The Relationship Between Peak Power and Fatigue Index for Endurance vs Power Athletes Essay

ABSTRACT
The Wingate Anaerobic Test is used to evaluate anaerobic cycling performance - The Relationship Between Peak Power and Fatigue Index for Endurance vs Power Athletes Essay introduction. This study was undertaken to determine whether there is a relationship between peak power and fatigue index for endurance (n=9) vs power (n=4) athletes. A total of 13 subjects, including 8 males and 5 females, were included in the study. The subjects were divided into sporting types, such as endurance and power. Data collected from the Wingate test included peak power (W), mean power (W), time to peak (S), minimum power (W) and fatigue index (%). When the peak power and fatigue index were considered together for endurance athletes, a significant relationship existed, but when peak power and fatigue index were considered together for power athletes, no significant correlation existed. As a result, this study indicated that peak power and fatigue index had a significant relationship in endurance athletes but there was no significant relationship in power athletes.

INTRODUCTION
The Wingate Test is a maximal intensity cycle ergometer test lasting 30 seconds. It serves to evaluate anaerobic performance (Ayalon et al. 1974). It is commonly used and is a practical and handy method for measuring the muscle metabolism and anaerobic power (Francis, K. 1987). It measures three indices, peak power, mean power and fatigue index. Peak power is the highest mechanical power elicited from the test taken as the average power over any 5 seconds. Fatigue index is the amount of the decline in power during the test expressed as a percentage of peak power (Inbar et al. 1996). The ability to evaluate these measurements makes the Wingate test a valuable test for coaches, athletes and research scientists (Jordan et al. 2004). There has been an increased interest in anaerobic power production in sports due to the realisation that competitive athletic events largely depend on anaerobic power (Bulbulian et al. 1996). There was a belief that the higher an athletes peak power, the higher their fatigue index, due to the ability of their muscles being able to produce high-intensity power instantaneously or within a few seconds (Inbar et al. 1996), however this depends on the amount of stored intramuscular phosphates and anaerobic glycolysis (Brooks et al. 2005). This study relates to a previous study by Hoffman et al. (2000), which looked at a comparison between the Wingate anaerobic power test to both vertical jump and line drill tests in basketball players.

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This study links to Selye’s theory of stress applied to exercise and training. Selye believes the pattern of responses exhibited by physiological variables during a single bout of exercise results directly from the disruption of homeostasis. This is the shock phase of the Alarm-reaction stage. For many physiological processes, such as respiration, circulation and energy production, the initial response is an elevation in function. The degree of elevation and constancy of this elevation depends on the intensity and duration of the exercise. Appropriate changes in physiological function begin in the counter-shock phase of the Alarm-Reaction and stabilise in the Stage of Resistance if the same exercise intensity is maintained for at least 1-3 minutes. The Stage of Exhaustion that results from a single bout of exercise, even incremental exercise to maximum, is typically some degree of fatigue or reduced capacity to respond to stimulation, accompanied by a feeling of tiredness. This fatigue is temporary and readily reversed with proper rest and nutrition. Figure 1 shows Selye’s conception of generalised reaction. Initial fall in performance during alarm phase followed by heightened vigilance during resistance phase, leading to precipitous fall as the body becomes exhausted.

Figure : Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome

Figure 2: Peak Power and Fatigue Index

Aim
The aim of this study was to determine if there is a significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index for endurance versus power athletes during the Wingate 30 second sprint cycle test.

Alternate Hypothesis
There will be a significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index in endurance verses power athletes.

Null Hypothesis
There will be no significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index in endurance versus power athletes

METHOD

Participants
Thirteen healthy undergraduate students at the University of Brighton (8 males, 5 females; mean ± SD, age: 19.2 ± 1.5 years; body mass: 67.4 ± 16.1 kg; height: 177 ± 28.2m) were briefed with the study procedure. Their anthropometric data was collected, along with a medical questionnaire and their consent to participate in the study. All of the participants were familiar with the laboratory testing procedures.

Experimental procedure
The Wingate test used a Monark cycle ergometer and Wingate computer programme. The test involves maximal effort during a 30 second sprint cycle. As there is little skill involved in sprint cycling, the Wingate test is reliable, and because most factors are controlled, the Wingate test is valid. The controlled factors of the Wingate test include resistance on the weight pan remains constant. The distance travelled in one pedal revolution remains constant. Acceleration due to gravity remains constant. The only part of the power equation that can change is the revolution per second, which is dependent on the athlete completing the test.

The saddle height was checked and the participants started with a five minute warm up of cycling at roughly 60rpm against 1kg. Some included a few short bursts of higher speed cycling. Once the warm up was completed, the resistance on the weight pan was added, this was 7.5% of the participants body mass. Following on from this, the appropriate workload and body mass was set on the software. The weight pan was lifted and the participant started to cycle at 60rpm. The participant could increase their pedalling speed, once the cadence went above 90rpm the pan dropped and the test timer began. Encouragement was needed at this point until 30 seconds had passed. Once the 30 seconds was over, the resistance was immediately removed from the weight pan, which allowed the subject to cycle during a recovery phase.

