemistry Teacher In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements In Science and Technology III (Chemistry) Presented by: Kenneth Ivan P. Durano Cyrill Val G. Lozano March 6, 2010 APPROVAL SHEET This investigatory project entitled “The Synthesis of Aspirin” requirement for Science and Technology III (Chemistry) has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approved for oral defense. ___________________________ Edmundo A. Quinones Chemistry Teacher Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Science and Technology III (Chemistry) with the grade of _______%. ____________________________ Edmundo A. Quinones Chemistry Teacher Dedication to The researchers’ Loving and Supportive Parents, Friends,
Teachers and Classmates, This precious piece of work is humbly dedicated Acknowledgement The researchers would like to express their wholehearted gratitude to all who have contributed for the completion of this research study. We are greatly indebted to the following individuals: To Mr. and Mrs. Hermogenes Lozano and Mr. and Mrs. Lexdeo Durano for their unfailing support exerted in this study especially for the moral and financial support, To Mrs.
Lucivel Fausto, the librarian, who willingly permitted some materials to be borrowed needed for the review of related literature and studies, To the classmates and friends of the researchers who willingly helped and exerted effort for the completion of this study, And especially, to the Almighty and ever Loving God, who gave unconditional support and strength to make this investigatory project a success. Abstract The study is mainly concerned on synthesis of aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, which is most widely used as a nonprescription drug and is used to treat mild to moderate pain, and also to reduce fever or inflammation.
Synthesis of aspirin refers to a process of salicylic acid reacting with glacial acetic acid. The product then is purified by repeated process called crystallization. In this experiment, the researchers combined the salicylic acid, glacial acetic acid and phosphoric acid in a flask and dissolved the mixture in a hot bath. After the mixture completely dissolved, the solution was added with distilled water and is placed in an ice bath to speed up the crystallization process. After the crystallization is complete, the crystals are filtered to remove the excess water.
To further purify the product, crystallization has been repeated by adding a solution of ethanol and distilled water to the residue. After two successive recrystallizations, the residue is then air-dried and weighed. After three successive trials, the researchers had obtained 1. 76g, 2. 69g and 1. 18g of aspirin for the first, second, and third trials respectively. For the first trial, the researchers had obtained 50% yield, 69% yield for the second trial, and 60% for the third trial.
In addition, the researchers, to those who want to make this kind of project for the future, recommend to make sure that during experiment, the researchers should avoid shifting containers to avoid the subtraction of the mass of the product. CHAPTER I The Problem and Its Scope Introduction One of the most widely used nonprescription drugs is aspirin. In the United States, more than 15,000 pounds of aspirin are sold each year. It is an effective analgesic (pain killer), antipyretic drug (it reduces fever), and an anti-inflammatory agent.
It is an effective agent in preventing strokes and heart attacks due to its ability to act as an anticoagulant by preventing platelet aggregation. (http://wserver. scc. losrios. edu/~ropers/Spring%202010%20Chem%20306%20Preparation%20of%20Aspirin%20Spring%202009. pdf retrieved on March 6, 2010) Aspirin, in a group of drugs called salicylates, the most widely used drug in the world, is an organic compound because it is comprised primarily of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Aspirin is used to treat mild to moderate pain, and also to reduce fever or inflammation.
It works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation. It is sometimes used to treat or prevent heart attacks, strokes, and angina. Aspirin should be used for cardiovascular conditions only under the supervision of a doctor (http://www. drugs. com/aspirin. html retrieved on March 6, 2010) Objective of the Study After the study, the researchers must: 1. Synthesize aspirin using salicylic acid and glacial acetic acid 2. Purify the product, aspirin, by the process of recrystallization 3.
Determine the yield or fraction of the theoretical amount and its percent yield from the amount of product produced Specific Questions 1. ) What is the use of recrystallization in the process of synthesizing aspirin? 2. ) What is the yield or fraction of the theoretical yield form the amount of the product produced? 3. ) What is the role of phosphoric acid during the reaction? Statement of Hypothesis The following were the formulated hypotheses: 1. ) Recrystallization has no significant role in the synthesis of aspirin. 2. )
Assumptions and Delimitations This study, to compare the performance level of kindergarten two students in identifying shapes, letters and numbers, will greatly benefit the kindergarten two students. In this study, they will be prepared in the entrance examination for LLCI Pre-School Division. The students will take the test and the result will be analyzed on what fields the students will get low scores and which fields where the students got high scores. The school, Holy Infant Day Care Center, will also benefit from this study.
