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The Rise of a Mass Democracy, 1824–1840

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After mastering this chapter, you should be able to:
10.Describe and explain the growth of Mass Democracy in the 1820s. 20.Indicate how the alleged corrupt bargain of 1824 and Adams’ unpopular presidency set the stage for Jackson’s election in 1828. 30.Analyze the celebration of Jackson’s victory in 1828 as a triumph of the New Democracy over the more restrictive and elitist politics of the early Republic. 40.Describe the political innovations of the 1830s, especially the rise of mass parties, Jackson’s use of the presidency to stir up public opinion, and indicate their significance for American politics and society.

50.Describe Jackson’s policies of westward expansion, his relations with the new Republic of Texas, and his harsh removal of the southeastern Indian nations on the Trail of Tears. 60.Explain Jackson’s economic and political motives for waging the bitter Bank War, and show how Jacksonian economics crippled his successor Van Buren after the Panic of 1837. 70.Describe the different ways that each of the new mass political parties, Democrats and Whigs, promoted the democratic ideals of liberty and equality among their constituencies.

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00001B. 0Glossary

To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 10.deference The yielding of one’s opinion to the judgment of someone else, usually of higher social standing. “The deference, apathy, and virtually nonexistent party organizations of the Era of Good Feelings yielded to the boisterous democracy. . . .” 20.puritanical Extremely or excessively strict in matters of morals or religion. “The only candidate left was the puritanical Adams. . . .” 30.mudslinging Malicious, unscrupulous attacks against an opponent. “Mudslinging reached new lows in 1828. . . .” 40.spoils Public offices or other favors given as a reward for political support. “Under Jackson the spoils system . . . was introduced on a large scale.” 50.denominations In American religion, the major branches of Christianity, organized into distinct church structures, such as Presbyterians, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, etc. “. . . many denominations sent missionaries into Indian villages.” 60.evangelical In American religion, those believers and groups, usually Protestant, who emphasize personal salvation, individual conversion experiences, voluntary commitment, and the authority of Scripture. “The Anti-Masons attracted support from many evangelical Protestant groups. . . .” 70.hard money Metal money or coins, as distinguished from paper money. (The term also came to mean reliable or secure money that maintained or increased its purchasing power over time. Soft money, or paper money, was assumed to be inflationary and to lose value.) “. . . a decree that required all public lands to be purchased with ‘hard’ . . . money.” 80.usurpation The act of seizing, occupying, or enjoying the place, power, or functions of someone without legal right. “Hatred of Jackson and his ‘executive usurpation’ was its only apparent cement in its formative days.” 90.favorite sons In American politics, presidential candidates who are nominated by their own state, primarily out of local loyalty, without expectation of winning. “Their long-shot strategy was instead to run several prominent ‘favorite sons’ . . . and hope to scatter the vote so that no candidate could win a majority.” 100.machine A hierarchical political organization, often controlled through patronage or spoils, where professional politicians can deliver large blocs of voters to preferred candidates.

“As a machine-made candidate, he incurred the resentment of many Democrats. . . .” 110.temperance Campaigns for voluntary commitment to moderation or total abstinence in the consumption of liquor. (Prohibition involved instead forcible legal bans on the production or consumption of alcohol.) “. . . the Arkansas Indians dubbed him ‘Big Drunk.’ He subsequently took the pledge of temperance.” 120.populist A political program or style focused on the common people, and attacking perspectives and policies associated with the well-off, well-born, or well-educated. (The Populist Party was a specific third-party organization of the 1890s.) “The first was the triumph of a populist democratic style.” 130.divine right The belief that government or rulers are directly established by God. “. . . America was now bowing to the divine right of the people.” 00001PART II: Checking Your Progress

00001A. 0True-False
Where the statement is true, circle T; where it is false, circle F.
10.TFThe last election based on the old elitist political system was the four-way presidential campaign of 1824 involving Jackson, Clay, Crawford, and John Quincy Adams. 20.TFHenry Clay disproved the charge of a corrupt bargain between himself and President Adams by refusing to accept any favors from the new administration. 30.TFPresident Adams lost public support by promoting strong nationalistic principles in a time of growing support for sectionalism and states’ rights.

40.TFAndrew Jackson became a great popular hero as president because he continued to live the same life of frontier toughness and simplicity as his followers.

