The Money Markets Essay

1) Activity in money markets increased significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s because A) of rising short-term interest rates - The Money Markets Essay introduction. B) of regulations that limited what banks could pay for deposits. C) of both (A) and (B) of the above. D) of neither (A) nor (B) of the above. Answer: C 2) Money market securities are A) short-term. B) low risk. C) very liquid. D) all of the above. E) only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 3) Money market instruments A) are usually sold in large denominations.

B) have low default risk. C) mature in one year or less. D) are characterized by all of the above. E) are characterized by only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 4) The banking industry A) should have an efficiency advantage in gathering information that should eliminate the need for the money markets. B) exists primarily to mediate the asymmetric information problem between saver-lenders and borrower-spenders. C) is subject to more regulations and governmental costs than are the money markets.

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D) all of the above are true. E) only (A) and (B) of the above are true. Answer: D 5) In situations where the asymmetric information problem is not severe, A) the money markets have a distinct cost advantage over banks in providing short-term funds. B) banks have a distinct cost advantage over the money markets in providing short-term funds. C) banks have a comparative advantage over the money markets in providing short-term funds. D) banks have an absolute advantage over the money markets in providing shortterm funds.

Answer: A 6) Brokerage firms that offered money market security accounts in the 1970s had a cost advantage over banks in attracting funds because the brokerage firms A) were not subject to deposit reserve requirements. B) were not subject to the deposit interest rate ceilings. C) were not limited in how much they could borrow from depositors. D) had the advantage of all the above. E) had the advantage of only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: E 7) Which of the following statements about the money market are true? A) Not all commercial banks deal for their customers in the secondary market.

B) Money markets are used extensively by businesses both to warehouse surplus funds and to raise short-term funds. C) The single most influential participant in the U. S. money market is the U. S. Treasury Department. D) All of the above are true. E) Only (A) and (B) of the above are true. Answer: E 8) Which of the following statements about the money markets are true? A) Most money market securities do not pay interest. Instead the investor pays less for the security than it will be worth when it matures. B) Pension funds invest a portion of their assets in the money market to have sufficient liquidity to meet their obligations.

C) Unlike most participants in the money market, the U. S. Treasury Department is always a demander of money market funds and never a supplier. D) All of the above are true. E) Only (A) and (B) of the above are true. Answer: D 109 110 9) Which of the following are true statements about participants in the money markets? A) Large banks participate in the money markets by selling large negotiable CDs. B) The U. S. government and corporations borrow in the money markets because cash inflows and outflows are rarely synchronized. C) The Federal Reserve is the single most influential participant in the U. S. oney market. D) All of the above are true. E) Only (A) and (B) of the above are true.

Answer: D 10) The most influential participant(s) in the U. S. money market A) is the Federal Reserve. B) is the U. S. Treasury Department. C) are the largest money center banks. D) are the investment banks that underwrite securities. Answer: A 11) The primary function of large diversified brokerage firms in the money market is to A) sell money market securities to the Federal Reserve for its open market operations. B) make a market for money market securities by maintaining an inventory from which to buy or sell.

C) buy money market securities from corporations that need liquidity. D) buy T-bills from the U. S. Treasury Department. Answer: B 12) Finance companies raise funds in the money market by selling A) commercial paper. B) federal funds. C) negotiable certificates of deposit. D) Eurodollars. Answer: A 13) Finance companies play a unique role in money markets by A) giving consumers indirect access to money markets. B) combining consumers’ investments to purchase money market securities on their behalf. C) borrowing in capital markets to finance purchases of money market securities.

D) assisting the government in its sales of U. S. treasury securities. Answer: A 14) When inflation rose in the late 1970s, A) consumers moved money out of money market mutual funds because their returns did not keep pace with inflation. B) banks solidified their advantage over money markets by offering higher deposit rates. C) brokerage houses introduced highly popular money market mutual funds drawing significant amounts of money out of bank deposits. D) consumers were unable to take advantage of higher rates in money markets because of the requirement of large transaction sizes.

