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The Toll Like Receptors Tlrs Biology

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Purpose: Toll-like receptors play a polar function in an innate unsusceptibility system, which controls redness responses and farther instructs development of adaptative unsusceptibility. The purpose was to analyze the look profile and polymorphism of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in the peripheral blood lymph cells of Fulminant Hepatic Failure ( FHF ) .

Methods: Our survey included 45 instances with FHF, 45 instances with Acute Hepatitis ( AH ) and 25 healthy controls. The average age in old ages ( scope ) of topics in different groups were FHF, 29.84 ( 14 – 65yrs ) ; FHF-E, 27.65 ( 17 – 55yrs ) ; FHF-S, 33.

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00 ( 14 – 65yrs ) ; AVH, 29.47 ( 16 – 68yrs ) . Peripheral blood lymph cells were isolated for analyzing the polymorphism, entire RNA was extracted and change by reversal transcribed into complementary DNA. The mRNA look degree of TLR-2 and TLR-4 were quantitatively determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.

Consequences: : Expression of TLR 2 and TLR 4 was significantly more in patients with FHF 31/45 ( 68.9 % ) and AVH 20/45 ( 44.4 % ) than normal controls ( P & lt ; .001 ) . Patients with FHF besides showed a important greater look than those with AVH ( P & lt ; 0.019 ) . Greater look was seen in patients with FHF-E 20/26 ( 76.9 % ) vs. FHF-S 11/19 ( 57.9 % ) but nevertheless consequences here were non important ( p=0.17 ) . Polymorphism for four types of SNPs -TLR2 Arg677, TLR2 Arg753, TLR4 Asp299 and TLR4 Thr399 were studied which failed to demo a important difference.

Decision: In decision, our survey reveals a possible interaction between Fulminant Hepatic Failure, TLR signaling and the innate immune response, which may partly explicate the mechanism of infection induced immuno-tolerance.

BACKGROUND.

Acute Viral Hepatitis ( AVH ) is a planetary public wellness job and which is extremely outstanding in India. It is an acute self-limited disease with a serum aspartate amino transferase ( AST ) lift of at least five creases or clinical icterus or both.11 However, in approximately 1 % of patients this can be complicated by development of Fulminant Hepatic Failure ( FHF ) . While FHF has legion causes, most instances are due to viral hepatitis and drug toxicity or idiosyncratic reactions. In India, more than 90 % instances are due to acute viral hepatitis, the most common viruses being hepatitis Tocopherol followed by hepatitis B.1 Not much is known about the pathophysiology of this mortal status, which even in the West has 50-80 % mortality rate. Recently, involvement has been created to analyze the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of hepatic harm. Motivating agents including viruses and toxins, taking to a critical grade of liver cell harm and decease due to apoptosis or mortification which is non adequately compensated by hepatocellular regeneration, there by ensuing in monolithic hepatic mortification in FHF.2 Although the motivating agents may straight damage hepatocytes, recent groundss have suggested that inflammatory cells and their merchandises ( viz: TNF-i?Y and IL-1 ) can lend to the hepatic necrosis.3 Furthermore, in patients with liver failure endotoxemia occurs which contributes to the pathogenesis of this upset. Recent surveies have focused on the intermediate tracts activated during the initial hurt that leads to progressive and rapid hepatocyte devastation. Different types of stimulations such as endotoxins, lipopolysacchride ( LPS ) , tumor mortification factor ( TNF-i?Y ) , Interleukin 1 ( IL-1 ) , IL-2 etc. can trip rapid activation of a cellular proinflammatory written text factor, NF-i?YB and subsequent alteration of its downstream mark cistrons and proteins.4

Toll-like receptors ( TLRs ) are a household of pattern-recognition membrane receptors of innate unsusceptibility that recognize alone molecular signatures of bugs, called pathogen-associated molecular forms ( PAMPs ) .5 TLRs are the first line of host defence and TLR activation by their several PAMPs consequences in pro inflammatory cytokine Cascadess and initiation of both innate and adaptative immune responses. TLR 4 recognizes LPS of Gram-negative bacteriums, whereas TLR 2 responds to assorted lipoproteins, including constituents of Gram-positive bacteriums, such as peptidoglycan.5

Members of the TLR household besides detect viruses that enter the endosome through endocytosis. This tract induces production of interferons through several signaling proteins that finally lead to the activation of the written text factors NF-B, IRF3 and IRF7. 6-8

While function of TLR look and presence of individual nucleotide polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors has been found to be positively correlated with susceptibleness to several diseases9 ; surveies look intoing their possible function in Acute Viral Hepatitis ( AVH ) and Fulminant Hepatic Failure ( FHF ) are missing. This is the first human survey refering the look of TLR in AVH and FHF.

Method

Patients and Clinical Samples

Patients with Acute Viral Hepatitis and Fulminant Hepatic Failure showing to the Department of Medicine, Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi were prospectively recruited.

