The study sample population was made up of 177 respondents who were all secondary school students in public secondary schools. Seven research questions were raised out of which four (4) were answered and the other three (3) questions were hypothesised. Consequently, three (3) hypotheses were raised and analysed. The following are the findings of the study based on the data analysed: majority of the respondents do not use audio, audio-visuals and other (including laboratories, laboratory manuals and models) instructional facilities in teaching and learning.
However a large percentage uses print materials (such as textbooks, maps, pictures, etc); Majority of the respondents indicated that situation of facilities were either damaged or abandoned; facilities were inadequate in secondary schools; available instructional facilities were utilized effectively; availability of instructional facilities accounts for academic performance of students; availability of instructional facilities in rural and urban secondary schools are equal; there was a relationship between teacher qualification.
Based on the data analysed and findings of the study, the researcher concluded that instructional facilities accounted for the academic performance of students in public secondary school students in Sapele LGA of Delta State.
Background to the study There are growing concerns among stakeholders and educational practitioners about the quality of education given to children. Educational practitioners are also lamenting the fall in the standard of education in country.
There are also calls on the need to re-vamp the dwindling performance of the education sector in order for it address the concerns of the citizenry and comply with millennium goals (MDG’s). These calls gave impetus to the current educational reforms of the Federal Government. It is generally believed that the quality of education that learners receive bears direct relevance to the availability, quality, and access to or the lack of physical facilities and the overall atmosphere in which learning takes place.
Instructional facilities are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Instructional resources are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process. Instructional facilities include items such as kits, textbooks, magazines, newspaper, recording slides, transparencies, videos, video discs, workbooks electronic media including but not limited to music, movies, radio, CD-ROMs, and online services. Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching learning process.
Given the perceived role of facilities in the academic performance of learners in any educational institution, one would expect that the availability, accessibility, quality and efficient utilization of these facilities in public secondary schools in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State would be highly optimized. However, the case of Sapele LGA is far from being true of this situation. A tour of the major secondary schools in the underscored LGA above by the researcher reveals that educational facilities are grossly in short supply.
Moreover, the qualities of these facilities are highly questionable as is the accessibility to them owing to the poor maintenance of the facilities. Again, the efficiency in the use of available instructional facilities in Secondary school in Sapele LGA is not optimized. Observation by the researcher reveals that most teachers carry out instruction without adequate educational and instructional facilities. Nichols (2000) and Raw (2003) assert that education in contemporary times has spread wide and the entire oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy.
Therefore, the teacher has to use instructional material to make the teaching and learning process interesting. Facilities management is crucial in the enhancement of instruction. It is not in doubt that if performance must be enhanced through facilities, the management of the latter is highly indispensable. It is also regrettable that across Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State, that management of facilities is lamentable. A tour of the schools in the LGA reveals a common sight of dilapidated structures, collapsed structures, leaking roofs wooding chairs and desks, etc.
The maintenance and management of these facilities are left undone. Asiakaba (2008) maintained that the responsibility of management of school facilities required the collective effort of all stakeholders in the industry. It is widely believed that the government hardly fulfills its role in facilities provision. Worse still is that the few provided ones are grossly under utilized by teachers. One reason for this trend as is generally believed is the lack of proper hands on training required for the use of these facilities. Records of academic performance in recent trend have shown dwindling performance of students.
For example, less than 18% of students in state schools pass their senior secondary school certificate examination obtaining six credit passes yearly. This ugly trend does not speak well for educational advancement in the country. In correcting this trend, and improving the academic performance of students in secondary schools, a critical assessment of the state of instructional facilities in the aforementioned Local Government Area is imperative. The researcher is enthused and motivated in this study as it was discovered that shortages of educational facilities has greatly affected the performance of students in academics.
The effectiveness of the instructional process is basically evaluated by the academic performance of its students. There has been consistent fall in the academic performance of students especially in Sapele LGA of Delta State in recent times. The academic performance of students is influenced by several factors. Prominent among these factors is the role of instructional facilities which has been blamed for the low academic performance of students. It is generally opined that the quality of instructional facilities to a large extent determines the academic performance of students.
It has been observed especially in Sapele LGA that educational facilities are in short supply. In addition, there is gross under-utilization of the very few available ones in the LGA. Observations also indicate that teachers who are supposed to be custodians of the instructional process lack the training to do so or, at least refuse to use the available facilities for instruction. However, it is important to substantiate with empirical evidence. Hence the study sought to investigate:
The instructional facilities used in secondary schools in Sapele LGA. The situation of instructional facilities used in public secondary school in Sapele LGA of Delta State.
- The extent of utilization of instructional facilities in secondary schools in Sapele LGA.
- The influence of instructional facilities on academic performance of secondary school students in Sapele LGA.
- The difference in the availability of instructional facilities in rural and urban secondary schools in Sapele LGA.