50.TFThe election campaign of 1828 was notable for the well-formulated debates between Andrew Jackson and President Adams on the issues of the tariff and removal of the barriers to political equality and democracy.

60.TFJackson’s victory in 1828 represented the triumph of the West and the common people over the older elitist political system.

70.TFThe Jacksonians practiced their belief that because all citizens were equal, anyone could hold public positions without particular qualifications.

80.TFSouth Carolina’s fierce opposition to the Tariff of Abominations reflected an underlying fear that enhanced federal power might be turned against the institution of slavery.

90.TFAndrew Jackson used mediation and compromise rather than threats of force to persuade South Carolina to back away from its nullification of the tariff laws.

100.TFThe powerful Cherokees of the southeastern United States fiercely resisted white efforts to alter their traditional culture and way of life.

110.TFWhen the Supreme Court ruled against the state of Georgia and in favor of southeastern Indians’ rights, Jackson defied the Supreme Court’s rulings and ordered the Cherokees and other southeastern tribes forcibly removed to Oklahoma.

120.TFJackson successfully used his veto of the bill to recharter the wealthy Bank of the United States to politically mobilize the common people of the West against the financial elite of the East.

130.TFThe Whig party was united by its principles of states’ rights, western expansionism, and opposition to the role of evangelical Christianity in politics. 140.TFA primary source of tension between settlers in Texas and the Mexican government was Mexico’s abolition of slavery and prohibition of slave importation. 150.TFWilliam Henry Harrison’s background as an ordinary frontiersman born in a log cabin enabled Whigs to match and exceed the Democrats’ appeal to the common man in the campaign of 1840. 00001B. 0Multiple Choice

Select the best answer and circle the corresponding letter.
10.The Jacksonian charge that John Quincy Adams won the presidency through a corrupt bargain arose because0 a0.William Crawford threw his electoral votes to Adams in exchange for a seat in the Senate. b0.members of the House of Representatives claimed that they had been bribed to vote for Adams. c0.Adams ended his previous opposition to Henry Clay’s American System. d0.Jackson discovered that there had been vote fraud in several pro-Adams states. e0.after Henry Clay threw his support to Adams, he was appointed secretary of state. 20.Which of the following was not among the factors that made John Quincy Adams’s presidency a political failure?0 a0.Adams’s attempts to treat Indians fairly.

b0.Adams’s involvement with corrupt machine deals and politicians. c0.Adams’s stubborn and prickly personality.
d0.Adams’s support for national roads, a national university, and an astronomical observatory. e0.Adams’s hostility to western land speculation and unlimited expansionism. 30.Andrew Jackson’s strong appeal to the common people arose partly because0 a0.Americans finally understood the ideas of the Declaration of Independence. b0.many citizens were tired of the partisan fights between Republicans and Federalists. c0.he had risen from the masses and reflected many of their prejudices in his personal attitudes and outlook. d0.farmer and labor organizations aroused populist opposition to elitist politics. e0.he was skilled at appealing to the public’s evangelical religion and fervent patriotism. 40.One political development that demonstrated the power of the new popular democratic movement in politics was a0.the rise of the caucus system of presidential nominations. b0.the use of party loyalty as the primary qualification for appointing people to public office. c0.extensive public speaking tours by presidential candidates. d0.the strong support for public schools and a national university. e0.the vigorous campaign to abolish the electoral college.

50.Andrew Jackson’s fundamental approach during the South Carolina
nullification crisis was to a0.acknowledge the injustice of the high Tariff of Abominations and seek to lower it. b0.seek to strengthen South Carolina unionists while politically isolating the nullifiers. c0.join hands with Henry Clay in attempting to find a compromise solution. d0.attempt to change the focus of attention from the tariff to slavery. e0.mobilize a sizable military force and threaten to hang the nullifiers.

60.Under the surface of the South’s strong opposition to the Tariff of Abominations was0 a0.a desire to develop its own textile industry.
b0.competition between southern cotton growers and midwestern grain farmers. c0.a strong preference for British manufactured goods over American-produced goods. d0.a fear of growing federal power that might interfere with slavery. e0.a belief that the high tariff would foster immigration and urbanization. 70.Some southeastern Indian tribes like the Cherokees were notable for their0 a0.effectiveness in warfare against encroaching whites.

b0.development of effective agricultural, educational, and political institutions. c0.success in persuading President Jackson to support their cause. d0.adherence to traditional Native American cultural and religious values. e0.consistent opposition to slavery and racism.

