The Impact of Corporate Culture on Company Performance

Business Intelligence Journal August Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance Olu Ojo Abstract This research study assesses empirically the impact of corporate culture on employee job performance as well as organisational productivity using Nigerian banking industry as the case study - The Impact of Corporate Culture on Company Performance introduction. We try to ascertain if organizational culture affects employee job performance, and to formulate recommendations regarding corporate culture and employee job performance. In order to achieve the above objectives, the following research questions were asked: Does corporate culture have any effect on employee job performance?

And in what way does corporate culture impacts employee job performance? Two hypotheses were advanced: (i) There is no positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance, and (ii) There is no positive relationship between corporate culture and organizational productivity in Nigerian banking industry. The study uses survey research method. The case study companies were selected using stratified and simple random sampling techniques; while our respondents were selected using simple random sampling technique.

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The findings of this study are that a large number of respondents (57. 7%) strongly agree that corporate culture has effect on employee job performance, and that 48. 7% of the employees also agree that corporate culture determines the productivity level of the organization. These findings made us to accept our two alternative hypotheses and reject the null hypotheses because in both cases the calculated values of chi-square are greater than the tabulated values. KEY WORDS: Employee, Job Performance, Productivity, Corporate Culture, Business Intelligence Journal – August, 2009 Vol. 2 No. 2 009 Olu Ojo 389 Introduction Organization development is concerned with the analysis and diagnosis of the factor that determine organizational effectiveness, and the planning and delivery of programmes to increase that effectiveness. Organizations want to obtain the commitment of their employees. Management would like its employees to identify with the values, norms and artefacts of the organization, hence the need for organizational culture. Management needs to explain and imbibe its culture in its employees; this will enable the employee to get familiar with the organizational system.

During this process of explanation, the employee learns about the organizational culture and decides whether he can cope with it or not. This means that each organization is a learning environment. It is the proper understanding of the organizational culture that the performance of the employee in the organization. Performance is the extent to which an individual is carrying out assignment or task. It refers to the degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up an employee’s job (Cascio, 2006). Job performance is the net effect of an employee’s effort as modified by abilities and roles or task perceptions (Jones, 2003).

The culture of the organization should be developed to support continuous improvement, improve employees’ style of performing their job and thus develop quality awareness. To operate successfully across cultures, it is important to be able to recognize cultural differences and be adaptable (Deter, Schroeder, and Mauriel, 2000). Organisational culture finds expression through the thoughts, intentions, actions and interpretations of members of the organization (Hallett, 2003). Academic interest in corporate culture is evidenced by the level of attention it has received over the last few decades.

The relationship between corporate culture and performance has been the subject of abundant research in several fields, including strategic management, organisational behaviour, and industrial organizations. While this topic is rich in studies, many researchers concur on the fact that there is no agreement on the precise nature of the relationship between corporate culture and performance. Despite the plethora of studies on corporate culture in the last few decades, there is no widely accepted causal relationship between corporate culture and performance.

The empirical evidences emerging from various studies about the effect of corporate culture on performance have so far yielded mixed results that are inconclusive and contradictory. Because of these contradictory results, the question of whether corporate culture improves or worsens employee’s performance is still worthy of further research such as the one being undertaken in this study. In addition, despite the existence of these studies, very little attention has been given to the banking industry.

This means that the impact of corporate culture on employee’s performance in the banking industry has not received adequate research attention in Nigeria. Thus, there is a major gap in the relevant literature on Nigeria, which has to be covered by research. This research attempts to fill this gap by studying the situation of the Nigerian banking industry and providing more empirical evidence on the effects of corporate culture on employee job performance based on individual bank-level data. Literature Review Organizational culture has been defined as the “normative glue” that holds an organization together (Tichy, 1982).

