The Cross-Culture Misapplication in Advertisement Translation Essay

Abstract The world has become much smaller than ever before since the science and technology developing so faster as well as the economic - The Cross-Culture Misapplication in Advertisement Translation Essay introduction. At the same time more and more factories and companies in China are keen to put their products into the international market. Advertising translation is the outcome of this economic trend. This paper tries to analyze cross-cultural misapplication in English advertisements translated from Chinese at lexical/textual levels and culture backdrops ect, and puts forward some suggestions on how to avoid cross-cultural misapplication in advertisement translation.

Key words: Advertising translation; cross-cultural misapplication; suggestions Contents Abstract in English i Abstract in Chinese ii 1. Introduction1 2. Advertisement Misapplication Translation in cross-cultural aspects 3 2. 1 The imagination difference3 2. 2 The shift of social values4 2. 2. 1 Traditional differences in advertisement translation4 2. 2. 2 Religions different in advertisement translation…………… 5 2. 2. 3 Values differences in advertisement translation5 2. 2. 4 Political difference in advertisement translation6 3.

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The strategies overcome the cross-cultural advertisement communication… 7 3. 1 Overcome cultural barriers, respect for cultural differences, cultural 7 3. 2 Master and use the language of the audience countries, reduce direct pragmatic failures 8 3. 2. 1 Respect religious beliefs and national traditions and customs 8 3. 2. 2And the audience, the core values of culture are in line with the social cultural psycholoy 9 3. 2. 3 Eliminate racial superiority, avoid the national mood 9 4. Translation failure in translation skill aspects11 4. Pragmalinguistic failure in English advertisements11 4. 1. 1 Pragmalinguistic failure at lexical level………………………11 4. 1. 2 Pragmalinguistic failure at textual level………………………12 4. 1. 3 On cross-cultural pragmatic failure in English advertisements translated from Chinese……………………………………………… ….. 12 4. 2 Sociopragmatic failure in English advertisements 12 4. 2. 1 Sociopragmatic failure at lexical level………………………13 4. 2. 2 Sociopragmatic failure at textual level 14 4. 3 On cross-cultural pragmatic failure in English advertisements translated from Chinese14 5.

Strategies to Avoid Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failure in English Advertisements 15 6. Conclusion 17 Acknowledgements 19 Works Cited20 1. Instruction There have been numerous publications over the last ten years on the cross-cultural misapplication in advertisement translation to keep pace with the increase in knowledge of biological science. With the society developed and the economy flourish, the advertisements have a great influence on our daily life and work and then the influence will become larger than ever before.

So the culture is to advertisement translation just like what is the water to fish. Advertising is an indispensable activity in modern economies as it facilitates the efficient flow of product information in the market. On the one hand, it provides choices to consumers, and on the other, it helps producers explore and expand the market. It is a type of mass communication through which information is provided to many people at the same time . The function of the advertisement is attracting the guests and advertising even take a good example for the commercial image.

Advertisement translation is not only in literally but also in cultural contexts. Goddard warns of the dangers of ignoring cultural factors such as textual interpretation rules, attitudes and values. She claims that ‘the essence of good advertising copy is not about simply translating the words; it is about encoding the right concepts, and those concepts may well vary from culture to culture’ (1998, p. 80). In order to make the foreigners know what is love and accept the commodities from our country, advertisement translation is a necessary process we must not neglect .

We all know that due to the difference of location and climate, these people who come from different countries and nations would differ from custom, formality, tradition and values and so on. Therefore, the translation and cross-cultural are just like relatives which we can’t translate the works smoothly without cultural backdrop. Wang Zuoliang , a great translator ,said that the translator must be a person who is knowledgeable . How can we make the cross-cultural translation accuracy and vivid ? That is the point that the writer will discuss .

From the above advertisement translation we can see the cross-cultural misapplication scattering everywhere. We translate the source language into target language whereas the culture is involved. Those kinds of characteristics block the way to cross-cultural advertisement translation. On the surface of psychology, a well-done advertisement is easy to grasp the consumers’ eyeball. Due to the different cultural background and lacking of professional translators, advertisements translation has a bad influence on commodities transferring. Both bilateral trade countries would shut the door to each other.