It is obvious and rational that the availability and the use of instructional materials have a strong relationship with academic performance of students at the secondary school level. Attempt will be made to look critically into the extent to which instructional facilities serve as determinant of learning outcomes and how the available instructional facilities in secondary schools in Delta State can be motivated to realize schools’ goals and objectives. Specifically, the study is carried out to look into the following:
- To determine the impact of instructional facilities on students’ academic performance.
- To examine the influence of student ratio on the available instructional facilities in the selected secondary schools.
- To identify the possible ways of improving the instructional facilities available in our secondary schools.
- To provide solution to the problem of inadequate instruction facilities in our secondary schools.
- Assumption of the study It is assumed that the availability and the use of instructional facilities have a strong relationship with academic performances of students at secondary school level.
- Significance of the study.
The findings of this study will assist school administrators and principals in the schools on the best ways to utilize and increase the available instructional facilities to meet up the increasing demand for practical teaching of students. It is also believed that our educational planners and policy makers could make necessary use of the findings of this study to ensure greater internal efficiency in the use of educational inputs and instructional facilities in particular in the achievement of the objectives of the establishment of secondary education in Nigeria. Finally, it will be a reference material for researchers in this area of study.
Scope and delimitation of the study The study examines the importance of infrastructural facilities in academic performance of students in Sapele Local Government Area of Delta State. The study only looks at the role of infrastructural facilities in academic performance of students among the many variables that affect the academic performance of students.
The following terms are defined as used in the study: Instructional facilities Instructional facilities are the school resource inputs (SRIs) that are used within the classroom to facilities the teaching learning process. They are also term instructional materials or teaching aids. Instructional facilities considered in this study include textbooks, chalkboard, teaching guide, science guide mathematics kit, science kit, audio-visual aids (Maps, models and charts). Learning outcomes: This refers to quantitative evaluation of students’ academic performance in form of grades or marks to identify the level of comprehension of instruction achieved after learning process.
Academic performance: This means the display of knowledge and skills attained as shown by the marks or grades of students in school examinations during and after course. Secondary schools: Secondary education refers to that form of education, which children receive after primary education and before tertiary education. There are post-primary institutions of learning comprising junior and senior secondary schools. Students: These are secondary school learners that have enrolled for secondary education and are still within the range of secondary education in each of the selected schools.
This chapter reviews the related literature. The following sub-headings will be considered in this chapter: Conceptual framework Concept of instructional facilities; Importance of instructional facilities and availability in our secondary schools; Academic performance concepts; Importance of instructional materials to academic performance.
Instructional facilities are also known as instructional (teaching) materials or teaching aids. Education, according to Coombs (1970) consists of two components. He classified these two components as inputs and outputs. According to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and output are the goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effect of one component on the other must be examined.
Instructional facilities by Coomb’s definition fall into educational inputs that are used within the classroom to facilitate teaching and learning process. “Teaching materials” is a generic term used to describe the resources teachers use to deliver instruction. Teaching materials or facilities can support student learning and increase student success. Ideally, the teaching materials will be tailored to the content in which they are being used, to the students in whose class they are being used, and teacher.
Teaching materials come in many shapes and sizes, but they all have in common the ability to support student learning. Teaching materials can be refer to a number of teaching resources; however, the term usually refers to concrete examples, such as worksheets or manipulative (learning or games that students can handle to help them gain and practice facility with new knowledge, e. g. counting block). Teaching materials are different from teaching “resources”, the latter includes more theoretical and intangible elements, such as essays or support from other educators, or places to find teaching materials.
In-adequate well-prepared instructional materials determine the amount of learning that can be placed in a learning setting. Good quality materials can motivate interest, maintain concentration and make learning more meaningful. The need for the use of instructional materials by the subject teacher in the modern age cannot be overemphasized; the traditional method of talk and chalk approach can no longer improve the performance of students in secondary schools academically.
In enumerating the factors that could be responsible for the dwindling fortunes in our educational system, Coombs listed four importance factors including the acute scarcity of instructional resources which he said constrained educational systems from responding more fully to new demands. He opined that in order to do their part in revamping education in Nigeria, educational systems will need real resources that money can buy, they will need fuller share of the Nation’s manpower, not merely to carry on the present work of education, but to raise its quality, efficiency and productivity.
Since instructional facilities cannot utilize themselves various educators, for Ukeje (1970) and Fafunwa (1969) have written extensively on the prime importance of teachers to the educational development of any nation be it simple, complex, developed or developing. From the writings of these educators, one can infer that whatever instructional facilities are available, whatever content is taught, whichever environment the school is situated and whatever kind of students are given to teach, the important and vital role of the teacher cannot be overemphasized.
Assuming that necessary facilities are adequately provided for, the environment is conducive to learning, the curriculum satisfies the needs of the students and the students themselves have interest in learning, learning cannot take place without the presence of the teacher. Teachers represent a large proportion of the input of an educational system. Coombs observed that “the problem of teacher supply is not one of simple numbers. It is first and foremost a problem of quantity and of getting the right quality”.