Forehand and von Gilmer (1964) suggest that culture is the set of characteristics that describe an organization and distinguish it from others. Schein (1990), in a more comprehensive fashion, defines culture as values and behaviors that are believed to lead to success and are thus taught to new members. Central to the culture definition is the idea that culture must be learned and shared (Titiev, 1959). The culture of a group can be defined as: “A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and

O. Ojo – Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance 390 Business Intelligence Journal August therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. (Schein, 1990). ” In other words, as groups evolve over time, they face two basic challenges: integrating individuals into an effective whole, and adapting effectively to the external environment in order to survive. As groups find solutions to these problems over time, they engage in a kind of collective learning that creates the set of shared assumptions and beliefs we call “culture. Morgan (1997) describes culture as “an active living phenomenon through which people jointly creates and recreates the worlds in which they live. ” For Morgan, the three basic questions for cultural analysts are: • • • What are the shared frames of reference that make organization possible? Where do they come from? How are they created, communicated, and sustained When we walk around an organization, there are elements of the organization’s culture that are ‘on the surface’ and are relatively easily visible. We can see many cultural symbols (e. g. whether your office is on a floor close to the top or the bottom of the building, how big your office is), artefacts (e. g. , computers), and patterns of behaviour (e. g. , how and where people interact, how they behave in formal and informal meetings). Equally important, but the less visible aspects of culture are norms, values and basic assumptions people make. Another way of conceptualizing organizational culture is in terms of its ‘hard’ and its ‘soft’ sides. As we see in Figure 2, organizational culture is ‘supported’ by both social/psychological aspects (e. . , stories, symbols, rituals) and by some more concrete elements such as power structures, hierarchical structure and control systems (e. g. , financial, measurement and reward systems). Figure 2: Hard and Soft Model of Organisational Concept Figure 1: The Onion Model of Organisational Culture Power Symbols Structures Stories Myths Culture Org’al Estructures Source: Organizational Cultural Analysis: The Importance of Organizational Culture Copyright©1999, 2000 Holistic Management Pty. Ltd… Soft Ritual Control Routines Systems Hard

Source: Organizational Cultural Analysis: The Importance of Organizational Culture Copyright©1999, 2000 Holistic Management Pty. Ltd… Organizational culture has been linked to economic performance and organization viability/ success (Denison & Mishra, 1995; Pothukuchi, Damanpour, Choi, Chen, and Park 2002; Sorensen, 2002; Devis, 2007). For example, organizations dedicated to continuous improvement, with visionary leaders who ‘walk their talk’ and focus Business Intelligence Journal – August, 2009 Vol. 2 No. 2 CU There are many ways to visualize the concept of organizational culture.

One popular conceptualization is the onion model. If you cut an onion in half and look at it, you will see many layers. An organization’s culture can be visually represented in this way (as illustrated in Figure 1). RIT LS UA LS ARTEFACTS RIT ES PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR NORMS RE BO AR W M DS SY ASSUMPTIONS LTU RE VALUES 2009 Olu Ojo 391 on a set of core values, have been shown to be more financially successful in the long-term ( Kotter & Heskett, 1992). Organizational culture has also been shown to be important for successful new product/process innovation and organizational change (Plakhotnik and Tonette, 2005; Umiker, 1999). Culture is one of the most precious things a company has, so they must work harder on it than anything else,’ says Herb. Various studies indicate that companies with strong cultures are more likely to be successful, but only under a particular set of conditions. The effect of organizational culture depends partly in its strength. Corporate culture strength refers to how widely and deeply employees hold the company’s dominant values and assumptions. In a strong organizational culture, most employees across all subunits hold the dominant values.

These values are also institutionalized through well-established artefacts, thereby making it difficult for those values to change. Furthermore, strong cultures tend to be long-lasting; some can be traced back to company founder’s values and assumptions. In contrast, companies have weak culture when the dominant values are short-lived and held mainly by a few people at the top of the organization. A strong corporate culture potentially increases a company’s success by serving three important functions: i. Control System: Organizational culture is a deeply embedded form of social control that influences employee decision and behaviour.