Consequently, to improve advertisement translators’ abilities, the author analyze the cross-cultural misapplication from cultural aspect and translation aspect. 2. Advertisement Misapplication Translation in cross-cultural aspects We should respect the national custom which originated from hundreds and thousands of years from different countries. Every nation and each country possess their own traditions without aggression. The content, creative and precious, vary from others. In other words, one tradition in native country is sharp differently in another country.

At the same time, due to the values vary from nation to nation, this kind of tradition will be lost its original beauty. Therefore, you should think twice about the consumers’ psychological and the tradition of area adaption before you engaging in cross-cultural advertisement translation. (Che P118). How about the misapplication in advertisement translation, Thomas(1983)said that judging what is right or wrong by social values is belong to a person who have the ability of communication. However, to apply the language properly in when,why,how is the language domain.

The misapplication in cross-cultural advertisement translation is usually caused by lacking of the knowledge about cross-culture social formula, circumstance the relation between communicators. 2. 1 The imagination difference Due to the diverse cultural background, when we mention something abstract different people from different nation have the image and emotion vary from each other. Whereas, that is the point our advertisement translator always neglect. For instance, there is a supreme position of the dragon in china. On the contrary, the symbol of the dragon in western countries is an animal which is full of atrocity.

At this kind of situation, there is no single words can stand or express the symbol of dragon in both countries. That is the reason why the year of 2003 NIKE’ advertisement was cut by the TV station in our nation. Trademark is a part of advertisement, which means the definition and the image must be bounded with each other. We could know about its merit and feature through its name/trademark. The brand can bring the good even bad image to consumers. For examples, the “fang fang’s lipstick” and “GoldenCock” shoes polish. In Chinese, “fang” has a good impression for Chinese people, which means sweet fragrance.

It is better to use ‘fang’ be the trademark for a lipstick. But in English, the word “fang” has another meaning which means the animal have the sharp teeth and long paws, just like the dog or wolf. Therefore, there is no doubt that nobody will use this kind of things to powder themselves. Another such things, the word of “sod” means a taboo in English, however, the word of “cock” is instead of the male’s genital organ. .2. 2 The shift of social values The bridge of cross-culture communication is the language. On contemporary society there are more than 3,000 languages in the world.

At the same time, the characterristic’ culture which means the traditional cultural exist as much as you can imagine. So the gap between two languages is much deeper than you can imagine. Just as the American’ linguist EdwarSapair said that there is something behind the language, culture, which can not live alone by its own. The first and the most serious obstacle in cross-cultural communication is the language. With the difference of cultural backdrop at home or at abroad, the divergences are present in traditions/values/religions/politics and so on.

Facing with the cross-culture advertisement, we must be adapt the commodities to their traditions and values. That is the best way to take up the big market. 2. 2. 1 Traditional differences in advertisement translation Tradition is a kind of social norm which is established by usage. It presents all aspects of the whole society,includingfashion,courtesy,custom,convention,behavior,taboo,preference ect. Custom is the embodiment of national culture and an important part, although its binding is not very strong, but to people who has far-reaching effects.

A play in Hungary the American soap AD showed a mother held her baby, Hungarian has seen a single mother, because she’s left hand wore a ring, and the Hungarian wedding ring on the right hand. Rister the company in the United States the successful TV advertising moved to Thailand-a boy proposal a girl with Rister to treat the breath disease. The result is definite failure, because of they can not accept the screen which describe the relations between the young men and women in public for Thai people. When advertising is adjusted for two girls, product sales increased. . 2. 2 Religions different in advertisement translation Religion is not only a core part of social culture but also it is a deep cultural accumulation. Different religions have different culture tendency and discipline, which affect people’s cognitive style, behavioral norms and values as well as people’s consumption behavior. Those effects not only penetrate in all aspect of human life, and deeply rooted in people’s psychological. Religious restrictions influence the spreading of cross-cultural advertising all-around, especially in some religious countries 2. 2. Values differences in advertisement translation Values are the limitation for culture which expressed some culture with words and deeds attention of thing, such as wealth, family, political, love, sex, happiness, peace and power, collectivism and individualism, conquer and conform, work and life. Such a series of value and value combination, and different cultural communities will have a different value tendency. Sometimes each of them would appear sharp contrast. Just as some cultural value of personal freedom, some culture think highly of social obligation’s attention.