Fayemi (1991) also observed that “it is truism that teachers are the hubs of any educational system that upon their number, their quality and devotion depends the success of any educational system”. There are three basic types of instructional materials: a Concrete object, which includes objects from the world of nature; representation of concrete objects and phenomena; and description of such objects and phenomena by means of signs, words and sentences of natural and artificial languages.
The first type of instructional facilities includes such objects and phenomena as minerals, rocks, raw materials, semi-finished and finished manufactured articles, and plant and animal specimens. Included among these facilities are reagents and apparatus for producing chemicals and other reactions and for demonstrating and studying such reactions during laboratory sessions.
Also included in this first group are materials and instrument for students’ expedition, and other travel, as well as supplies, instruments and equipment for the production training and for courses in drafting and the representation arts – among such supplies, instruments and equipments are wood, metal, plastic and glass objects, measuring and monitoring instruments and equipment, equipment for the assembling and finishing of various products and machine and machine tool.
The second type of educational materials, that of representation of actual objects and phenomena, includes three-dimensional materials (boards, castings, globes and experimental models), two-dimensional materials (charts, pictures, photographs, maps, diagrams and drawings), and audiovisual materials (motion pictures, film clips, filmstrips, slide sequences, record and tape recordings, and radio and television broadcasts).
The third type of instructional facilities, that of written description, includes scientific, scholarly, reference and methodological teaching aids, as well as textbooks, books of problem and exercises, books for recording scientific observation, laboratory manuals. Another type of instructional facilities is technological instructional media. Among these are equipment for the transmission and assimilation of information recorded on film or on phonograph recording: film projects, tape recorders, phonographs and television sets. Teaching machines include language-laboratory machines, closed-circuit television systems and computer.
According to Balogun (1995) the instructional materials or facilities are sub-divided into three main classes, which are as follow: Instructional facilities Audio materials visual materials audio-visual materials Figure I: Instructional facilities Audio material: Erinosho et al (2000) opined that audio aids as learning materials mostly appeal to the sense of hearing and they include records, tape recorders, recording from radio programme, telephone and others. Visual materials /aids: Erinosho further said that the visual aids are teaching-learning facilities that appeal to the sense of sight only.
Visual instructional materials are grouped into projected and non-projected materials. Projected materials: Projected materials are those teaching aids that use electricity like overhead projectors (transparencies), slide projectors (filmstrip), opaque episcope, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and others. Emphasis is placed on opaque projector that it is very effective in teaching science subjects, Social Studies, languages and disciplines that require visual illustrations and computer-assisted instruction. Non-projected materials: They are either two-dimensional or three-dimensional.
The two-dimensional aids are flat shapes like charts, posters, pictures, diagrams, illustrations, newspapers, journals, etc. the three dimensional materials are those materials with body shape like real objects, examples were stated earlier in this work. Audio visual aids: These are instructional materials that appeal to the sense of hearing and sight simultaneously. Some of the aforementioned teaching aids are discussed in details below: First instructional material is the textbook. Various definitions of textbook emphasize the role of textbook as a tool for learning.
Textbook is the nucleus of all the learning activities related to a particular curriculum. Certainly, teacher is not a sufficient source of knowledge for a number of reasons such as the large class size and the time factor etc. Besides, student has to improve the knowledge received from teacher by reading the textbook. Textbook plays a vital role in imparting knowledge to the students in the third world countries. Furthermore, there is no choice other than textbook in many developing countries. Therefore, it is one and the only source of knowledge.
The second instructional material is chalkboard/ blackboard. Chalkboards/ blackboards are the teaching aids that teachers frequently use, particularly during the lectures and discussions. These are of different kinds such as chalkboard or blackboard, marker board, felt board and magnetic board. However, only blackboard or chalkboard is provided in public schools. Teachers use it in classrooms to write the important words, to draw diagrams, figures and maps. The third instructional material is mathematics kit. Mathematics kit is a study kit for the subject of Mathematics.
Usually, study kit is a box containing a variety of visual aids, artistically assembled and displayed pertaining to a single topic. It includes different types of visual aids that are useful for the subject of Mathematics. The fourth instructional material is science kit. Science kit is a study kit for science subjects i. e. Physics, Chemistry and Biology. It includes the necessary aids that are useful for the teaching of these subjects. These aids may be models, charts, maps, apparatus and some other types. The fifth instructional material is teaching guide. Teaching guide is a booklet provided to teachers.
It provides guidance to teachers about the matters regarding teaching, from lesson planning to the teaching learning process completely. Furthermore, it guides them to adopt a suitable teaching methodology and a suitable instructional material for a topic. The sixth instructional material is science guide. Science guide is a booklet for the guidance of science teachers only. It guides them in the teaching of theory and experiments of science subjects. It guides them how to use apparatus and chemicals in the practical laboratories (PL). The seventh instructional material is audio-visual aids.