The school will have a chance to see the things that the school should improve. Therefore the school will have quality education and graduates will have a greater possibility to enter LLCI. Theoretical Framework Combination of salicylic acid, glacial acetic acid and phosphoric acid Mixture submerged in hot bath until completely dissolved Placed in an ice bath until crystallization is complete Filtration Recrystallization Filtration Air-dry Weighing and computing the theoretical and percent yield Significance of the Study Scope and Its Limitations Definition of terms
CHAPTER II Review of Related Literature This chapter will include some articles relating to aspirin and other informations which will be useful and relevant in the development of this study. Related Literature According to Mary Bellis, in 1899, a German chemist named Felix Hoffmann, who worked for a German company called Bayer, rediscovered Gerhardt’s formula. Felix Hoffmann made some of the formula and gave it to his father who was suffering from the pain of arthritis. With good results, Felix Hoffmann then convinced Bayer to market the new wonder drug.
Aspirin was patented on February 27, 1900. The folks at Bayer came up with the name Aspirin, it comes from the ‘A” in acetyl chloride, the “spir” in spiraea ulmaria (the plant they derived the salicylic acid from) and the ‘in’ was a then familiar name ending for medicines (http://inventors. about. com/library/inventors/blaspirin. ht retrieved on March 6, 2010). Crystallization of a solid is not the same as precipitation of a solid. In crystallization, there is a slow, selective formation of the crystal framework resulting in a pure compound.
In precipitation, there is a rapid formation of a solid from a solution that usually produces an amorphous solid containing many trapped impurities within the solid’s crystal framework. For this reason, experimental procedures that produce a solid product by precipitation always include a final recrystallization step to give the pure compound (http://wserver. scc. losrios. edu/~ropers/Spring%202010%20Chem%20306%20Preparation%20of%20Aspirin%20Spring%202009. pdf retrieved on March 6, 2010). BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS E. D Enger, F. C Ross (2000).
Concepts in Biology. Mc Grawhill Companies Inc. United States. E. E Mendoza, T. F Religioso (2001). Chemistry Laboratory Manual . SIBS Publishing House, Inc. 937 Quezon Avenue, 1104 Quezon City Phillipines Internet www. aquapurefilters. com/contaminates/… /chloride. html http://www. water-research. net/Watershed/phosphates. htm 15 Abstract He researcher’s study was to determine the Chloride and Phosphate contamination in 5 different bodies of water. The water samples are collected from a pond, sea, spring, faucet, and river.
The researchers performed the test on determining the Chloride content. The Researchers first put 10 ml of each samples in different test tubes. Then 5 drops of Silver Nitrate Solution was added to eache sample. Cloudiness indicates the presence of Chloride. Results were seen after the solution was placed. The researchers then performed the second test which the determining the Phosphate content. The researchers first place 5ml of each sample in different test tubes. The researchers placed dilute nitric acid drop by drop to make each sample acidic. Tested with litmus paper. ) Then 5 drops of Ammonium Molybdate solution was added. After adding the solution, the researchers boiled each samples. A yellow precipitate indicates the presence of Phosphate. The results were seen after a 2nd Trial was done. i Acknowledgment The researchers would like to express their gratitude to the man on the cross, fro giving them wisdom, energy, and knowledge to pursue the stude. The researchers would like to thank Mr. Quinones for all the support and letting the researchers use the laboratory for the experiment.
To Neil Masbad, who helped the researchers prepare the materials. And to Kim Corros, who also helped the researchers solve some problems. To the Philphos Laboratory for giving the researchers the chemicals needed by the researchers for the success of the experiment To Mr. Andrew Tantuan who lend the researchers his notes as reference and his suggestions and advices to the researchers. To the ever loving and supportive parents of the researchers, who helped them in their financial needs. ii APPENDIX Schedule of Activities
February 23 – Gathering of Chemicals (Ammonium Molybdate, Nitric Acid) February 26 – Gathering of water samples March 2-3 – Experimentation March 4-6 – Making the Investigatory paper Budget Fare – Php 13. 00 Printing – Php 95. 00 Images gathered during the activity Fig 1 – Results for Phosphate contamination 16 Fig. 2 – Results for Chloride Contamination 17 Table of Contents TITLE Abstract ———————————————————————————————- i Acknoledgement ———————————————————————————— ii Chapter I
Background——————————————————————————————- 1 Objective of the study——————————————————————————- 1 Specific Questions————————————————————————————2 Research hypothesis———————————————————————————-2 Theoretical Framework——————————————————————————3 Significance of the study—————————————————————————-3 Scope and its limitation——————————————————————————4 Definition of terms———————————————————————————–4 Chapter II Review of Related Literature ———————————————————————-5 Chapter III Materials/