Tanneh Woyee Annotated Bibliography

Works Cited

Baldwin, Paul R - Tanneh Woyee Annotated Bibliography introduction. “Unfortunate Wake Up Call for Hospitals and Doctors.” The

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Indianapolis Star 22 Sep. 2006: A11. This editorial is about the number of nursing errors made in hospitals. It reads, in part, “that it took infant deaths to wake up the hospital directors and medical staff to use the proper procedures” (A11). It blames long shifts, and high patients-to-nurse rations for mistakes. The writer supposed the reader had a previous knowledge of the nurse/infant incident(s). I would say that the source is credible, but apparently there was a previous article written on the subject that needs to be referred to. The article mentions “infant deaths,” but it doesn’t suppose the reader hasn’t read the first article since it doesn’t give pertinent information like when the deaths occurred. While the brief amount of information is informative, it is too short, and a little too vague to be helpful in my research.

Brooks, Beth A. and Mary A. Anderson. “Defining Quality of Nursing Work Life.” Nursing

Economics 23.6 (2005): 319-26. This journal article focused on how well nurses liked their jobs. It uses charts and graphs to show the areas in which nurses are satisfied, and the areas that could use some improvement. The team wrote, “The practice setting in which nurses work and the impact of the work environment on both nurse and patient systems is the work context dimension” (320). This article is helpful to the degree that it shows when and how nurses become disgruntled, but it doesn’t list patients-to-nurse ration as a factor, at all. The source is credible, and I will be using it because it mentions how satisfied nurses have better patient outcomes, regardless of patients-to-nurse ratio.

Doenges, Marilyn E., et al. Nursing Care Plans: Guidelines for Individualizing Patient Care.

Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company, 2002. This seven chapter book is a detailed account of staffing problems and successes. Doenges et al. wrote, “Understanding trends in patient care and dealing with the current issues in nursing require looking at the overall trends in healthcare practice and in the ongoing restructuring of healthcare delivery systems within the healthcare industry” (1). I find this published book to be credible, and I will be using it in my research because it deals with solutions, not just problems, and offers suggestions to give good patient care regardless of staffing.

Hall, Linda McGillis. Quality Work Environments for Nurse and Patient Safety. Oregon: James

and Bartlett, 2004. This 10 chapter book includes all aspects of nursing that play a part in safety. For example, it details how absenteeism (currently employed nurses not showing up for scheduled work days) causes problems, and how other short-staffing situations (turn-over rates in nursing staff) can cause problems. It also discusses what safe workloads are, as well as what patients-to nurse ratios should be. The introduction notes the book is about “key areas of concern in nursing environments. It is helpful to my studies because, again, it details common problems with solutions. I believe this published text is credible.

“Nurse: Patient Ratios.” <www.icn.ch/>. It discusses the stress put on healthcare systems

all over the world. Nurses, specifically, are said to face the greatest difficulty. “In a given unit, the optimal workload for a nurse is four patients per nurse,” but, apparently, this is rarely the case. This is an Internet site, not a scholarly journal, so I question the credibility of the source. I will probably not use the source because I question the integrity. Still, the source was helpful because it gives me another idea: researching whether or not the 4:1 ratio is catching on anywhere.

“Proposed California Department of Health Services: Nurse-Patient Ratios.” Where We Stand.

 (Apr. 2002) <www.nurseallianceca.org>. This article is short. Its focus is hospital employment only, not patient-to nurse ratios in skilled nursing facilities. Its main purpose is to provide information about possible new (government mandated) acute care hospital requirements. The article claims that, “The SEIU Nurse Alliance [was seeking] improvements in the licensed nurse-to-patient staffing ratios proposed in January 2002 by the California department of Health Services” (para. 1). Although it is not long, this is a quick look at what California is proposing to be acceptable patients-to-nurse ratios in several different medical disciplines. This, too, is an Internet source, but I find it credible because the nurse alliance is well known. I will use this in my research because my research will benefit from a look at an actual proposed model.

Rassin, M. “Trends in Nursing Staff Allocation: The Nurse-to-Patient ratio and Skill Mix Issues

in Israel.” International Nursing Review 54.1 (2006): 63-69. Rassin’s article states that the reason patients-to-nurse ratios aren’t lower, is because of the high cost of paying RNs. This essay spelled out a solution, though, which is to hire non-RN staff members like LPNs and medical assistants. This way, there are more staff members per patient, but all the staff members are not RNs, so costs are better controlled. I find this to be a credible source because many medical facilities do use this approach. I will be using this source because it provides information on current trends. While evaluating this source, I was, at first, worried that (because of the title) the information wouldn’t be specific to the U.S., but the information is relevant.