Audio-visual aids are the teaching aids that are used in the teaching learning process. These aids play a very significant role in the teaching learning process. These aids make the teaching learning process not only realistic but also very pleasant. The use of audio-visual aids can revolutionize teaching and can help decrease forgetting and increase the permanence of what is taught (Quddus, 1990). Ahmad (1993) described that the important audio-visual aids are pictures, charts, models, maps, diagrams, filmstrips, television, tape recorders, radio and motion pictures.
All these audio-visual aids are used in the classrooms of the advanced countries and many developing countries. These ordinary audio-visual aids are maps, graphs, charts, diagrams etc. Computer is regarded as a necessary tool for learning. It is used as an instructional material in the western countries. Contrary to it, computer is not used as an instructional material at school level in most developed countries. Maps, models, charts and overhead projector are the four types of audio-visual aids provided to the secondary schools. Map is a non-projected and two-dimensional aid.
It is an accurate representation in a diagrammatic form of the geographical features of the earth or some part of it. There are varieties of maps like geographical maps, picture maps, political maps and navigation maps, etc. However, an outline map should be used if a particular view is required. Likewise, the individual atlases are used for the detailed study of a problem. Furthermore, teacher use blackboard for clarification of points derived from map. Model is a non-projected but three-dimensional visual aid. It has not only length and width but also has depth.
Teacher show models to students instead of the real object. Model is used when it is impossible to show the real object to the class owing to its size or their inaccessibility. Models also provide the interior views of objects that are normally covered or otherwise invisible. It conveys the exact shape of the object whether its size would be smaller or larger. Furthermore, it may have almost the same appearance and color except its size. The model in one piece with its parts not moving is called the static model. However, if the parts of a model are detachable, the model is called sectional.
A sectional model is helpful in explaining the function of each part and its relation to the whole object, for example human eye, steam engine. However, teacher explains and demonstrates its working in the classroom. A chart is a pictorial way of representing relationships between the several variables or objects and ideas or things. Das (1993) described that charts are generally used during lecture and discussion about the relationships of the things. The author, then, counted some characteristics of chart. According to her, words are written neatly and perfectly in block letters in Charts.
Likewise, each item may be written inside a box, lines are drawn, and if necessary, arrows are placed to indicate relationships and directions of flow. Colors may be used to make the chart attractive. The author also described that different items of food and their proper proportion to constitute a balanced diet can be shown in a chart. Similarly, a chart may also be prepared to compare and contrast two things. In the same way, a flow chart may be prepared to show how a particular thing or products flows or moves through different steps or departments in an organization.
Furthermore, the device that projects the small transparencies in to larger views on the board is called overhead projector. Through overhead projector, students are able to read, look and understand the text, graph, picture or anything other written or drawn on the transparencies. Overhead projectors are becoming common and popular, and are widely used in normal teaching, especially in the seminars and workshops. However, it is rarely used as an instructional material in the classrooms of public schools. The importance of instructional facilities in teaching and learning.
Instructional facilities play a very important role in the teaching – learning process. Instructional facilities enhance the memory level of the students. In this present era oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore, instructional facilities have to be at the disposal of the teacher to make the teaching – learning process interesting. Instructional facilities which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum.
Wales (1975) was of the opinion that the use of instructional materials would make iscovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1958) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse students’ interest of giving them something practical to see and do, and at the time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Audiovisual materials, including the resources of films, radio, television, help acquaint students with the achievement of modern science technology, industry and culture and with phenomena that are inaccessible to direct observation.
Audiovisual materials also acquaint students with early periods of history and with distant places in the world and space. Such materials elucidate natural and social phenomena and enable students to study the inner world of matter and the internal motion of waves, elementary particles, atoms, molecules and living cells. Balogun (1971) commented that audiovisual materials as integral part of teaching-learning situations help to bring about permanent and meaningful experience. He said that, they provide first-hand experience where only that is feasible.
Oluyori (1986) while stressing the importance of instructional technology commented that if the introduced system (6-3-3-4) in accordance with the National Policy on Education (NPE) is to be a success, then instructional technology has a role to play. Cronbac (1989) states the important elements of behavior that provides the base for learning theory. Situations: The situation consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in learner’s environments. Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future. Situation must be created in which learner may feel satisfaction.
Personal characteristics under this heading include all the abilities and all the typical responses that the person brings to the situation. Use of instructional facilities can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest.
Goal: The goal of the learner is that he wishes to attain. Since goals direct efforts, the teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with instructional materials in which the learner will see goals he wants to attain.
Interpretation: Person interprets situation in order to take action. If relevant aids are made available it will be easy for a teacher and student to predict that what can be expected to happen if various actions are taken.
Action: A person chooses whatever action he expects to give him the greatest satisfaction. The use of instructional facilities can facilitate the decision of a person toward taking right action.
Consequence: Actions following by their results are called consequences. If instructional facilities are used, the prediction would be rewarding and consequences will justify the work done by person, he will feel full satisfaction.
The researcher therefore summaries the above literature on the importance of instructional facilities as follows: Student learning support Learning materials are important because they can significantly increase student achievement by supporting student learning. For example, a worksheet may provide a student with opportunities to practice a new skill gained in class. This process aids in the learning process by allowing the student to explore the knowledge independently as well as providing repetition. Instructional materials, regardless of what kind, all have some function in student learning.