Some value good manners and convergence of behavior, and some are bold truthful expression of value. Psychologist HenryMurray defined that values as “the basic needs of people’s psychological performance”, it is a kind of expectation that people want to own something. As a commodity information and culture dissemination of information carrier, advertising will melt into different culture and values, especially when advertising from tangible product to passing the transfer information of intangible cultural value added later.

And in cross-cultural advertising communication, how to understand the people who come from different cultures and keep various values is a keen factor to impacting the cross-cultural communication. Because values reflects the thought, the moral codes, attitude,etc, which represents the will of the society and the majority of consumer ideal. Once the values of advertising transmission is not identity or even trigger antipathy, of course, the advertisement will be rejected.

If our products advertising often appears “provincial fine-quality, ministerial” prize certificate and the information such as the list which should be the Chinese traditional in authority of worship. The Chinese consumer is very convincing, if it was removed to the foreign market it may not work. Because in self-centered European and American culture, people with practical spirit, pay more attention to the practicability of goods. 2. 2. 4 Political differences in advertisement translation The laws and regulations which are formulated from various countries must be different.

Because of the advertising content coming from different area, there would be a big gap in spreading the legal aspects. The government both in law to advertising control has become increasingly strengthen advertising a trend. Different countries concerned advertisement about the implementation of the laws, regulations and decrees and policies each different, they are directly limit and affect the international advertising, therefore, cross-cultural advertising must understand the countries of the legal environment, known and follow the governments of the rules and regulations formulated relevant ads. . The strategies to overcome the cross-cultural advertisement communication 3. 1 Overcome cultural barriers, respect for cultural differences, cultural psychology of the opening of the train The day that advertisers simply translated his own advertising into foreign language has gone with wind. However, today’s international advertising must pay more attention to their local cultures, in which they can have a better understanding about the cross-cultural advertising. This is also a trend which belongs to our country enterprise , company, development.

Generally speaking, the first and the most important is the cross-cultural advertising communication at the same time we must settle down the cultural differences which caused by the obstacles as well as fully understand. The study of and respect for the cultural differences of audience countries should be more carefully and sincerely. Just as the United States marketing scientist said: “advertising is a kind of cultural products, if there was no culture, advertising would be nothing. Culture go around advertising and give the meaning of the advertising what they must be.

In order to make ads cross cultural boundaries, advertisers must respect culture and have a better understanding the power of the culture. ” To be specific, the respect cultural difference must do the following three: (1) first know his known, we, ads translators, should make a deep understanding on its own cultural characteristics and the audience the cultural background of the kingdom. (2) Followed by seeking common ground while putting aside differences. Do not lock ourselves in our own culture and learn to appreciate, referencing the essence of culture.

This requires the enterprise has a kind of international cultural vision. From this point of view, the companies should train a kind of open cultural psychology. The last is the perspective-taking, namely advertising claim the object of the deep cultural role, put yourself in to consider the appeal to the perception of the advertising message way, interest points and psychological reaction, etc. In recent years, several “Wu China” ads, include Nike “fear houses were” advertising and LiBangQi :”panlong fall off” advertising, and the Toyota “bossy” ads, are omitted this link and the results led to advertising failure. . 2 Master and use the language of the audience countries, reduce direct pragmatic failures The fact that the cross-cultural in advertising communication is an application process of language is a real operation level. The cross-cultural of language factors communication ability is not only language communication ability, it is an obstacle in the speed of culture transferring. So language ability should not be ignored. To cross-cultural advertising, it can’t be limited to literally, but we must understand its secondary meaning and culture connotation.