80.In promoting his policy of Indian removal, President Andrew Jackson0 a0.defied rulings of the U.S. Supreme Court that favored the Cherokees. b0.admitted that the action would destroy Native American culture and society. c0.acted against the advice of his cabinet and his military commanders in the Southeast. d0.tried to split the Cherokees apart from their allies such as the Creeks and Seminoles. e0.was convinced that the Indians would better thrive in Oklahoma. 90.Jackson’s veto of the Bank of the United States recharter bill represented a(n0) a0.response to Europeans investors’ lack of faith in the dollar. b0.attempt to assure bankers and creditors that the federal government had their interests at heart. c0.concession to Henry Clay and his National Republican followers. d0.gain for sound banking and a financially stable currency system. e0.bold assertion of presidential power on behalf of western farmers and other
debtors. 100.One important result of President Jackson’s destruction of the Bank of the United States was0 a0.a successful economy to hand on to his successor, Van Buren. b0.a sounder financial system founded upon thousands of locally controlled banks. c0.the American banking system’s dependence on European investment and control. d0.the lack of a stable banking system to finance the era of rapid industrialization. e0.Jackson’s equally successful attack on the secretive and elitist Masons. 110.Among the political innovations that first appeared in the election of 1832 were0 a0.political parties and direct popular voting for president. b0.newspaper endorsements and public financing of presidential campaigns. c0.nomination by congressional caucus and voting by the Electoral College. d0.third-party campaigning, national conventions, and party platforms. e0.secret ballots and the prohibition on liquor in polling places. 120.In the immediate aftermath of the successful Texas Revolution0 a0.Texas petitioned to join the United States but was refused admission. b0.Texas joined the United States as a slave state.

c0.Mexico and the United States agreed to a joint protectorate over Texas. d0.Britain threatened the United States with war over Texas. e0.the Texas government sought to expand westward to the Pacific. 130.The Panic of 1837 and the subsequent severe depression were caused primarily by0 a0.the stock market collapse and a sharp decline in grain prices. b0.a lack of new investment in industry and technology.

c0.the threat of war with Mexico over Texas.
d0.overspeculation and Jackson’s hard-money financial policies. e0.British investors’ loss of confidence in American business. 140.Prominent leaders of the Whig party included0
a0.Martin Van Buren and John C. Calhoun.
b0.David Crockett and Nicholas Biddle.
c0.Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison.
d0.Stephen Austin and Sam Houston.
e0.Henry Clay and Daniel Webster.
150.The real significance of William Henry Harrison’s victory in the election of 1840 was that it a0.constituted a sharp repudiation of Andrew
Jackson and Jacksonianism. b0.brought a fresh new face to American presidential politics. c0.showed that the Whigs could win with a candidate other than Henry Clay. d0.showed that the Whigs could practice the new mass democratic politics as successfully as the Democrats. e0.showed that the public wanted serious debates as well as noisy “hoopla” in presidential politics. 00001C. 0Identification

Supply the correct identification for each numbered description. 01.__________New, circus-like method of nominating presidential candidates that involved wider participation but usually left effective control in the hands of party bosses 02.__________Small, short-lived third political party that originated a new method of nominating presidential candidates in the election campaign of 1831–1832 03.__________Contemptuous Jacksonian term for the alleged political deal by which Clay threw his support to Adams in exchange for a high cabinet office 04.__________Andrew Jackson’s popular nickname, signaling his toughness and strength 05.__________The arrangement under which public offices were handed out on the basis of political support rather than qualifications 06.__________Scornful southern term for the high Tariff of 1828 07.__________Theory promoted by John C. Calhoun and other South Carolinians that said states had the right to disregard federal laws to which they objected 08.__________The “moneyed monster” that Clay tried to preserve and that Jackson killed with his veto in 1832 09.__________Ritualistic secret societies that became the target of a momentarily powerful third party in 1832 010.__________Religious believers, originally attracted to the Anti-Masonic party and then to the Whigs, who sought to use political power for moral and religious reform 011.__________Any two of the southeastern Indian peoples who were removed to Oklahoma __________

