The Benefits and Disadvantages of a Global TNC
A - The Benefits and Disadvantages of a Global TNC introduction. outline the changes and the reasons B. describe the effects in the broadest sense a. The UK use to be a mostly primary employment sector in the late eighteenth century. The most common area of specialised farming was cattle (most of the cattle farming was done in England). This was because Britain’s climate was almost perfect for the cattle to graze. It has land that is not too steep, it is warm, moist (But not too wet) and it is the perfect climate for grass to grow.
However Scotland is far too steep in most places for cattle so instead people used to have hill sheep farms instead. Hill sheep can graze on steep slopes where cows cannot and they can graze on rough rocky ground that cows would not be able to graze from. The rest of Scotland was mixed farming (cows and sheep). The rest of England and Northern Ireland had Arable farms. Crops need flat land with a warm and relatively dry climate also the crops need rich deep soil for their roots. And because Scotland is quite a hilly environment crops would not be able to grow there.
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In the North and West of the UK, there were cool summers, mild winters, there was heavy rainfall, strong winds, snow in winter, steep slopes, poor and thin soil. This is one of the reasons why Scotland and the North West of England had no arable farms but there were a lot of livestock farms. And in the South East of England there were: warm, sunny summers, less rainfall (and most of the rain falls over the growing season), flat land and rich deep soil. That was why the South East of England is mostly arable farms, where there was rich soil so crops would grow well there.
Then in the early 1900’s there was a rapid growth in industry with the introduction of steam power. And that meant that coal was needed. And as coal is big, bulky and expensive to move, the coal fields became an ideal site for industries such as ship building and steel smelting. The reason why Britain moved from the primary sector to the secondary sector was simply because there was more profit in selling high-valued goods not just raw materials like crops and iron ore (etc).
The largest industrial site in 1960’s was in Lancashire (Cotton goods) however more of the items produced were: ships, linen (Northern Ireland), machinery, iron, steel, ships cotton goods (Central Scotland), Iron, steel, ships, machinery, chemicals (North-east England), Woollen goods, cutlery (Yorkshire), hardware (Derby/Nottingham), iron and steel (East midlands), iron, steel, metal working (South Wales), pottery, cars, metal, leather goods (West Midlands) and finally various manufacturing goods (London). Also because advanced machinery was not invented then there was a lot of employment created by the industry.
Then in 2006 the main coal fields had moved to coastal estuaries as the import of raw materials and export of finished products had become an easier way than mining it instead. The industries became more high-tech market orientated. Also the south of England was mainly footloose industries that do not necessary need to use raw materials to make the high valued goods. The reasons why the UK became a tertiary sector centred country because again there was more of a profit to be made out of selling things made from raw materials.
The UK has changed its employment structure a lot over the last century and it will probably change again soon. b. The UK has undergone massive employment change over the past years; a perfect example is Teesside on the North East coast of England. In the 1960s, Teesside was regarded as ‘the industrial centre of the future’. Different governments had helped modernise both the steel industry (nationalised in 1967) and the chemical industry. And also a large, modern integrated iron and steel works was opened at Redcar, and there was also a shell oil refinery in the port.
But Teesside soon became a polluted, especially the river Tees, because of all of the sewage effluents (9) and trade effluents (20), this led to the water quality being bad (50% was bad water quality, 20% was poor quality, 10% was fair quality and only 20% was good quality) and there was a lot of unemployment (25%) this was due of the industrial decline in the 1980s, the price of oil had risen, this meant that the chemical industry that depended on oil heavily saw job losses and the closure of the refinery (1984) meant there were yet more job losses.
Then in 1987 the TDC (Teesside Development Corporation) was founded, it covered 4500 hectares of land (1/4 of which was derelict or unused) and it developed it, they concentrated on tertiary employment structure and the redevelopment of former industrial sites, this had a gross gain in permanent jobs of 23,200 and a drop in unemployment of 8% and 386 hectares of lend reclaimed. This is an example of regeneration. After 11 years of developing Teesside there was a huge difference.
The private-sector investment was approximately i??1. billion, this helped to build 1420 housing units, this improved the quality of life. An example of this is Teesdale. It is a i??500 million development with a mix of offices, housing, shops and leisure facilities, also about 32km of roads were built or improved, this helped to bring people into the city which helped to boast the local economy. And then this money then helped to create more jobs and develop Teesside more. Also a major clean up of the river Tees and development on the Tees resulted in the forming of the TEES (Tees Estuary environmental Scheme).
Tees was a response by Northumbria water, then in 1999 the tees barrage was placed in the river tees. Not only did this barrage prevent flooding but it improved the water quality, also the TDC removed unnecessary sewage effluents as well as trade effluences. In 2005 there were only 3 sewage effluences and only 11 trade effluents. Also they added some automated water quality monitoring stations. This would tell the people that checked the river, now there is no percentage of poor or bad quality of water but it is a 50% of fair quality and 50% of good quality water.
Finally to improve the water completely they laid down pipelines to remove any sewage and industrial effluent to a new treatment works provided by the ICI (imperial chemical industries). This also led to the improvement of water. Teesside still has a long way to go until it becomes a fully developed city. The effects of employment change are: unemployment, (from invention of new machines replacing the workers) Teesside suffered under this when the price of oil went up making industries close down.
Land made derelict (from industries closing down and people not being able to demolish them due to lack of funds). And finally profit, the change from say primary to secondary would bring in a lot more money to the local economy. This is because if you develop a raw material into something of high value and then sell it to other countries you would make a larger profit than selling the raw materials. The UK has gone from a primary sector country to a developed HIC with a tertiary centred production line.