Statistical analysis
Data included mean value and standard deviations (SD). For each set of data, normal distribution was verified using Skewness and Kurtosis, with a range between -2 and +2.

Statistics

PeakPowerE
FatigueIndexE
N
Valid
9
9

Missing
0
0
Skewness
-.033
-.423
Std. Error of Skewness
.717
.717
Kurtosis
-.963
-1.080
Std. Error of Kurtosis
1.400
1.400
Table 1: Skewness and Kurtosis for Peak Power and Fatigue Index for Endurance Athletes

Statistics

PeakPowerP
FatigueIndexP
N
Valid
4
4

Missing
5
5
Skewness
-1.800
1.182
Std. Error of Skewness
1.014
1.014
Kurtosis
3.316
.502
Std. Error of Kurtosis
2.619
2.619
Table 2: Skewness and Kurtosis for Peak Power and Fatigue Index for Power Athletes To confirm or reject the null hypothesis, a Pearson’s correlation test was used to test the relationship and the level of significance of peak power and fatigue index, in both endurance and power athletes. For all statistics, the level of significance was set at ≤0.05.

RESULTS
Firstly the central characteristics of the variables of peak power and fatigue index are shown for both endurance and power athletes in the table’s below.

Report

Age
Weight
Height
PeakPower
FatigueIndex
TimeToPeak
Mean
19.56
64.1333
168.78
761.3633
56.3556
2.1956
N
9
9
9
9
9
9
Std. Deviation
1.810
10.92909
9.523
216.39998
12.74451
1.20619
Table 3: Endurance Athletes

Report

Age
Weight
Height
PeakPower
FatigueIndex
TimeToPeak
Mean
18.50
74.7500
172.50
904.4000
60.7725
1.9675
N
4
4
4
4
4
4
Std. Deviation
.577
24.97152
19.621
255.00257
9.28666
.85262
Table 4: Power Athletes
The mean peak power and fatigue index values were 761.36 ± 346.67 and 56.35 ± 19.6 for endurance athletes. There is a significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index in endurance athletes (0.05).

Correlations

PeakPowerE
FatigueIndexE
PeakPowerE
Pearson Correlation
1
.690*

Sig. (2-tailed)

.040

N
9
9
FatigueIndexE
Pearson Correlation
.690*
1

Sig. (2-tailed)
.040

N
9
9
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Table 5: Correlations for Peak Power and Fatigue Index in Endurance Athletes Correlations

PeakPowerP
FatigueIndexP
PeakPowerP
Pearson Correlation
1
-.040

Sig. (2-tailed)

.960

N
4
4
FatigueIndexP
Pearson Correlation
-.040
1

Sig. (2-tailed)
.960

N
4
4
Table 6: Correlations for Peak Power and Fatigue Index in Power Athletes

Figure 3: Peak Power Against Fatigue Index in Endurance Athletes

Figure 4: Peak Power Against Fatigue Index in Power Athletes

DISCUSSION
The aim of this study was to determine if there is a significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index for endurance vs power athletes during the Wingate 30 second sprint cycle test. Table 1 shows there is negative Skewness and positive kurtosis for peak power and fatigue index when looking at endurance athletes. It is negatively skewed because the scores are clustered at the higher end. It is has a positive kurtosis due to a heavy-tailed distribution. Table 2 shows there is negative Skewness and positive kurtosis for peak power and fatigue index when looking at power athletes. It is negatively skewed because the scores are clustered at the higher end. It is has a positive kurtosis due to a heavy-tailed distribution. Table 5 shows the r value as .690, which is a significant correlation as it is at the 0.05 level and closer to 1. The p value is shown as 0.40, which demonstrates a significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index in endurance athletes, as the p value is 0.05. Figure 3 shows a positive correlation between peak power and fatigue index for endurance athletes because the Pearson Correlation is .690, which lies between -1 and +1. This concludes there is a linear relationship.

Figure 4 shows there is no correlation (very marginal negative correlation of -.040) between peak power and fatigue index in power athletes. If it weren’t for the anomaly there would be a slight positive correlation. This anomaly could be due to the participant thinking they were a power athlete when in actual fact they are not or the date being inputted incorrectly. Looking at a previous study, which saw the raw data from a test standardisation sample converted to percentile form 118 by Maud et al. (1989), the mean peak power and fatigue index values were 699.6 ± 227.2 and 37.67 ± 22.96 for males. The mean peak power and fatigue index values were 454.5 ± 215.2 and 35.05 ± 17.19 for females. These values are considerably lower compared to this studies data. Therefore, the null hypothesis would be accepted for a relationship between endurance and power athletes.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, this study has shown that there is a significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index in endurance athletes. However there is no significant relationship between peak power and fatigue index in power athletes.

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