Snowbeck, Christopher. “Nursing By the Numbers: Debate Centers on Whether Nurse-to-Patient

Ratios Should Be Mandated.” Pittsburgh Post Gazette 7 Jul. 2006: E1. Union officials

at a hospital in Beaver are looking the pros and cons of mandating patients-to-nurse ratios. So far, plans that were put into place in 2003 are showing positive changes. Officials were quoted as saying, “Our research documents that patient outcomes and nurse retention is significantly better.” The article is helpful to my project because the research is proven, not just a proposed mode. The source is credible, although a little editorial. It will be important to distinguish proven fact from propaganda.

Stein, Maribeth, Deese, Deborah. “Addressing the Next Decade of Nursing Challenges.” Nursing

Economics 22.5 (2004): 398-404. This study focuses on several aspects of nursing. Most importantly, it discusses key elements in improving patient care. Case managers are the focus of improving conditions. “Some initial data from the first year of the study, which focused on process improve, showed that it takes 78 minutes out of a four-hour period to complete the admission process for one patient.” Although I believe this article is credible, this article isn’t helpful as I focus on ratio, because it doesn’t address ratio specifically. The essay’s works cited page was helpful, giving me ideas of more articles that might be better suited to my needs.

Webber, Tammy and Staci Hupp. “Experts: Despite Safeguards, Complacency is a Danger. The

Indianapolis Star 24 Sep. 2006: B1. Three newborns died at Methodist Hospital. There is

debate about whether nurses are to blame, or pharmacists who sent the wrong medication to the floor. The nurses did not properly check the medicine before administering it. The article argues that nurses “are the last line of defense in treating patients.” The source is credible and I will be using this article because it brings to light the tragedy that can occur when nurses don’t properly check medications, but also it shows how mistakes can happen when nurses are faced with trying to do their best when understaffed.

References

Baldwin, P. R. (2006, September 22). Unfortunate wake up call for hospitals and doctors. The

Indianapolis Star, p. A11.

  This editorial is about the number of nursing errors made in hospitals. It reads, in part,   “that it took infant deaths to wake up the hospital directors and medical staff to use the proper procedures” (Baldwin, 2006, A11) It blames long shifts, and high patients-to-nurse rations for mistakes. The writer supposed the reader had a previous knowledge of the nurse/infant incident(s). I would say that the source is credible, but apparently there was a previous article written on the subject that needs to be referred to. The article  mentions “infant deaths,” but it doesn’t suppose the reader hasn’t read the first article  since it doesn’t give pertinent information like when the deaths occurred. While the  brief amount of information is informative, it is too short, and a little too vague to be helpful in my research.

Brooks, B. A.& Anderson, M. A. (2005, November-December):  Defining quality of nursing work life. Nursing Economics, 23(6), 319-26. Retrieved Saturday, March 17, 2007, from the Academic Search Premier database.

This journal article focused on how well nurses liked their jobs. It uses charts and graphs to show the areas in which nurses are satisfied, and the areas that could use some improvement. The team wrote, “The practice setting in which nurses work and the impact of the work environment on both nurse and patient systems is the work context dimension” (Brooks & Anderson, 2005, 320). This article is helpful to the degree that it shows when and how nurses become disgruntled, but it doesn’t list patients-to-nurse ration as a factor, at all. The source is credible, and I will be using it because it mentions how satisfied nurses have better patient outcomes, regardless of patients-to-nurse ratio.

Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., & Geissler-Murr, A. C. (2002) Guidelines for

individualizing patient care. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. Retrieved Saturday, March 17, 2007, from the Academic Search Premier database.

  This seven chapter book is a detailed account of staffing problems and successes.

  Doenges et al. wrote, “Understanding trends in patient care and dealing with the current

  issues in nursing require looking at the overall trends in healthcare practice and in the

  ongoing restructuring of healthcare delivery systems within the healthcare industry”

  (Doenges et al., 2002, 1). I find this published book to be credible, and I will be using it

  in my research because it deals with solutions, not just problems, and offers suggestions

  to give good patient care regardless of staffing.

Hall, Linda McGillis. (2004). Quality work environments for nurse and patient safety. Oregon:

James and Bartlett.