Otherwise it may deviate from the audience countries culture. For example, the magpies in our country is lucky bird, while in English’s eyes it is the rap, in other words, we often consider those people who do not tell the things directly. However, the Scottish people argue that it’s the door to death. Our country to use golden rooster, trademark frequently, if literal translation for “Cock” is a vulgar too, because “Cock” in British and American culture explains refers to the male genitalia. 3. 2. Respect religious beliefs, national traditions and customs Religion is an extremely complex category. During the cross-cultural advertising translation, the translator should be treated with caution. Prior assumption of a cultural consumers and another culture of faith and consumers which has the same ceremony is that advertisers could make a devastating mistake, because religion is the cultural values a outstanding performance. In strictly abide by the Islamic country, the traditional religion doesn’t allow do spirits and pork dvertising, also the women, and children can’t appear in advertisements. In the popular Buddhism Thailand, the United States of the camel cigarettes to the AD “I would rather for camels mile after the broadcast caused anger: the television picture smokers stilts sitting before crossing temple, the leather shoes in the hole is ground is very grab an eye. SONY of Japan ads were also rejected: Buddha close the man condemned, but soon to be once, open my eyes, with music kept rocking……

The AD at this time to flash “SONY, let the Buddha mind”. The AD of originality is not bad, but it incurred diplomatic protest. For Americans personal hygiene is very exquisite, however, European countries think the body is Catholic god has given, too much health is redundant. So when the “green” toothpaste with “the toothpaste for meals brushing their teeth after meals for the people” advertising, simply won’t work in Europe, because Europe people think that after meals, brushing my teeth, it is eccentricities. 3. 2. For the audience, the core values of culture are in line with the social cultural psychology Values of culture is the finite expression and “left the culture, advertising is nothing”. Thus advertising communication must consider the influence of specific value. Generally speaking, the advertisers or to your own products, the cultural values is connected or competitors and some criticism cultural values not in tune. At the same time, the advertising must be consistent with the values of the target audience, or it was easy rejected.

If the United States was the core values of individualism, or personal interest performance is higher than the interests of the collective tendency, the values would come from only the part of American culture. If we extol or strengthen the values of the advertisement, we could be succeed, and vice versa. As Americans never take the computer as public product, however, IBM is aimed at “collectivism” culture of Japan market, adjusting-company information three employees in front of the computer work around the discussion.

On this kind of conditions, IBM sells well in Japanese. This is especially important for cross-cultural advertising, in particular, it is to cater to local values with the audience at the same time the core values of culture remain consistent. Such as Nike AD “Just do it” in Hong Kong shown on TV, translated into “Want to do is to do”. This in the United States is the individual character success, however, in Hong Kong this to self-discipline as core values of Chinese society.

Many consumers thought that advertising has induced teenagers doing bad things too but in succession complaints, later changed to “should do to do” to calm the waters. 3. 2. 3 Eliminate racial superiority and avoid the national mood To achieve the success of cross-cultural advertising communication, we have to overcome two interrelated bias: The first one is the racial superiority, that is, from their own cultural view of the tendency of things and measure, in other words, they have strong identity about their own culture.

However, on the other hand, the audience are often belittle of foreign culture unknown and rusty things; The second one it is self-reference standard, namely, we usually take the subconscious in their cultural values, experience and knowledge as the basis for decision-making. These two kinds of prejudice and national sensitive mood are often goes together. This bias will prevent people from feeling the cultural differences between markets, and then effecting advertisers whether there cultural are imprinting. Sometimes, these cultural imprinting will offend audience, and sometimes performance for ignorance.

Nike “fear houses were” AD in the cultural hegemony–the symbolic NBA star come from the United States that has beat three have Chinese symbolic significance of star image-clearly offended the dignity of the Chinese people. Related to this, the cross-cultural advertising pragmatic failures will also expect to cause the national mood. Such as the 2003 people and caused the antipathy protest Toyota “bossy” advertising and “dragon post, LiBangQi advertising, the former offers to” bully “stone car smartly, pictures of the AD” bully, you have to respect “, the latter let “dragon” fall on the ground.

The two AD in online caused uproar, most people say this is to the national emotion provocation, ulterior motives “Wu China” advertising. Dragon and lion in the Chinese traditional culture has an important symbolic meaning, and stone lions easily make people think to the lugouqiao incident, together with sino-japanese relations more nervous at that time, the domestic and boycott Japanese goods of the storm.