Culture is pervasive and operates unconsciously. ii. Social glue: Organizational culture is the ‘social glue’ that bonds people together and makes them feels part of the organization experience. Employees are motivated to internalize the organization’s dominant culture because this helps fulfil their need for social identity. This social glue is increasingly important as a way to attract new staff and retain top performers. iii. Sense-making: Organizational culture assists the sense-making process. It helps employees understand what goes on and why things happen in the company.

Corporate culture also makes it easier for them to understand what is expected of them and to interact with other employees who know the culture and believe in it. People are constantly surrounded by culture. It forms the background (often invisible) of our work-lives, colouring everything in an organization. Organizational culture also provides a powerful mechanism for controlling behaviour by influencing how we attach meaning to our world and how we interpret events. Objectives Of The Study The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of corporate culture on employee job performance.

In line with this primary objective, the secondary objectives are as follows: i. ii. iii. To ascertain if organizational culture affects employee job performance. To determine empirically the relationship between corporate culture and employee job performance. To formulate recommendations regarding corporate culture and employee job performance. Research Questions This research study is poised towards providing answers to the following questions: i. ii. Does corporate culture have any effect on employee job performance? In what way does corporate culture impacts employee job performance?

Research Hypotheses In order to answer the research questions and achieve the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses are advanced and will be tested in the course of this study. Hypothesis 1 H0: There is no positive relationship between corporate culture and employee O. Ojo – Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance 392 Business Intelligence Journal August job performance in Nigerian banking industry H1 There is a positive relationship between corporate culture and employee job performance in Nigerian banking industry.

Hypothesis 2 H0 There is no positive relationship between corporate culture and organizational productivity in Nigerian banking industry. H1 There is a positive relationship between corporate culture and organizational productivity in Nigerian banking industry. Methodology The term methodology is a system of explicit rules and procedures in which research is based and against which claims of knowledge are evaluated (Ojo, 2003). Therefore, this section focuses on the research techniques adopted and used for this study with the aim of achieving the research objectives.

In this study, survey research design is adopted. Survey research design was chosen because the sampled elements and the variables that are being studied are simply being observed as they are without making any attempt to control or manipulate them. The theoretical population of the study consists of the entire workers of the banks in Lagos State, Nigeria. The choice of Lagos State stems from the fact that the Headquarter Offices of Nigerian banks are located in Lagos State and that there is concentration of banks in Lagos State with over 25 percent of the branches of these banks in Lagos State alone.

For effective coverage and lower cost, stratified sampling technique was used to select the participating banks. Nigerian banks were stratified into two strata based on the year they were established. Thus we have ‘old’ generation banks and ‘new’ generation banks. Two banks were selected from each stratum. Employees in selected banks were divided into three strata: management staff, senior staff, and junior staff. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a total of 100 employees that constituted our sample size.

It should be pointed out that limited financial resources at the researcher’s disposal could not permit or allow for a greater sample size. Every research work has a framework for collecting data. Its function is to ensure that the required data are collected accurately and economically. Primary method of data collection was used in this study. The primary data consists of a number of items in structured questionnaire that was administered to the respondents.

The decision to structure the questionnaire is predicated on the need to reduce variability in the meanings possessed by the questions as a way of ensuring comparability of responses. The questionnaire is titled “Corporate Culture and Employee Job Performance Questionnaire. ” However, only 78 out of 100 respondents returned their questionnaire and were used for final analysis in this study. One important way of ensuring that we have used the right instrument and have taken correct measurement is that our outcome must be in consonance with two major criteria for measuring quality known as validity and reliability (Ojo, 2003).

To ensure the validity and reliability of the questionnaire used for the study, even number of experts were consulted to look at the questionnaire items in relation to its ability to achieve the stated objectives of the research, level of coverage, comprehensibility, logicality and suitability for prospective respondents. A pilot test which took the form of test-retest method was conducted at the branches of selected banks in Sango-Ota, Ogun State where 10 workers from each of the bank branches were selected using purposive random sampling technique.

