6. The process by which people acquire political beliefs and attitudes is called
b. political socialization.
7. Political socialization
b. is the way that people acquire their political beliefs and values.
8. The transfer of political values
b. is more likely to occur from parents to children.
9. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
b. In high school students have little exposure to ideas about the American political system.
10. Peer groups are most likely to influence political attitudes when
d. the peer group is actively involved in political activities.
11. An opinion leader is
a. one who is able to influence the opinions of others because of position, expertise, or personality.
12. Many people believe that the media’s influence on public opinion
c. has grown to equal the influence of the family.
13. Which of the following is an incorrect statement?
e. Most politicians have avoided networking systems because they fear the connections with the public.
14. The new forms of media
d. include talk radio and cable networks centered around the news.
15. Which of the following is (are) true?
c. More important than age is the impact of significant political events that shape the political attitudes of an entire generation.
16. The generational effect refers to
d. the long-lasting impact of significant events on the generation that came of age at that time.
17. Having a college education
a. no longer means that an individual is likely to vote for a particular party.
18. In recent years,
b. professionals with advanced degrees have moved toward the Democrats.
19. The rich tend to be
d. economically conservative and socially liberal.
20. The poor tend to be
c. economically liberal and socially conservative.
21. Jewish voters tend to
d. be more liberal than average on economic and cultural issues.
22. With regard to voting and religion,
a. African American voters strongly support Democrats.
b. evangelicals are both split politically between liberals and conservatives.
c. fundamentalists most often are conservative.
d. church attendance seems to influence voting patterns.
e. all the above.
23. African Americans tend to be
d. somewhat conservative on certain cultural issues such as gay marriage and abortion.
24. Which of the following is an incorrect statement?
e. most African Americans have supported the Republican Party since the 1930s.
25. Which of the following is (are) true?
a. There was little evidence of a gender gap before the 1980s.
b. Men approved of President Reagan’s performance more than women did.
c. Women are more likely to support Democratic causes.
d. Women hold different attitudes on a range of issues from men.
e. All the above
26. American women are more likely
c. to support social welfare programs.
27. Currently, which of the following regions are more supportive of the Republicans than the democrats?
c. The South, the Great Plains, and the Rocky Mountain states
28. Which of the following is (are) true?
a. People’s attitudes toward a candidate are based more on the candidate’s experience and policy than upon emotions, such as trust, about the candidate.
b. Economic concerns have been among the most powerful influences on public opinionc. Issues make little difference on presidential and congressional elections.
d. Economic issues were not that important in the 2008 elections.
e. None of the above
29. Why did the Literary Digest incorrectly predict that Alf Landon would defeat Franklin Roosevelt in the presidential election of 1936?
c. The Literary Digest only polled its subscribers, who were more affluent than the average American and thus more antagonistic toward Roosevelt’s policies.
30. Modern polling was developed
b. in the 1930s by George Gallup and Elmo Roper.
31. A random sample means that
a. every person in the target population has an equal chance of being selected.
32. The survey where researchers first decide how many persons of certain types they need and then send out interviewers to find the necessary number of those types is
a. quota sampling.
33. Usually, the Gallup or Roper polls interview
b. about 1,500 people in a nationwide sample.
34. The phenomenon of certain attitudes occurring at certain chronological ages is known as
e. the lifestyle effect.
35. In opinion polling, a difference between the sample’s results and the true result may occur if
a. the respondents were not chosen correctly.
b. there was an inaccurate sampling.
c. respondents were interviewed only by using the telephone.
d. all the above.
36. The answers given by respondents to poll questions are influenced by all of the following except
d. compensation offered to the respondents.
37. All of the following are true of self-selection sample except that
b. polls that use self-selected respondent have as accurate samples as those using other methods.
38. Respondents are given misleading information in the questions they are asked in order to persuade them to vote against a candidate in
d. push polls.
39. Push polls
e. are now used throughout all levels of U.S. politics—local, state, and federal.
40. All of the following are true about technology and opinion polls except that
c. the media are careful to disregard non-scientific polls and to report on only scientifically conducted surveys.
41. Which of the following is true?
e. Cell phone numbers are not included in random digit dialing programs or listed in telephone directories, limiting the ability of telephone polls to reach many people.
42. Public opinion affects the political process
a. because it is a source of power for elected officials who take positions supported by the people.
43. American political culture
a. can be described as a set of attitudes and ideas about the nation and government.
b. consists of symbols such as the American flag, the Liberty Bell, and the Statue of Liberty.
c. provides support for the political system.
d. all of the above
44. The values that shape American political culture include all of the following except
e. government control of the economy.
45. The degree to which individuals express trust in the government is called
b. political trust.
46. Since the early 1990s the American people have consistently shown more confidence in ____ than any other institution.
a. the military
47. All are true of public opinion and polls except that
b. in 2008 and 2009 polls showed that “most important problem” in the U.S. was the economy and unemployment
48. Which is (are) true of health care reform?
c. Health care reform is an example of how public opinion polling is limited in influencing policy-making.
49. When most national polling organizations conduct a scientific poll, they usually
a. ask questions of a random sample of 1,000 potential voters.
50. Determining which public policy questions will be debated or considered is known as
d. agenda setting.
51. All of the following are true of public opinion polls except that
d. polls that consist of shopping mall interviews may produce inaccurate results.