012.__________The sorrowful path along which thousands of southeastern Indians were removed to Oklahoma 013.__________Conflict of 1832 in which the Sauk and Fox Indians of Illinois and Wisconsin were defeated by federal troops and state militias. 014.__________Economic crisis that precipitated an economic depression and doomed the presidency of Martin
Van Buren 015.__________Popular symbols of the flamboyant but effective campaign the Whigs used to elect “poor-boy” William Henry Harrison over Martin Van Buren in 1840 00001D. 0Matching People, Places, and Events

Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by inserting the correct letter on the blank line. 10.___John C. Calhoun
20.___Henry Clay
30.___Nicholas Biddle
50.___John Quincy Adams
60.___David Crocket
70.___Moses Austin
80.___Sam Houston
100.___Santa Anna
110.___Martin Van Buren
120.___Black Hawk
130.___William Henry Harrison
a0.Cherokee leader who devised an alphabet for his people
b0.Political party that generally stressed individual liberty, the rights of the common people, and hostility to privilege c0.Seminole leader whose warriors killed fifteen hundred American soldiers in years of guerrilla warfare d0.Former Tennessee governor whose victory at San Jacinto in 1836 won Texas its independence e0.Mexican general and dictator whose large army failed to defeat Texas rebels f0.Former vice president, leader of South Carolina nullifiers, and bitter enemy of Andrew Jackson g0.Political party that favored a more activist government, high tariffs, internal improvements, and moral reforms h0.Original leader of American settlers in Texas who obtained a huge land grant from the Mexican government i0.A frontier hero, Tennessee Congressman, and teller of tall tales who died in the Texas War for Independence j0.“Old Tippecanoe,” who was portrayed by Whig propagandists as a hard-drinking common man of the frontier
k0.Jackson’s rival for the presidency in 1832, who failed to save the Bank of the United States l0.The “wizard of Albany,” whose economically troubled presidency was served in the shadow of Jackson m0.Talented but high-handed bank president who fought a bitter losing battle with the president of the United States n0.Aloof New England statesman whose elitism made him0 an unpopular leader in the new era of mass democracy o0.Illinois-Wisconsin area Sauk leader who was defeated0 by American regulars and militia in 1832 00001E. 0Putting Things in Order

Put the following events in correct order by numbering them from 1 to 5. 01.___South Carolina threatens nullification of federal law and backs down in the face of Andrew Jackson’s military threat. 02.___A strange four-way election puts an icy New Englander in office amid charges of a corrupt bargain. 03.___A campaign based on hoopla and “log cabins and hard cider slogans” demonstrates that both Whigs and Democrats can effectively play the new mass-party political game. 04.___A northern Mexican province successfully revolts and seeks admission to the United States. 05.___Despite attempting to follow white patterns of civilizing, thousands of American Indians are forcibly removed from their homes and driven across the Mississippi River. 00001F. 0Matching Cause and Effect

Match the historical cause in the left column with the proper effect in the right column by writing the correct letter on the blank line. Cause
01.0___The growth of American migration into northern Mexico 02.___The demand of many whites to acquire Indian land in Georgia and other states 03.___The Anti-Masonic Party
04.___The failure of any candidate to win an electoral majority in the four-way election of 1824 05.___The alleged corrupt bargain between Adams and Clay for the presidency in 1824 06.___President Adams’s strong nationalistic policies

07.___The high New England–backed Tariff of 1828
08.___Andrew Jackson’s war against Nicholas Biddle and his policies
09.___Jackson’s belief that any ordinary American could hold government office 010.___The Panic of 1837

a0.Brought many evangelical Christians into politics and showed that others besides Jackson could stir up popular feelings b0.Provoked protests and threats of nullification from South Carolina c0.Aroused popular anger and made Jackson’s supporters determined to elect him in 1828 d0.Laid the foundations for the spoils system that fueled the new mass political parties e0.Threw the bitterly contested election into the U.S. House of Representatives f0.Laid the basis for a political conflict that resulted in Texas independence g0.Caused widespread human suffering and virtually guaranteed Martin Van Buren’s defeat in 1840 h0.Fueled the political pressures that led Andrew Jackson to forcibly remove the Cherokees and others i0.Aroused the bitter opposition of westerners and southerners, who were increasingly sectionalist j0.Got the government out of banking but weakened the American financial system

00001G. 0Map Mastery
00001Map Discrimination
Using the maps and charts in Chapter 13, answer the following questions. 10.Election of 1824: In the election of 1824, how many more electoral votes would Jackson have needed to win a majority and prevent the election from going to the House of Representatives?