The choice of Sango-Ota for the pilot study was informed by the fact that it is the city where the researcher is living with a fair concentration of the branches of the banks studied. Data collected from the questionnaire were analysed, summarised, and interpreted accordingly with the aid of descriptive statistical techniques such as total score and simple percentage. Chisquare was used to measure the discrepancies existing between the observed and expected frequency and to proof the level of significance in testing stated hypotheses. Business Intelligence Journal – August, 2009 Vol. No. 2 2009 Olu Ojo 393 The formula of chi-square is: x2 = ? (O – E)2 E The respondents were asked if organizational culture has effect on employee job performance. Their responses are shown in the table below: Table 5: Does Organisational Culture Has Effect on Employee Job Performance? Organizational culture has effect on employee job performance Frequency Strongly 1 Valid Disagree Disagree 1 Undecided Agree Total 3 28 78 Percent 1. 3 1. 3 3. 8 35. 9 57. 7 100. 0 Valid Percent 1. 3 1. 3 3. 8 35. 9 57. 7 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 1. 3 2. 6 6. 4 42. 3 100. 0

Data Presentation And Analysis Table 1: Sex Distribution of Respondents Respondent sex Frequency Valid Male Total 58 78 Percent 74. 4 25. 6 100. 0 Valid Percent 74. 4 25. 6 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 74. 4 100. 0 Female 20 Strongly Agree 45 Source: Field Survey, 2008 The table above shows that 58 (74. 4%) of the respondents are male while 20 (25. 6%) of the respondents are female. This information was sought about respondents’ number of years of working in the organisation as it will help to show how much the respondents know about the organization and its activities.

Table 4: Respondents Number of Years of Working in the Organization Respondent number of years of working in the organization Frequency Percent B e l o w 39 5yrs Valid 6-10yrs 21 11-15yrs 16-20yrs Total 7 11 78 50. 0 26. 9 9. 0 14. 1 100. 0 Valid Percent 50. 0 26. 9 9. 0 14. 1 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 50. 0 76. 9 85. 9 100. 0 Source: Field Survey, 2008 The table above shows that 57. 7% of the respondents strongly agree and 35. 9% of the respondents agree that organizational culture has effect on employee job performance. Also, we have 3. 8% of the respondents who are undecided, 1. 3% of the respondents who strongly disagree and 1. % of the respondents who disagree that organizational culture has effect on employee job performance. The respondents were asked if organizational culture determines the productivity level of the organization. Their responses are shown in the table below: Table 6: Does Organisation Culture Determine the Productivity Level of the Organisation? Organizational culture determines the productivity level of the organization Frequency Valid Disagree Undecided 1 4 Percent 1. 3 5. 1 44. 9 48. 7 100. 0 Valid Percent 1. 3 5. 1 44. 9 48. 7 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 1. 3 6. 4 51. 3 100. 0 Source: Field Survey, 2008 This table shows that 50. % of the respondents have worked in the organization for less than 5yrs while 26. 9% of the respondents have worked in the organization for 6-10yrs, 14. 1% have worked in the organization for 16-20yrs and 9. 0% of the respondents have worked in the organization for 11-15yrs. Agree 35 Strongly 38 Agree Total 78 Source: Field Survey, 2008 O. Ojo – Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance 394 Business Intelligence Journal August From the table above, we can see that 48. 7% of the respondents strongly agree that organizational culture determines the productivity level of the organization and then followed by 44. % of the respondents who also agree, 5. 1% of the of the respondents are undecided and 1. 3% of the respondents only disagree that organizational culture determines the productivity level of the organization. In this study, the researcher also sought to know the respondents view on if there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance. Their responses are shown in the table below: Table 7: Is There a Positive Relationship Between Organisational Culture and Employee Job performance?