1. All are true except that
c. what you see online is very different from what you see in print.
2. In the 2008 elections,
b. the campaign was long, bitter, and expensive.
3. People who choose to run for office can be divided into two groups:
d. self-starters and those who are recruited.
4. Candidates are likely get involved in politics for all of the following reasons except
d. to hide personality faults.
5. Naturalized citizens are constitutionally barred from running for the office of
c. president of the United States.
6. Holders of political office in the United States today are usually
c. white and male.
7. With regard to candidates for office, all of the following are true except the
b. the number is evenly divided between men and women.
8. In the last twenty years the number of women running for office at the federal and state level has
a. increased significantly.
9. One of the reasons that campaigns no longer depend on political parties is
c. that fewer people identify with them.
10. A striking feature of today’s political campaigns is the
d. importance of paid professionals rather than volunteers.
11. All of following are true except that
d. campaigns are concerned with getting the support of their party members, but not too concerned with independent voters.
12. If a candidate is a highly visible incumbent seeking reelection,
c. there may be little need for campaigning except to remind the voters of the officeholder’s good deeds.
13. Tracking polls are used
a. on a daily basis to determine last-minute changes in the mood of the electorate.
14. The rapid increase in campaign costs in modern U.S. elections may be in part attributed to
d. increased use of television and the length of the campaigns.
15. Reforms to the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974 did not
c. provide public funding for Congressional elections.
16. All of the following are true except that
a. to win an election, a candidate must have a majority of the votes.
17. Facts show that
a. there is a connection between money and elections.
18. Most PAC contributions go to
19. Which is (are) true?
d. Interest groups funnel PAC money to candidates they think can do the most good for them.
20. Independent expenditures
b. are unregulated funds spent by interest groups on advertising or other campaign activities.
21. Advertising paid for by interest groups that support or oppose a candidate (or a candidate’s position on an issue) without mentioning voting or elections is called
c. issue advocacy advertising.
22. The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
a. bans soft money contributions to national parties.
23. The organizations that came to be known as “527s”
b. were set up by interest groups when soft money was outlawed.
c. run issue ads to energize voters.
e. both b and c.
24. Which is (are) true?
a. Candidates for the presidency go through two elections—the primaries and the general election.
b. Most delegates to the national party conventions are chosen in primary elections.
c. Most primaries are winner-take-all.
d. In 2008, the Democrats used a proportional system in the presidential primaries resulting in a close contest between Obama and Clinton.
e. All of the above are true.
25. The difference between a closed primary and an open primary is that in a closed primary
d. only pre-registered party members can vote.
26. All are true of superdelegates except that
d. they are part of the caucus that chooses candidates.
27. When only declared party members can vote in a primary election, it is called
a. a closed primary.
28. When voters can vote in either party primary without disclosing their party affiliation, it is called
b. an open primary.
29. When the top two candidates in a primary compete in a second primary for the majority of votes, it is called
c. a run-off primary.
30. With regard to presidential candidates,
a. Iowa and New Hampshire have the first caucus and primary, respectively, in voting for presidential candidates.
b. many states are moving their primaries to earlier dates in order to have more input into the selection of presidential candidates.
c. moving state primaries into the first months of the year is known as front-loading.
d. in 2008, twenty-four states had primaries on the same day.
e. all of the above.
31. At the national convention,
c. the presidential candidate is chosen by the party delegates.
32. In presidential elections,
a. voters elect the president directly.
b. the number of electors is equal to the number of senators and representatives in the national government.
c. electors have always voted for the candidate who won their state’s vote.
e. none of the above.
33. The number of members each state will have in the Electoral College
d. is determined by adding the number of representatives and the number of senators a state has in Congress.
34. The manner in which members of the Electoral College are selected within each state is currently governed by
a. state laws and party rules.
35. Which of the following is (are) true?
d. The only way that our nation could cease to use the Electoral College is through the process of constitutional amendment.
36. In the presidential elections
a. electors meet in the state’s capital in December to cast their votes for the president.
b. a joint session of Congress meets in early January (after the presidential election) and the electoral votes are counted.
c. one can win the majority of the popular vote and not become president.
d. one can win the Electoral College vote without winning the majority of the popular vote.
e. all of the above.
37. A party-column ballot is a form of general election ballot
c. in which the candidates are arranged in one column under their respective party.
38. Irregularities in voting
a. were a serious problem in Florida in the 2000 presidential election.
b. were apparent in the 2006 elections when new voting machines failed.
c. have caused some states to return to paper ballots.
d. resulted in many states replacing outdated voting equipment with newer electronic voting systems.
e. all the above.
39. All of the following statements about low voter turnout are true except that
b. it is much more common in most other countries to have low voter turnout than in the United States.
40. Which of the following groups tends to be overrepresented in the electorate?
a. Wealthier people
41. Reported voter turnout _____ as education _____.
d. decreases, decreases
42. Reported voter turnout _____ as age _____.
a. increases, increases
43. In the years following the adoption of the Constitution, many states placed legal restrictions on the right to vote because of
a. a belief that since many government decisions affect property, so one should own property to vote.
44. The right to vote
a. has been expanded since the writing of the Constitution.
45. The mass media perform all of the following functions except
a. funding media watchdog groups.