Answer: C 15) Money market instruments issued by the U. S. Treasury are called A) Treasury bills. B) Treasury notes. C) Treasury bonds. D) Treasury strips. Answer: A 16) The Treasury auctions 91-day and 182-day Treasury bills once a week. It auctions 52-week bills A) once a month. B) once every 13 weeks. C) once a year. D) every two weeks. Answer: A 17) Which of the following statements are true of Treasury bills? A) The market for Treasury bills is extremely deep and liquid. B) Occasionally, investors find that earnings on T-bills do not compensate them for changes in purchasing power due to inflation.

C) By volume, most Treasury bills are sold to individuals who submit noncompetitive bids. D) All of the above are true. E) Only (A) and (B) of the above are true. Answer: E 18) Suppose that you purchase a 91-day Treasury bill for $9,850 that is worth $10,000 when it matures. The security’s annualized yield if held to maturity is about A) 4. 5 percent. B) 5 percent. C) 6 percent. D) 7 percent. Answer: C 111 112 19) If your competitive bid for a Treasury bill is successful, then A) you will certainly pay less than if you had submitted a noncompetitive bid.

B) you will probably pay more than if you had submitted a noncompetitive bid. C) you will pay the average of prices offered in other successful competitive bids. D) you will pay the same as other successful competitive bidders. Answer: B 20) If your noncompetitive bid for a Treasury bill is successful, then A) you will certainly pay less than if you had submitted a competitive bid. B) you will certainly pay more than if you had submitted a competitive bid. C) you will pay the average of prices offered in other noncompetitive bids. D) you will pay the same as other successful noncompetitive bidders.

Answer: D 21) Federal funds A) are short-term funds transferred between financial institutions, usually for a period of one day. B) actually have nothing to do with the federal government. C) provide banks with an immediate infusion of reserves should they be short. D) are all of the above. E) are only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 22) Federal funds are A) usually overnight investments. B) borrowed by banks that have a deficit of reserves. C) lent by banks that have an excess of reserves. D) all of the above. E) only (A) and (B) of the above.

Answer: D 23) The Fed can influence the federal funds interest rate by adjusting the level of reserves available to banks in the system. The Fed can A) lower the federal funds interest rate by adding reserves. B) raise the federal funds interest rate by removing reserves. C) remove reserves by selling securities. D) do all of the above. E) do only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 24) The Federal Reserve can influence the federal funds interest rate by A) buying securities which adds reserves, thereby raising the federal funds rate. B) buying securities which removes reserves, thereby lowering the federal funds rate.

C) buying securities which adds reserves, thereby lowering the federal funds rate. D) buying securities which removes reserves, thereby raising the federal funds interest rate. Answer: C 25) The Fed can lower the federal funds interest rate by A) selling securities, thereby adding reserves. B) selling securities, thereby lowering reserves. C) buying securities, thereby adding reserves. D) buying securities, thereby lowering reserves. Answer: C 26) If the Fed wants to lower the federal funds interest rate, it will A) add reserves to the banking system by selling securities.

B) add reserves to the banking system by buying securities. C) remove reserves from the banking system by selling securities. D) remove reserves from the banking system by buying securities. Answer: B 27) If the Fed wants to raise the federal funds interest rate, it will A) sell securities to add reserves to the banking system. B) sell securities to remove reserves from the banking system. C) buy securities to add reserves to the banking system. D) buy securities to remove reserves from the banking system. Answer: B 28) Government securities dealers frequently engage in repos to A) manage liquidity.

B) take advantage of anticipated changes in interest rates. C) lend or borrow for a day or two with what is essentially a collateralized loan. D) do all of the above. E) do only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 29) Repos are A) usually low risk loans. B) usually collateralized with Treasury securities. C) low interest rate loans. D) all of the above. E) only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 113 114 30) A negotiable certificate of deposit A) is a term security because it has a specified maturity date. B) is a bearer instrument, meaning whoever holds the certificate at maturity receives the principal and interest.

C) can be bought and sold until maturity. D) is all of the above. E) is only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 31) Negotiable certificates of deposit A) are bearer instruments because their holders earn the interest and principal at maturity. B) typically have a maturity of one to four months. C) are usually denominated at $100,000. D) are all of the above. E) are only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: E 32) Commercial paper securities A) are issued only by the largest and most creditworthy corporations, as they are unsecured. B) carry an interest rate that varies according to the firm’s level of risk.