There is a positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance Frequency Valid Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree Total 2 6 9 38 23 78 Percent 2. 6 7. 7 11. 5 48. 7 29. 5 100. 0 Valid Percent 2. 6 7. 7 11. 5 48. 7 29. 5 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 2. 6 10. 3 21. 8 70. 5 100. 0 Table 8: Any Positive Relationship Between Organisational Culture and Organisational Productivity? There is a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational productivity Frequency 3 6 6 40 23 78 Percent 3. 8 7. 7 7. 7 51. 3 29. 5 100. 0 Valid Percent 3. 8 7. 7 7. 7 51. 29. 5 100. 0 Cumulative Percent 3. 8 11. 5 19. 2 70. 5 100. 0 Valid Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree Total Source: Field Survey, 2008 This table reveals that 51. 3% of the respondents agree and 29. 5% of the respondents strongly agree that there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational productivity. On the other hand, we have 7. 7% of the respondents who are undecided, 7. 7% of the respondents who disagree and 3. 8% of the respondents who strongly disagree that there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational productivity.

Testing Of Hypotheses Hypotheses testing are very crucial in a research work because until a hypothesis has been tested and checked against available data, it is nothing more than a guess. There are various statistical tools that can be use for testing of hypotheses but this research work will be limited to the use of chisquare (x2) statistical tool. The chi-square test is used in goodness of fit to assess whether a particular set of observation is sufficiently reliable for the purpose for which it is been collected.

Chi-square involves calculating the probability that an observed value randomly picked from the population equals a normal curve frequency of the hypothetical population. Hence, the observed and expected set of frequencies will be compared and arranged in single columns. Source: Field Survey, 2008 From the table above, 48. 7% of the respondents agree, 29. 5% of the respondents strongly agree, 11. 5% of the respondents are undecided, 7. 7% of the respondents disagree and 2. 6% of the respondents strongly disagree that there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance.

The researcher sought to know the respondents view on if there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational productivity. Their responses are shown in the table below: Business Intelligence Journal – August, 2009 Vol. 2 No. 2 2009 Olu Ojo 395 Chi-square (x2) is calculated using this formula: x2 = ? (O – E) 2 E Where: ? = Summation O = Observed frequency E = Expected frequency Hypothesis 1 H0 There is no positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance H1 There is a positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance

Hypothesis 2 H0 H1 There is no positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational productivity. There is a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational productivity. Table 10: Test of Hypothesis Two Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree Total Observed (O) Expect- Residual ed (E) (O – E) 15. 6 15. 6 15. 6 15. 6 15. 6 78 -12. 6 -9. 6 -9. 6 24. 4 7. 4 (O – E)2 158. 76 92. 16 92. 16 595. 36 54. 76 (O – E)2 E 10. 18 5. 91 5. 91 38. 16 3. 51 63. 67 3 6 6 40 23 78 Table 9: Test of Hypothesis One

Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree Total Observed (O) Expect- Residual ed (E) (O – E) 15. 6 15. 6 15. 6 15. 6 15. 6 78 -13. 6 -9. 6 -6. 6 22. 4 7. 4 (O – E)2 184. 96 921. 16 43. 56 501. 76 54. 76 (O – E) E 11. 86 5. 91 2. 79 32. 16 3. 51 56. 23 2 2 6 9 38 23 78 Decision rule: Reject H0, where x2 calculated is greater than x2 tabulated, otherwise, accept H1. Decision rule: Reject H0, where x2 calculated is 2 greater than x tabulated, otherwise, accept H1. Calculated (x2) = ? (O – E) = 56. 23 E Degree of freedom “d. o. f” = n – 1 Where n = number of rows Therefore, d. o. = 5 – 1 =4 2 Tabulated (x ) = At 0. 05% level of significance, the tabulated value of x2 for 4 degrees of freedom is 9. 488 Decision: Since the calculated x2 is greater than the tabulated x2, we reject the null hypothesis (H0) and accept the alternative hypothesis (H1). This indicates that there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance. Calculated (x2) = ? (O – E) 2 = 63. 67 E Degree of freedom “d. o. f” = n – 1 Where n = number of rows Therefore, d. o. f = 5 – 1 =4 Tabulated (x2) = At 0. 05% level of significance, the tabulated value of x2 for 4 degrees of reedom is 9. 488 Decision: Since the calculated x2 is greater than the tabulated x2, we reject the null hypotheses (H0) and accept the alternative hypotheses (H1). This indicates that there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and organizational productivity.