Cross-cultural advertising must take care of the national mood, respect for a country’s customs, custom and habit, and at the same time must be good at learning and research in the history of the audience countries and culture. To eliminate the cultural differences of cross-cultural communication bring the negative influence, must always be aware of the existence of cultural differences, and action 4. Translation failure in translation skill aspects 4. 1 Pragmalinguistic failure in English advertisements

Thomas claims that Pragmalinguistic failure may arise from two identifiable sources: “teaching-induced errors” and “pragmalinguistic transfer”—the inappropriate transfer of speech act strategies from one language to another, or the transferring from the mother tongue to the target language of utterances which are semantically, syntactically equivalent, however, because of different “interpretive bias”, tend to convey a different pragmatic force in the target language (1983).

It is clear that the factor of teaching-induced errors is not easy to be deduced from the English advertisements, but the pragmalinguistic transfer is obvious. 4. 1. 1 Pragmalinguistic failure at lexical level As mentioned above, trademark is an indispensable part of an advertisement. To some extent, trademark is the decisive part. If there is pragmatic failure in the trademark, the fate of the product could imaginable. The following two trademarks are good examples to prove it. (a) Guo’s Totally Nutritious Slimming Extract (??????

Guo shi ying yang su) (b) Hangzhou Lotus Roots Starch (?????? Hang zhou xi hu ou fen) At first glance, the above two translated trademarks seem accordant with their Chinese trademarks. However, if native English-speaking people read these trademarks, they must feel odd. Take the first trademark as an example, Chinese people like presenting the effect of a product to attract potential consumers because Chinese consumers want to know what the product is used for and buy it if it is useful. Thus, the trademark includes words such as “nutritious” and “slimming” to indicate its effect.

By contrary, western people may think that “nutritious” and “slimming” is people’s commendatory assessment which can not be a part of a trademark. As a result, they may take it as exaggerated praise or boast. It is self-evident that the failure of this trademark is due to inappropriate transfer of naming rule from mother tongue to the target language. Analogically, the promotion of Hangzhou Lotus Roots Starch is doomed to be a failure on the international market because of semantic transfer from Chinese to English. The Chinese character “? fen)” in the trademark is used to indicate the shape of the product, but in English the word “starch” means “a white substance that is found in quite a large amount in bread, potatoes, etc” which implies that taking this product will cause people put on weight. Undoubtedly, there will be no one to buy this product to make himself or herself fat. 4. 1. 2 Pragmalinguistic failure at textual level Apart from pragmalinguistic failure in translating trademarks, there is still pragmalinguistic failure in other parts of an advertisement. The following is an advertisement of wine.

Made of well-aged choice grape and Ginsheng produced in Northeast China by scientific method, this product contains various kind of vitamins, organic acid, organic iron, various Panaquilon, Ginsheng, Glucoside, etc. This wine has special efficacy in strengthening the spleen and stomach, nourishing spirit and blood, generating saliva and invigorating mind and body if taken constantly and regularly. 4. 1. 3 On cross-cultural pragmatic failure in English advertisements translated from Chinese After reading this advertisement, we may find out that this English version is literally translated from its Chinese version.

It is more like an illustration than an advertisement as it lacks advertising features. Though written advertisement inevitably bears some features of written language, such as the careful selection of vocabulary and structure, the use of punctuation and the neat textual form, while written advertisement differs from other written language. With its special aim and purpose, English advertising in press advertisement is, generally speaking, written to be spoken for the sake of affecting the reader’s behavior.

In other words, written advertisements should be more like spoken language so as to fulfill both the function of informing and persuading. The translated English version from Chinese lacks emotional appeal because it is information dominant. This pragmalinguistic failure results from the transfer of textual structure in Chinese. 4. 2 Sociopragmatic failure in English advertisements As proved, pragmalinguistic failure in English advertisements translated from Chinese is due topragmalinguistic transfer from the mother tongue to the target language, whatever semantically or textually.