C) never have a term to maturity that exceeds 270 days. D) all of the above. E) only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 33) Unlike most money market securities, commercial paper A) is not generally traded in a secondary market. B) usually has a term to maturity that is longer than a year. C) is not popular with most money market investors because of the high default risk. D) all of the above. E) only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: A 34) A banker’s acceptance is A) used to finance goods that have not yet been transferred from the seller to the buyer.

B) an order to pay a specified amount of money to the bearer on a given date. C) a relatively new money market security that arose in the 1960s as international trade expanded. D) all of the above. E) only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: E 35) Banker’s acceptances A) can be bought and sold until they mature. B) are issued only by large money center banks. C) carry low interest rates because of the very low default risk. D) are all of the above. E) are only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 36) Eurodollars A) are time deposits with fixed maturities and are, therefore, somewhat illiquid.

B) offer the borrower a lower interest rate than can be received in the domestic market. C) are still limited to London banks. D) are all of the above. E) are only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: E 37) Which of the following statements about money market securities are true? A) The interest rates on all money market instruments move very closely together over time. B) The secondary market for Treasury bills is extensive and well developed. C) There is no well-developed secondary market for commercial paper. D) All of the above are true. E) Only (A) and (B) of the above are true.

Answer: D 38) Money market mutual funds A) are funds that aggregate money from a group of small investors and invest it in money market instruments. B) have grown enormously popular since their inception in the early 1970s. C) received a flood of funds in the early 1980s as depositors withdrew their funds from banks which were restricted from paying more than 5. 25percent in interest on savings accounts. D) all of the above. E) only (A) and (B) of the above. Answer: D 39) The assets of money market mutual funds have increased from under $100 billion in 1980 to more than A) $500 billion in 2000. B) $1trillion in 2000. C) $1. trillion in 2000.

D) $2 trillion in 2000. Answer: C 115 116 40) Which of the following statements are true of money market mutual funds? A) Commercial paper is by far the largest component of these funds. B) Although investors know that MMMFs are not insured, they regard their funds to be very safe. C) Money market mutual funds typically pay investors a higher return than is available from banks. D) All of the above are true. E) Only (A) and (B) of the above are true. Answer: D 9) The T-bill is not an investment to be used for anything but temporary storage of excess funds because it barely keeps up with inflation.

Answer: TRUE 10) The main purpose for federal funds is to provide banks with an immediate infusion of reserves should they be short. Answer: TRUE 11) The Fed can influence the federal funds rate by adjusting the level of reserves in the banking system. Answer: TRUE 12) Commercial paper securities are unsecured promissory notes, issued by corporations, that mature in no more than 270 days. Answer: TRUE 13) A banker’s acceptance is an order to pay a specified amount of money to the bearer on a given date. Banker’s acceptances have been used since the twelfth century.

Answer: TRUE 14) Interest rates on banker’s acceptances are low because the risk of default is very low. Answer: TRUE 8. 2 True/False 1) Money market securities are short-term instruments with an original maturity of less than one year. Answer: TRUE 2) Money market securities include Treasury bills, commercial paper, federal funds, repurchase agreements, negotiable certificates of deposit, banker’s acceptances, and Eurodollars. Answer: TRUE 3) The term money market is actually a misnomer, because liquid securities are traded in these markets rather than money.

Answer: TRUE 4) Money markets are referred to as retail markets because small individual investors are the primary buyers of money market securities. Answer: FALSE 5) The U. S. Treasury Department is the single most influential participant in the U. S. money market. Answer: FALSE 6) Banks are unusual participants in the money market because they buy, but do not sell, money market instruments. Answer: FALSE 7) Money markets are used extensively by businesses both to warehouse surplus funds and to raise short-term funds.

Answer: TRUE 8) The market for U. S. Treasury bills is a shallow market because so few individual investors buy T-bills. Answer: FALSE 8. 3 Essay 1) Explain why banks, which would seem to have a comparative advantage in gathering information, have not eliminated the need for the money markets. 2) Explain how the Federal Reserve can influence the federal funds interest rate. 3) Explain why the money markets are referred to as wholesale markets. 4) Which are the three most important assets of mutual funds? 5) Explain why money market interest rates move so closely together over time. 6) Why did money market funds grow rapidly between 1975 and 1985?

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