Lesson structure: Instructional materials can also add important structure to lesson planning and the delivery of instruction. Particularly in lower grades, learning materials act as a guide for both the teacher and student. They can provide a valuable routine. For instance, if you are a language art teacher and you teach new vocabulary every Tuesday, knowing that a you have a vocabulary game to provide the students with practice regarding the new words will both take pressure off of you and provide important practice (and fun) for your students.
Reading comprehension: As students are reading less and less on their own, teachers are finding reading comprehension skills very low among today’s students. Teaching aids are helping teachers to close the gap and hone the reading comprehension skill of their students. Using magazine and newspaper articles and even comic books are viable teaching aids that assist in helping students comprehend text. Reinforcing a skill or concept: Teaching aids prove to be a formidable supplement for teachers when the reinforcement of a skill or concept is necessary.
Not only do they allow students more time to practice, but they also present the information in a way to engage with the material. Of course, this is important in order to reach the various learning types in the class. Differentiating instruction: Differentiating of instruction is the tailoring of lessons and instructions to the different learning styles and capacities within your classroom. As previously mentioned, it is important for teachers to reach all learners in a classroom. Therefore, the use of instructional facilities facilitates this objective by assisting teachers in differentiating instruction.
Using aids such as graphs, charts, flashcards, videos, and smart boards provides learners with visual stimulation and the opportunity to access the content from a different vantage point. This gives each learner the opportunity to interact with the content in a way which allows them to comprehend more easily. Relieving Boredom: Instructional aids help to make the learning environment interesting and engaging. As we move toward a more digital society, students are being exposed to technology and digital devices at a younger age.
Video games and ipods are now what’s exciting to students, so when they come to school they have little patience for lecture style teaching. Students are seeking constant excitement and simply have no tolerance for boredom. Teaching aids are improving the quality of education in today’s schools while also providing students with the sense of excitement they desire. Teaching aids are becoming the norm in classroom. As traditional classrooms with blackboard and chalk become a thing of the past, and smart classrooms become the norm, teaching aids are growing in popularity and advancement.
Blackboards are being replaced with white and smart boards. Televisions are being replaced with LCD projectors and screens. And educators are becoming more focused on students growing with technology and integrating it into the curriculum. Students are making pod casts, videos and even creating web quests; all of which are sound instructional aids to incorporate into the classroom. Importance of resources availability in secondary schools: The importance of resources availability in our secondary schools cannot be over emphasized.
The reason is not far-fetched; advances in technology have brought instructional materials especially the projected and electronic materials to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and social development which have affected the classroom teaching-learning situation positively. Such technological breakthroughs as networked and non-networked; projected and non-projected; visual, auditory, audio-visual electronic materials are important landmarks in knowledge transfer.
With them both teaching and learning become very pleasant. It has been revealed that schools with adequate resources (physical, human and material) as found in many private schools usually record high level of performance than those with limited resources, as evident in our public schools. Yesufu et al (1991) said that teaching aids are very important in the school system. This view was shared by Ehiametalor (1991), when he said, “The learner wants to see, touch or feel, and then discover, later for himself more information”.
Ehiametalor means that instructional aids help the students to understand the lesson better for they will be shown examples of what is taught with pictures, objects, etc. According to Balogun et al (1981) instructional materials can present the pupils with a more authentic picture of the real thing than the teacher can ever describe. They said that this makes the learning experience more meaningful and more readily understood. According to them, the use of visual materials can also facilitate the repetition of an idea without it becoming monotonous, for example by using many different pictures or wall charts to illustrate the same idea.
Dwelling on the importance of facilities to schools, Asiabaka (2008) says school facilities are the material resources provided for staff and students to optimize their productivity in the teaching and learning process. The realization that the transfer of knowledge does not only take place in the four walls of the classroom from the teacher to the students but rather that learning takes place through discovery, exploration, interaction with the internal and external environment has necessitated the creative and innovative development and use of teaching and learning facilities that reflect these changes.
Balogun et al (1981) also said that instructional facilities can also help in the school when one is teaching a lesson which involves objects which cannot be brought physically into the classroom, such as snakes, ferocious animals, etc. They also said that models, pictures, slides and so on can help the pupils to understand and learn in an interesting way. They further asserted that instructional facilities make it possible for abstract ideas to be expressed and taught through the use of diagrams and charts.
For instructional materials to meet the need of the teacher and students, they aid that instructional materials must be appropriate and suitable for the occasion. Agreeing with earlier authors, Asiabaka (2008) noted that facilities are materials designed to serve specific purposes. In the school system, he says that instructional facilities are vital for teaching and learning for the following reasons: To illustrate concepts; Provide opportunity for firsthand experience; For experimentation and demonstration; For Scientific investigation and discovery; To provide diversity of thoughts; For observation and inquiry; For development of scientific attitudes and skills;
To protect the individual and also provide comfort. Instructional facilities result in more effective learning of factual information and skills in less time than mere verbalization. For example, M. D. Verono in her series of investigations as to the value of still non-projected pictures found that when graphic materials related directly to the facts described in the text, these facts is more clearly remembered. Educational technology emphasizes new development in teaching and learning course content, and the fullest uses of central services concerted with the application of instructional materials and devices.