The factors causing sociopragmatic failure are much more complicated. As HAO Qin-hai (2000) suggests that sociopragmatic failure at lexical level is mainly because of the different associative meaning of the same word between China and English-speaking countries, and sociopragmatic failure at textual level is by reason of different values. 4. 2. 1 Sociopragmatic failure at lexical level Again, it is possible to probe into English trademarks translated from Chinese as follows: (a) Fang Fang (?? fang fang) (b) White Elephant (?? ai xiang) (c) Golden Cock (?? jin ji) The above three trademarks are popular in China. “fang fang” is a brand name of a lipstick, “bai xiang” is for dry cell and “jin ji”is for shoeshine. These three phrases are all associated with commendatory connotations. That is the reason for their popularity in China. However, when they are translated into English, things change. “Fang Fang”, in China, associates with beauty and fragrance, but for English-speaking people, it is a sharp tooth of a dog or a poison tooth of a snake.

Consequently, anyone will be frightened to buy the product. “White elephant” does not mean an elephant with white skin as its literal meaning in English-speaking countries, but it is a phrase referring to an article, an ornament, or a household utensil no longer wanted by its owner, or something of dubious or limited value. Undoubtedly, English-speaking people will not buy something useless. Similarly, “cock” in English culture can refer to genitals. This brand name is not only damages the image of a company and also leaves an impression of lack of culture.

Such sociopragmatic failure in China is beyond our listing, so it is noteworthy that in order to improve the marketing of Chinese products on the world market, the manufacturers should first improve their cross-cultural awareness. When they name or translate the brand names, they should pay great attention to the different associative meaning of words to avoid pragmatic failure. For instance, “White Elephant” can be changed into “Silver Elephant”, “Golden Cock” into “Rooster”, and “Fang Fang” into “Fragrance”.

In this way, the promotion is odds-on. 4. 2. 2 Sociopragmatic failure at textual level Since ancient times, China has become a hierarchical society. Governments and other official organizations are prestigious. By contrast, western countries advocate democracy and respect individual. In their mind, individual’s interest is the most important which should be first taken into consideration. If Chinese people’s value judgment is embodied in English advertisement, the sociopragmatic failure would unavoidable.

The following advertisement is the evidence. 4. 3 On cross-cultural pragmatic failure in English advertisements translated from Chinese Typical:Miraculous 505 Health Products Series developed by… Having proved their effects after use by millions of people in China and abroad, these health preservers have been won 50 Chinese and international awards. Such as a gold medal at the Eureba World Inventions Fair in Brussels; An international achievement prize at the 14th World Inventors Fair held in New York; No. among the 50 health products most favored by Chinese customers; Health products first selected for the Chinese sports delegation at the 25th Olympic Games. Those advertisement are very persuasive for Chinese people, because honor and certificates means high quality and good credit standing. At the same time, when English-speaking people read this advertisement, they may take it as nonsense. As we know that English-speaking people are self-regard. What attracts them is the practicability of the product. Honor and certificates have no say.

What’s more, because of their individualism, they do not care honor or something like that. Therefore, they are not familiar with those certificates as Chinese people. They will be at a loss when they are bombed with so many awards. 5. Strategies to Avoid Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failure in English Advertisements From the analysis of cross-cultural pragmatic failure at lexical and textual level, it is found that the reasons for it are various, some of which are linguistic and some of them are cultural. Without doubt, linguistic problems are easy to solve.

As many Chinese scholars suggest, foreign language teaching is a good way out. Take vocabulary as an example, if the teacher or the students pay much attention to the denotative and connotative meaning of a word, the pragmatic failure caused by “starch” or “Fang Fang” could be totally avoided. Besides, if people know more about the characteristics of advertising language, the written advertisements will not be too informative to attract people to read. Nonetheless, the cultural problems are much harder to overcome.

Take the advertisement of “Miraculous 505 Health Products Series” as an example, the content of this advertisement, though persuasive in China, is different from English-speaking people’s general understanding of advertisements. According to Leech, a successful advertisement must accomplish four things in sequence: it must draw attention to itself; it must sustain the interest which it has attracted; it must be remembered, or at any rate recognized as familiar; it must promote the right kind of action.

The four things can be summarized as four principles, that is, attention value, readability, memorability and selling power (WANG Lei, 1995, p. 97). Compared with radio or TV commercials, the attention value of press advertisement is rather low. In order to attract potential English-speaking consumers, it is necessary to understand their different needs from Chinese people and to present messages which contain all kinds of appeals. Undoubtedly, the advertisement of “Miraculous 505 Health Products Series” is not an eye-catching one for English-speaking people.