20.Presidential Election of 1828: In the election of 1828, in which states outside New England did John Quincy Adams win electoral votes?

30.Presidential Election of 1828: In the election of 1828, which of the eastern middle states did Jackson carry completely?

40.Presidential Election of 1828: Which three states divided their electoral votes?

50.The Removal of the Southern Tribes to the West: Of the five southeastern Indian tribes, which two were located wholly within the boundaries of a
single state? Which tribe was located in four states?

60.The Texas Revolution, 1835–1836: A) When Santa Anna’s army entered Texas to attack the Alamo, what two major rivers did it cross? B) When Santa Anna’s army moved from the site of its greatest victory to the site of its greatest defeat, what direction did it march?

Part iii: developing historical thinking skills
00001A. 0Interpreting Political Cartoons and Satire
Political cartoons are an important historical source. Even when they are strongly biased one way or another, they can yield information about political conflicts and contemporary attitudes. The anti-Jackson cartoon In Mother Bank’s Sick Room reveals a number of things about how his opponents viewed Jackson. Answer the following questions. 10.What is the fundamental point of the cartoon’s attack on the Bank of the United States and its supporters?

20.What visual means does the cartoonist use to develop its point?

30.In the pro-Jackson cartoon Symptom of a Locked Jaw, how is Clay’s frustration at Jackson’s bank veto portrayed? How is Jackson’s successful resistance represented?

40.In the satirical bank note mocking pro-Jackson pet banks, list at least three distinct visual symbols that identify the worthless note with Jackson and his policies.

50.List at least three verbal terms or phrases that underscore the supposed fraudulency of Jacksonian banking practices.

B. Continuity and Change Over Time
Read the prompt below and identify time frames for the period. Next, construct a timeline in which you identify a pivotal point (or multiple points) which led to the development of change within that period. Then, in the space provided below, put together specific and relevant evidence which
defines and explains that pivot point. In the box above the timeline, provide some evidence for continuity within that period. Prompt: What were the reasons for increased political participation between 1815 and 1840 in the United States?

1815 1840

Identify the major event which might account for the change:

Identify other events which might account for the change:

Develop your Thesis Statement.

00001PART IV: Applying What You Have Learned0
10.Why was Andrew Jackson such a personally powerful embodiment of the new mass democracy in the 1820s and 1830s? Would mass democracy have developed without a popular hero like Jackson? 20.Why did Calhoun and the South see the Tariff of 1828 as such an abomination and raise threats of nullification over it? 30.What made Jackson’s Indian Removal policy seem especially harsh and hypocritical? Was there any chance that the Cherokees and other civilized southeastern tribes could have maintained their own lands and identities if Jackson had not defied the Supreme Court? 40.How did Jackson’s Bank War demonstrate the power of a modern mass democratic political machine and its propaganda? Was Biddle’s Bank a real threat to the economic welfare of the less affluent citizens whom Jackson represented, or was it more important as a symbol of eastern wealth and elitism? 50.How did the Panic of 1837 and the subsequent depression reflect the weaknesses of Jackson’s economic and financial policies? Why was Martin Van Buren unable to outmaneuver the Whig political opposition as Jackson had? 60.Does Andrew Jackson belong in the pantheon of great American presidents? Why or why not? 70.Argue for or against: the Texas Revolution against Mexico was more about the expansion of slavery into the West than about the rights of Anglo-American settlers in Texas. 80. Was the growing hoopla of American politics reflected in the “log cabin and hard cider” campaign of 1840 a violation of the republican virtue upheld by the Founders or an inevitable
and even healthy reflection of the public’s engagement with politics once it was opened up to the great mass of people? 90.What did the two new democratic parties, the Democrats and the Whigs, really stand for? Were they actual ideological opponents, or were their disagreements less important than their shared roots and commitment to America’s new mass democracy? 100.Compare the two-party political system of the 1830s’ New Democracy with the first two-party system of the early Republic (see Chapter 10). In what ways were the two systems similar, and in what ways were they different? Were both parties of the 1830s correct in seeing themselves as heirs of the Jeffersonian Republican tradition rather than the Hamiltonian Federalist tradition?

Cite this The Rise of a Mass Democracy, 1824–1840

The Rise of a Mass Democracy, 1824–1840. (2016, Sep 02). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-rise-of-a-mass-democracy-1824-1840/

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