Clearly, therefore, educational technology is a teaching method. It is a system by which methods can be used relevantly to support and complement one another. Self-instructional materials are merely one of the tools the educational technologist uses to solve problems. Argyris (1964) also stated that the effectiveness of any organization is dependent upon its ability to fulfill three major requirements, which he identified as: Achieve its objective; Maintain itself internally, and Adapt to its environment.
However, the availability of instructional facilities in our secondary schools especially the public ones is bedeviled by many constraints. The procurement of adequate instructional materials poses a problem to most secondary school principals. Finance has been identified as one major problem besetting the provision and management of instructional facilities in secondary schools. The cost of procurement of equipment and materials particularly the imported ones is high as a result of inflationary trend and unstable exchange rates.
In Nigeria where many of the State governments cannot pay salaries and as at when due, the purchase of equipment and modern instructional facilities is hard to come by. Adeogun (2001) explains that financing education in Nigeria should be a joint responsibility of the Federal, State and Local Governments and government should totally welcome the participation of local communities, individuals and other organizations. In other words, all hands should be on deck. The death of facilities in our secondary schools seems to affect the performance of our students at junior and senior secondary schools examinations.
The performance of students in private secondary schools appears to be however better than the performance in government owned schools. This is because the learning facilities are more available and provided in private secondary schools than in government owned secondary schools. On budget allocation to education and other sectors of the economy, Levis (1967) observed that: “A man without a budget surplus will get nowhere, whereas a budget surplus can work wonders even without plan”.
The problem here however, is that the State and Federal budget allocation to the educational sector is getting more and more reduced every year. This is dangerous for our education setting and this cannot improve the academic performance of our students in secondary schools. Little wonder, the performance of students keep deteriorating because of insufficient funds available to be used in planning effectively and efficiently in secondary schools. In a study by Osahon (1994) on pre-vocational resources management and utilization in Nigeria.
It was revealed that apart from the inadequacy of finance for resource management, other problems and issues include shortage of trained and experienced teaching and supporting staff, poor school management by school heads, inadequate incentives, repair part/kits for replacement, machine malfunction, lack of electricity and lack of interest in facilities maintenance by students. Fagbamiye (1977) noted that schools with stable, experienced and qualified teachers usually have better school facilities in terms of school buildings, books and equipment than those schools which have difficulty in attracting experienced and qualified staff.
Numerous investigations have also been carried out to find the effects of instructional resources on students’ academic achievement. Eminent scholars have also contributed immensely to report the effect of one variable on the other. Consequently, there have been many reports from these studies which served as useful guides to the present one. Akintayo (1980) did a survey of the learning and teaching problems of History in the secondary schools in Ekiti Central Local Government Area of Ondo State. She made use of 100 students and all History teachers in six secondary schools.
Questionnaires were distributed to them to respond to. Forty-four percentage (44%) of the students agreed that one of the factors affecting poor performance in History is lack of qualified teachers to teach the subject. The above constraints and others are still problems and issues that must be addressed if Nigeria schools are to produce out-puts who are able to use their hands and heads. Similarly, a major problem in programme implementation according to Ikelegbe (1994) is inadequacy of resources to effectively effectuate programmes.
Often times, programmers resource commitments or promised do not come near what it takes to execute at the level of operation, delivery of goods and services and targets anticipated or directed. Many programmes do not have the means and resources for effective execution because resource commitments are not increased, strengthened or reinforced. Momoh (1980) carried out a research on the effects of instructional resources on students’ performance in West Africa School Council (WASC) examination in Kwara State.
He correlated materials resources with academic achievement of students in ten subjects. Information was collected from the subject teachers in relation to the resources employed in teaching in five schools. The achievements of students in WASC examination for the past five years were related to the resources available for teaching each of the subjects. He concluded that material resources have significant effects on students’ achievement in each of the subjects. In the same manner, Moronlola (1982) carried out a research in Ilorin Local Government of Kwara State.
She also used questionnaires to tap information on the material resources available for teaching of ten subjects in ten secondary schools; she collected WASC examination results for the past five years and related these to students’ achievement in each of the ten subjects and the amount of resources available for the teaching of the subjects. She also reported a significant effect of material resources on the academic achievements of students in each of the subjects. In the same vein, Popoola (1990) investigated the effect of instructional facilities on the academic performance of students in Ogun State.
Five secondary schools in Abeokuta were used for his study. Questionnaires were designed to elicit responses on instructional facilities that were available for the teaching and learning of each of the three school subjects he examined. He collected WASC examination results for five years and compared achievements of students in school with adequate materials resources and achievement of schools with inadequate material resources. He found a significant difference in the achievements of the two sets of students.