Once an advertisement is paid attention to, it should have the reader to read on. The readability of written advertisement depends more and more on the simplicity of its vocabulary and structure. It seems that in English advertisements translate from Chinese, there are too many facts and information about the products being advertised which puzzle the English-speaking people. By memorability, it means the reader can remember part of the advertisement after reading. If there are no certain linguistic features in an advertisement, memorability would out of the question.

Last but not least, selling power can be achieved by using imperative sentences in advertising. Chinese people are too polite to ask for consumer’s action. However, English-speaking people need such kind of appealing. All these elements taken into consideration, the most important point that deserves attention in the translation of advertisements is that the English version aims at a different group of people who determine the different characteristics of English advertisements. . Conclusion Advertising is a result-oriented activity. The success of the business is gauged by some quantifiable parameters of cost effectiveness, like CPM (cost per thousand) for advertising through various media, and CPP (cost per rating point) for TV advertising. The advertiser strives to highlight a quality difference which is essential for survival and success in the marketplace.

Therefore, through the strategies targeting calculated at a specific audience with a clear objective and appropriate positioning of the product in mind, advertising brings a clear and pre-determined message to the mass audience. As translating advertisements is an operation over two culture-language contexts, in order to achieve the pre-determined objective (i. e. the cross-cultural) set by the advertiser, or Translation Initiator (TI), as Lance Hewson and Jacky Martin term it: the TI both chooses the ST and sets the general framework in which the Translation operation is to take place.

This usually means that a certain type of TT is being asked for, to be produced in certain limiting and predetermined conditions. (Hewson and Martin 1991: 162) Advertisement translation is a kind of “sponsor-centred” or “client-oriented” translation, which are, as Ho Wai-kit defines, “those currently fashionable kinds of translation whose emphasis is upon the satisfaction of whoever orders, sponsors, directs or pays for a piece of translation” (Ho 1996: 47).

Given a clear concept of the function of the translation, and with the ambidexterity in both source culture and target culture, which Deeney labelled as “Ambiculturalism” (Deeney 1995: 111-126), an advertisement translator will find himself working adequately on the text. We should point 104 Kenneth Kim-lung AU out that equivalent effect is not always the primary concern of advertisement translating, and at times cultural transposition or adaptation is inevitable in the translating of dvertisement. This is not only legitimate, but also necessary, in the attainment of the cross-cultural advertisement translation. By the analysis of English advertisements translated from Chinese at lexical and textual levels in terms of Jenny Thomas’s theory of cross-cultural pragmatic failure, it reveals that pragmatic failure in this field is mostly because of pragmalinguistic transfer and different social values between different countries.

The linguistic problems can be solved by education and the cultural problems depend on people’s awareness of cultural difference. On all accounts, the purpose of advertising is to attract and persuade consumers to buy the products, so advertisements, whatever in Chinese or in English, should accord with potential consumer’s taste. Bear this point in mind, cross-cultural pragmatic failure is avoidable. Acknowledgements I am deeply grateful to Mrs. Gao Yan, my tutor, to whom I owe a great deal of gratitude and appreciation.

Mr. Liu gave me a lot of invaluable instructions and helped me much in every stage of my thesis writing. His patient help and timely encouragement are worthy of high acknowledgement. I also would like to offer my sincere gratitude to those teachers who spend their precious time in reading this thesis. Moreover, to thank all my friends, I can not finish my paper without their help. Finally, I also would like to take this opportunity to thank my parents who give me confidence and enable me to do my own work freely.

Work citied James Caporimo. Worldwide advertisement has benefits ,but one size dosen’t always fit all ??. The influences of culture factor on advertisement translation Cheng, H. (1994), “Reflections of cultural values: a content analysis of Chinese magazine advertisements from 1982-1992”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 13, pp. 167-83 ???. ???????????? ???. ?????????????? (?? :????? THE YOUTH WRITERS 2011) ? ?. ?????????????? ???. ????????????????????????? M??????? H{? {L2007}. ???. ????????????? 2009?? 17?

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