Empirical Findings Based on analysed data, the findings in this study include the followings: O. Ojo – Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance 396 Business Intelligence Journal August (i) A large number of respondents (57. 7%) strongly agree that corporate culture has effect on employee job performance. ii) 48. 7% of the employees also agree that corporate culture determines the productivity level of the organization. (iii) This study further reveals that there is a positive relationship between corporate culture and employee job performance. This is evidenced in the first hypothesis tested in which the calculated value of chi-square 56. 23 is greater than the tabulated value of 9. 488. (iv) There is also a positive relationship between organizational culture and corporate culture and organizational productivity. This also came from the second hypothesis in which the calculated value of chi-square 63. 7 is greater than the tabulated value of 9. 488 which made us to accept alternative hypothesis two and reject null hypothesis two. culture in order to improve their employees’ job performance. Every individual has different culture and beliefs that he works with and when he joins an organization that has a completely different culture and beliefs from his own, he should be allowed to internalize himself first with the organization’s culture and values to know whether he can cope with them or not. It is the ability of the employee to cope with the organizations ulture that will determine how he will perform on his job. In cases where an organizational culture must be changed, employees must first of all be notified and made to learn the modification of the old culture as this will affect their performance. Organizational culture of must be binding on all member and staff of the company as this will encourage uniformity among members of the organization and thus enhance commitment and group efficiency. Conclusion In this study, the researcher tried to look at the impact of corporate culture on employee job performance with evidence from Nigerian banking industry.

Questionnaires were administered to respondents who were randomly selected from sampled banks to find out their opinions and views on whether corporate culture has an impact on employee job performance. What we deduced from this study is that corporate culture is very important in every organization and that it has positive impact on employee job performance. Besides, corporate culture affects the level of organisational productivity in a positive way. This study shows that there is a positive relationship between organizational culture and employee job performance.

References Cascio, W. F. (2006) Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Life, Profits. McGrawHill Irwin. Denison, D. R. and A. K. Mishra (1995) Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness, Organization Science, 6 (2), pp. 204-223 Devis, L. (2007) Organizational Culture and its Importance, http://www. organizationalculturecenter. com/ Accessed on 3rd January, 2009. Forehand, G. A. & B. von Gilmer, (1964) Environmental Variations in Studies of Organizational Behaviour, Psychological Bulletin, 62, pp. 361-382. Hallett, T. 2003) Symbolic Power and Organizational Culture, Sociological Theory, Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 128-149. Recommendations The following recommendations are made to the management of case study banks and other organizations that are interested in modifying their Business Intelligence Journal – August, 2009 Vol. 2 No. 2 2009 Olu Ojo 397 Jones, G. R. (2003) Organisational Theory, Design, and Change, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall Kotter, J. P. and J. L. Heskett (1992) Corporate Culture and Performance, New York: Free Press Marcoulides, G. A. and R. H.

Heck (1993) Organizational Culture and Performance: Proposing and Testing a Model, Organization Science, Vol. 4, No. 2. pp. 209-225. Morgan, G. (1997) Images of Organization, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Ojo, Olu (2003) Fundamentals of Research Methods, Lagos: Standard Publications. Plakhotnik, M. S. and S. R. Tonette (2005) Organizational Culture: A Literature Review of the AHRD 1994-2005 Proceedings, Florida International University, USA. Schein, E. H. (1990) Organizational Culture, American Psychologist, 43 (2), 109-119. Sorensen J. B. 2002) “The Strength of Corporate Culture and the Reliability of Firm Performance”. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 1. pp. 70- 91. Tichy, N. M. (1982) Managing Change Strategically: The Technical, Political, and Cultural Keys, Organizational Dynamics (Autumn), pp. 59-80. Titiev, M. (1959) Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, New York: Henry Holt & Company. Umikeer, W. (1999) Organisational Culture: The Role of Management and Supervisors, The Health care Supervisor, 17(4): pp. 22—27. O. Ojo – Impact Assessment Of Corporate Culture On Employee Job Performance

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