Akolo (1978) conducted a survey of audio-visual materials for eight Teacher Training Colleges in Kwara State and for twelve Teachers’ Colleges in Plateau State of Nigeria. His study considered such elements as equipment and materials owned, and the number of teachers that had some measure of audio-visual related training. His study revealed that there was under-utilization of instructional facilities in some areas and non-utilization in other areas where the research was conducted. Oni (1995) expresses the importance of resources in our secondary schools.
He reiterates that resources constitute a very important factor in the functioning of educational system. This is because the success of the system or otherwise depends on the manpower and the materials made available to it. From the foregoing, it is obvious that the primary function of a teacher in any educational institution is to instruct the learners, which involves a lot of systematic planning. Above all, planning for instruction is increasingly becoming one of the essential requirements for eventful and effective instruction.
Instructional materials influence the rate of learning; save the teachers’ time and efforts; increase learners’ motivation and facilitate retention of what is learned (Onyejemezi, 1981; Oguranti, 1982 and Afolaju, 1987). Availability and utilization of instructional facilities is thus a must if secondary school students performance is to be enhanced. Academic performance concepts Academic performance is synonymous to learning outcome or achievement of a given student over a particular period in a given class or examination.
Akinboye (1996) expresses the assessment of learning outcomes to be the process of examining the degree of effectiveness of the educational programmes. The parents, government and the society at large are interested in the execution of instructional programmes to which account for their operation in terms of how effectively they have been making students learn what they set out to make them learn. Akinboye (1996) stated that teaching learning activities need to be assessed to know how effective the process is.
The assessment can be equally made through construction of tests and examinations by the teacher and public examinations bodies as found in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSCE) or Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) done by the state or by the West Africa Examination Council (WASC). The grades or marks awarded the students in the examinations constitute the academic performance or learning out come or academic achievements of the student involve. According to Erinosho and Badru (2000), the process of making comparison in the status of learning is known as assessment.
Classroom assessment provides information that involves the making of value judgment about the academic performance and learning process of a set of students. The process of collecting and analyzing this data is called evaluation. Erinosho and Badru further stated the need for assessing and evaluating the academic performance and learning outcomes of students as follows: The primary function of a teacher is to facilitate learning. A good instructional process comprises the selection of appropriate learning objective, content materials, instructional materials and teaching methodology.
Therefore, classroom assessment helps the teachers to respond adequately to concerns about better learning and more effective teaching. The outcomes of classroom assessment and evaluation provide information about students’ learning and it gives students a measure of their progress. It should be noted that besides instructional facilities availability, learning outcomes of students are affected by a host of different factors such as: Quality of students Quality of teachers Infrastructure available Support from home Psychological level of development of students Physical environment Funds available to assist teaching and learning Support from government Social institution Social image of the teacher involved Teaching style and professional Government policies involved.
Importance of resources to the concept of academic performances: Poor performance, as has been pointed out by many writers in any subject including the sciences is dependent on the type of environment that is provided for the student. In Goetting’s view, learning cannot take place in a vacuum; neither will the best result come in an undesirable surrounding.
He like many others interprets learning in terms of the reaction of the individual to the environment. This according to him suggests the importance of every element in the school environment in terms of classrooms, equipment, library and library materials, laboratory and laboratory equipment, visuals aids and other instructional supplies. Adequate provision of resources thus greatly influences academic performance. The Nigerian Education Research Development Council (NERDC) had stressed this. The report pointed out that in order to achieve good academic outcome certain factors deserve adequate attention.
These are outlined below: Training of necessary cadre of teachers with adequate knowledge of what to teach and of the most effective methodology to teach; Prompt motivation of the teaching staff; Practical experience; Provision of good working condition; Regular upgrading and job satisfaction; Establishment of guidance and counseling services for students in their intellectual, social and employment pursuit backed up with remedial compensation and testing programmes; Quality control of education through supervision, inspection, continous assessment, measurement and evaluation of intellectual attainments;
Adequate provision of well stocked libraries; Prompt provision of scores of equipment to foster the growth of science laboratories technological workshops, commercial and secretariat courses, agricultural programmes, crafts, physical and health education, music, art and drama; Provision of adequate physical facilities; Instructional facilities (teaching aids); Thus, the National Policy on Education too plays considerable attention to the importance of provision of resources. It is stated in the policy document that provision and subsequent expansion will be made for educational facilities.
Jibowo and Oladunjoye (2000) express that resource availability should be accompanied with effective communications that is, the teacher who is the sender of the information communicates in the language understood by the learner and the feedback from the learner or receiver of information helps the teacher to determine the success of the lesson. Adejuma (1992): Nichols(2000) and Raw (2003) believes that teacher plays three fundamental roles on learning facilities and academic performance of the students.
