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‘the 1911 Revolution Failed to Bring in Peace, but Brought New Problems to China.’ Do You Agree with This Statement? Essays

The 1911 Revolution failed to bring in peace, but brought new problems to China. ’ Do you agree with this statement? On 10 October 1911, New Army and former constitutionalists Wuchang Uprising and imperial regime ended finally. Nevertheless, it is said that the 1911 Revolution failed to bring in peace, but brought new problems to China. In fact, I totally agree with this statement. The 1911 Revolution brought mainly two new problems. They were regionalism and self-weakness and will be discussed in the following.

The failure of 1911 Revolution led to regionalism that local did not take order from the central government. Some provinces recognize that the government was so weak that she couldn’t suppress the revolution. To avoid the wars and crisis broken out afterward, they declared independence. Within two months after the 1911 Revolution, there were 24 provinces that separated from the government’s control. This was a problem to the China. The local influence enhanced but the prestige of the government decreased. It was very difficult for temporary government to unify the whole China in the future.

The failure of 1911 Revolution led to the rise of dudu. During the revolution, China was in chaos situation. The local dudu thus seized the opportunities to develop the military government. Their power was so large that they could in charge of military and civil affairs of the province. The dudu also had their own soldiers and territories. Peace and order and self-interests were much more important than the central government. They ignored the existence of the temporary government. The temporary government also was difficult to take them under control.

The warlordism formed because of the rise of dudu. The failure of 1911 Revolution also led to the warlordism (1916-27). During the 1911 Revolution, the revolutionaries such as Sun Yat-sen use military means to overthrow the Qing government. After that, Yuan Shikai and Duan Qirui were lacked power to control the regional military leaders. To control their finance, resources and manpower, they were ambitious to seek other territories by military force. As a result, the militarizations of politics of warlords were formed. China was in disorder.

Totally, there were 1300 warlords and 140 battles within the Warlords Era. Most of the provinces were ruled by them. China was split up and in pieces. Thus, after the revolution, the China was unstable rather than in peace. Besides to the regionalism, the failure of 1911 Revolution led to self-weakness that involved political, military and foreign aspects. First, at political aspect, the failure of 1911 Revolution bought unstable government problem to the China. During the 1911 Revolution, Constitutionalists also helped to overthrow the Qing government.

After that revolution, Revolutionaries needed to face the Constitutionalists problem which Constitutionalists had originally opposed status with Revolutionaries politically. [1] For example, Wuchang military government wanted to reject the mobilization of Constitutionalists. They were inconsistent internally to the unifying. Besides, the failure of 1911 Revolution led to Yuan redeveloped the imperial regime problem. Owing to the fact that the 1911 Revolution was not a planned but instant revolution, the revolutionaries, New Army and constitutionalists were no ideas to develop temporary government at once.

That made Yuan to plan his imperial institution. He dissoluted GMD, parliament and altered temporary law etc. These showed that he was ambitious to be an emperor of China. “To survive, civilian politicians and bureaucrats had to make themselves subservient to militarists. ”[2] His violating the trend led to the public opinion of the Chinese. Second, at military aspect, “the failure of the 1911 Revolution to create a stable government resulted not only in a power vacuum but also in an ongoing legitimacy crisis”[3].

After revolution, many Chinese escaped from the coastal regions to the western region. Moreover, because of militarism, local warlords had their own soldiers which were much more powerful the the temporary government. But the temporary government was weak that military affairs declined after Yuan died. Many Chinese people did not rely on the protection of the temporary government because she could not save their lives once crisis broke out. Thus, “Villages formed crop-watching militia to protect against banditry and countries formed professional militia. [4] In addition , The Broke out of Second Revolution ( 1913) reviewed that the 1911 Revolution failed to bring in peace. If it could bring peace, why did China have the second time of revolution? Third, at foreign aspect, the failure of 1911 Revolution led to face foreign countries interfering Chinese political affairs problem. In the 1911 Revolution, revolutionaries overthrew the Qing government. If China unified, the foreign countries could not take more advantages and profit from her.

Thus, foreign countries, such as Japan tried to make China chaos and interfered the Chinese political affairs. For examples, Japan forced Yuan to sign the 21 Demands to invade Shandong. She also instigated Duan Qirui to join the World War I in order to make China had internal conflicts. Japan had advanced invasion of China because of the rise of militarism of Japan. Chinese government needed to pay more attention to these problems because the invasion of Japan was more obvious in Paris Peace Conference. Besides, Russia expanded her power on Outer Mongolia.

Britain also interfered Tibet independence problem. To conclude, Japan, Russia and Britain etc were ambitious in China matters. To conclude, I agree that ‘The 1911 Revolution failed to bring in peace, but brought new problems to China. ’ First, the revolution brought regionalism to China. The rise of dudu led to the warlords era in the future. Second, it brought self- weakness to China. Politics instability, weak military power and invaded by foreign countries are 1911 Revolution led to. ----------------------- [1] z_›??

Ni—}T0R”NUVK? OR: ygNyx[>> 1991t^,{3g [2] Zarrow. Peter. (2005). China in War and Revolution 1895-1949. London/NY: Bout ledge. [3] Zarrow. Peter. (2005). China in War and Revolution 1895-1949. London/NY: Bout ledge. [4] Zarrow. Pe?????????? : > 1991?? 3? [5] Zarrow. Peter. (2005). China in War and Revolution 1895-1949. London/NY: Bout ledge. [6] Zarrow. Peter. (2005). China in War and Revolution 1895-1949. London/NY: Bout ledge. [7] Zarrow. Peter. (2005). China in War and Revolution 1895-1949. London/NY: Bout ledge.

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