 This 10 chapter book includes all aspects of nursing that play a part in safety. For

  example, it details absenteeism problem, and how short-staffing can cause problems. It

  also discusses what safe workloads are, as well as what patients-to nurse ratios should

  be. The introduction notes the book is about “key areas of concern in nursing

  environments (Hall, 2004). It is helpful to my studies because, again, it details common

  problems with solutions.

Nurse: Patient ratios. Web site: www.icn.ch/

              It discusses the stress put on healthcare systems

  all over the world. Nurses, specifically, are said to face the greatest difficulty. “In a

  given unit, the optimal workload for a nurse is four patients per nurse,” but, apparently,

  this is rarely the case. This is an Internet site, not a scholarly journal, so I question the

  credibility of the source. I will probably not use the source because I question the

  integrity. Still, the source was helpful because it gives me another idea: researching

 whether or not the 4:1 ratio is catching on anywhere.

Proposed California Department of Health Services: Nurse patient ratios. (2002). Retrieved

March 17, 2007 from Where we Stand Web site: www.nurseallianceca.org

  This article is short. Its focus is hospital employment only, not patient-to nurse ratios in

  skilled nursing facilities. Its main purpose is to provide information about possible new

  (government mandated) acute care hospital requirements. The article claims that, “The

  SEIU Nurse Alliance [was seeking] improvements in the licensed nurse-to-patient

  staffing ratios proposed in January 2002 by the California department of Health

  Services” (para. 1). Although it is not long, this is a quick look at what California is

  proposing to be acceptable patients-to-nurse ratios in several different medical

  disciplines. This, too, is an Internet source, but I find it credible because the nurse

  alliance is well known. I will use this in my research because my research will benefit

  from a look at an actual proposed model.

Rassin, M. (2006) Trends in nursing staff allocation: The nurse-to-patient ratio and

skill mix issues in Israel. International Nursing Review, 54(1), 63-69. Retrieved Saturday, March 17, 2007 from the Academic Search Premier database.

 Rassin’s article states that the reason patients-to-nurse ratios aren’t lower, is because of

 the high cost of paying RNs. This essay spelled out a solution, though, which is to hire

 non-RN staff members like LPNs and medical assistants. This way, there are more staff

 members per patient, but all the staff members are not RNs, so costs are better controlled. I find this to be a credible source because many medical facilities do use this approach. I will be using this source because it provides information on current trends. While evaluating this source, I was, at first, worried that (because of the title) the information wouldn’t be specific to the U.S., but the information is relevant.

Snowbeck, Christopher. (2006, July 07) “Nursing by the numbers: Debate centers on whether

nurse-to-patient ratios should be mandated.” Pittsburgh Post Gazette, E1.

  Union officials at a hospital in Beaver are looking the pros and cons of mandating

  patients-to-nurse ratios. . So far, plans that were put into place in 2003 are showing

  positive changes. Officials were quoted as saying, “Our research documents that patient

  outcomes and nurse retention is significantly better.” The article is helpful to my

  project, but the writing seems a little editorial so it will be important to distinguish

  proven fact from propaganda.

Stein, M., Deese, D.. “Addressing the Next Decade of Nursing Challenges.” Nursing

Economics 22.5 (Sept.-Oct. 2004): 398-404. Retrieved Saturday, March 17, 2007 from the Academic Search Premier database.

  This study focuses on several aspects of nursing. Most importantly, it discusses key

  elements in improving patient care. Case managers are the focus of improving

  conditions. “Some initial data from the first year of the study, which focused on process

  improve, showed that it takes 78 minutes out of a four-hour period to complete the

  admission process for one patient.” Although I believe this article is credible, this article

  isn’t helpful as I focus on ratio, because it doesn’t address ratio specifically. The essay’s

  works cited page was helpful, giving me ideas of more articles that might be better

  suited to my needs.

Webber, T., Hupp, S. “Experts: Despite Safeguards, Complacency is a Danger. The

Indianapolis Star 24 Sep. 2006: B1.

  Three newborns died at Methodist Hospital. There is debate about whether nurses are

  to blame, or pharmacists who sent the wrong medication to the floor. The nurses did

  not properly check the medicine before administering it. The article argues that nurses

  “are the last line of defense in treating patients” (Webber, 2006) The source is credible

  and I will be using this article because it brings to light the tragedy that can occur when

  nurses don’t properly check medications, but also it shows how mistakes can happen

  when nurses are faced with trying to do their best when understaffed.

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