One, the teacher is first and foremost required to give knowledge and train students in some basic skills and provide guidance for effective learning activities and outcomes in the classrooms. Secondly, they are to play the administrative role in the school, relate with others, study the individual need of the students and meet the academic need of the students to foster the achievement of the educational objectives. Third, the teacher is expected to provide conducive emotional climate, which will help facilitate learning in the class and make the students feel as part of the programmes of the school.
More books should be prescribed and provided for the students to read, this for instance will develop them more. Fuller (1985), in his study found that students who had used two or more books were almost three times better than those who had no textbooks in the school. Also, Oni (1992) in his own study collated by Adeogun (2001) reveals that the availability of material equipment in each of the three pre-vocation subjects; Introductory Technology, Business Studies and Home Economics was significantly different between urban and rural secondary schools.
He thus said that resources availability are very important in the development of qualitative learning outcome and the success or the failure of secondary education system depend solely on the quality and quantity of resources made available to it. Manson (1981) and Bajah (1979) also support the importance of resources to improving academic performance of students in secondary schools. They emphasized that the success of education system depends on teachers. They equally opined that the quality of teachers is an important input in effective learning since quality output demands quality input.
And on the availability of material resources they express those are the true link to students’ academic excellence. On his own, Ndaji (1978) reveals that poor funding and poor management structure affect learning outcomes and students’ academic performances. Popoola (1996) discovered that library correlates with academic achievement and school with well equipped library usually maintain high academic performance. Appraisal of literature. The importance of instructional facilities in educational system cannot be understated in Literature.
It has been seen that the core of success of any educational endeavour is centered on the available human and materials resources to the educational setting involved. Just as it has been highlighted by various scholars on the importance of instructional material provision to our secondary schools, all the researchers agreed that adequate resource allocation is a prerequisite to effective and efficient educational programmes. They equally found out that resources allocation, finance in particular, has been grossly inadequate and this is the major problem facing various educational programmes in Nigeria.
Though, Abasilim (1984), was able to point out that it was not the magnitude of resources needed that created problem but losses due to wastage, fraud, inflation, lack of internal control, management of students attitude and rate of educational expansion in our secondary setting. It further determines and contributes negatively or positively to the academic performance of our students in the secondary schools today. Thus, through the literature reviews, the outcome of learning in secondary education and its importance were critically examined.
Academic performance was found out to be precedent by many factors. Scholars like Adejumo, Nwogwugwu, Manson (1981), Bajah (1979) emphasizes on teachers quality to be the major determinant of better academic performance in schools. While Oni (1995) emphasized on availability of textbooks for learners to complement teachers effort to achieve better academic performance. More so, in the views of Jibowo and Oladunjoye (2000) emphasis was laid on resources availability accompanied with effective communication to enhance success of the lesson.
Again, the NERC as reported in the Baganda Seminar held in Anambra State (2000), also stress the importance of resources as a contributing factor to improving academic performance in our secondary schools. Finally, Erinso and Badru (2000) further collaborate the significance of assessment of learning outcome in schools and prompt resources allocation to the educational system. It is hoped that the different assertions on the factors that influence academic performance of students, which centrally consider the available instructional facilities as given by various scholars would be the primary facts sued as premises for this course study.
This chapter deals with the methodology of the study. It is therefore presented under the following sub-headings for clear understanding: research design, method of data collection, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, research instrument, validity and reliability of instrument, method of data analysis. 3. 1Research design The research design adapted was statistical survey in which certain secondary schools were randomly selected as sample to carry out the investigation. 3. 2Study population
The target population as used in this research is the limit within which the research findings are applicable. In this case, this target population is the entire public secondary schools in Delta State. 4. Sample and sampling techniques The sample population was based on 177 subjects consisting of eight rural and thirteen urban schools selected from twenty-one junior secondary schools from Sapele LGA of Delta State using the stratified random sampling method to cover all the strata of the population of the study. All the schools are public secondary schools owned by the state Government.
As the researcher used primary data in this work, the instrument used for data collection in this study is questionnaire entitled: “Instructional Facilities and Academic Performance Questionnaires (IFAPQ)”. The questionnaires consisted of three sections: Section A consisted of background information of selected schools. Section B consisted of items, which required the numbers of instructional facilities available, their situation and adequacy level in the selected schools within the afore-mentioned academic sessions, i. e. 2008/2009 to 2011/2012 academic years.
The questionnaires were administered to the selected schools by personal visitation to each school. The principal was consulted first to give permission to the researcher before the questionnaires were taken to the class for distribution. The appropriate members of the staff were equally consulted on the administration of the questionnaires. With the help of research assistants, the researcher administered the instruments and retrieved them back immediately from the respondents.
This ensured that all questionnaires were returned. The administration of the instruments lasted for a period of one week. 3. 9Method of data analysis The researcher employed the use of the following statistical techniques in testing the study:
- Spearman Rank Correlation;
- Students’ t-Test
- Simple percentages.
The Person Product Moment Correlation was used to test the HO1 and HO3hypotheses while the Students’ t-Test was used to test HO2. Simple percentages were used to answer the research questions.