A patient was diagnosed to hold Fulminant hepatic failure when after a typical ague oncoming, patient became profoundly jaundiced, developed coagulopathy ( Prothrombin activity & lt ; 40 % of normal ) and went into hepatic brain disorder within eight hebdomads of oncoming of disease without any past history of chronic liver disease.10 Acute viral hepatitis was defined as those instances, which had an acute self-limiting disease and a serum aspartate aminotransferase lift of at least five fold or icterus or both.11

Written informed consent was obtained from all topics. Medical history was obtained from all participants, including inside informations of old episodes of icterus ; any associated systemic diseases. Biochemical parametric quantities including elaborate liver map trials ( AST, ALT, and alkalic phosphatase, entire serum hematoidin and its fractions, entire proteins and fractions and prothrombin clip ) were conducted in all. Age and sex matched healthy control topics without any history of any liver disease were recruited. Blood samples were collected into unfertile, anticoagulant ( EDTA ) -coated tubings and instantly transported to the research lab for DNA and RNA extraction.

PCR RFLP of the Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 cistron

Determination of the TLR 2 and 4 cistron mutants was accomplished with polymerase concatenation reaction ( PCR ) and limitation fragment length polymorphism. The entire volume of the PCR was 25 Aµl ( TLR2: 2 Aµl ) incorporating 100 nanogram of genomic DNA, 1xPCRbuffer ( Qiagen, Hilden, Germany ) , 0i?-2 millimeter of each dNTP ( Sigma, Taufkirchen, Germany ) , 0i?-75 units ( TLR2: 0i?-5 units ) of HotStar-Taqi?”DNA polymerase ( Qiagen ) and 7i?-5 pmol ( TLR2: 5 pmol ) of each primer ( TIB MOLBIOL, Berlin, Germany ) . The concluding concentration of MgCl2 was 4 millimeter for Asp299Gly, 1i?-5 millimeter for Thr399Ile, and 3 millimeter for Arg753Gln and Arg677Trp. The PCR was performed in a Thermocycler MJ Research with an initial denaturation measure ( 95oC for 15 min ) , 35 rhythms ( 94oC for 30 sec, 62oC ( Asp299Gly ) , 60oC ( Thr399Ile ) , or 65oC ( Arg677Trp and Arg753Gln ) for 30 s, 72oC for 30 s ) , and a concluding extension measure ( 72oC for 10 min ) . The limitation check contained 1 limitation buffer, 20 units ( TLR2 Arg677Trp: 12i?-5 units ) of the several limitation enzyme ( New England Biolabs, Beverly, MD, USA ) and 15 milliliter ( TLR2: 20 milliliter ) of the PCR merchandise. It was incubated overnight at 37OC and analyzed by cataphoresis on a 2i?-5 % agarose gel. The primer sequences are presented in Table 2. Full length PCR merchandises were digested into the limitation fragments as listed in Table 3. The PCR was performed in a entire volume of 100 milliliters and the concluding concentration of MgCl2 was 1i?-5 millimeter, the other constituents and concentrations were as described above. The PCR comprised an initial denaturation measure of 15 min at 95oC, 35 rhythms of denaturation for 30 s at 94oC, tempering for 30 s at 65oC and extension for 60 s at 72oC, and a concluding extension measure for 10 min at 72oC.

Table 1: The Primer sequences for TLR 2 and 4 genotyping by PCR- RFLP method:

Polymorphism

Primers

TLR4

Asp299Gly

F: 5 – AGCATACTTAGACTACTACCTCCATG-3

Roentgen: 5 – GAGAGATTTGAGTTTCAATGTGGG-3

TLR4

Thr399Ile

F:5 – GTTGCTGTTCTCAAAGTGATTTTGGGAGAA-3

R:5 – GAAATCCAGATGTTCTAGTTGTTCTAAGCC-3

TLR2

Arg677Trp

F: 5 -CCCCTTCAAGTTGTGGCTTCATAAG-3

Roentgen: 5 -AGTCCAGTTCATACTTGCACCAC-3

TLR2

Arg753Gln

F: 5 -CATTCCCCAGCGCTTCTGCAAGCTCC-3

Roentgen: 5 -GGAACCTAGGACTTTATCGCAGCTC-3

Table 2: Restriction enzymes and length of the limitation fragments

Gene

Polymorphism

Restriction enzyme

Restriction temp i‚°C

Length of the Restriction fragments:

TLR4

Asp299Gly

Nco I

37i‚°C

Wild type ( allele A ) : i?? 188 bp

Asp299Gly ( allele G ) : i?? 168 bp + 20 bp

TLR4

Thr399Ile

Hinf I

37i‚°C

Wild type ( allele C ) : i?? 124 bp

Thr399Ile ( allele T ) : i?? 98 bp + 26 bp

TLR2

Arg677Trp

Mwo I

60i‚°C

Wild type ( allele C ) : i??i?? 130 bp + 22 bp

Arg677Trp ( allele T ) : i?? 152 bp

TLR2

Arg753Gln

Msp I

37i‚°C

Wild type ( allele G ) : i?? 104 bp + 25 bp

Arg753Trp ( allele A ) : i?? 129 bp

DETECTION OF TLR 2 and 4 Expression

RNA isolation and TLR2/TLR4 change by reversal written text polymerase concatenation reaction ( RT-PCR ) analysis.

Entire cellular RNA was extracted from the stray PBMC utilizing an acerb phenol-chloroform extraction method, as described antecedently. The RNA concentration was quantitated spectrophotometrically, and complementary DNA of PBMC was obtained by rearward RNA polymerase utilizing 1 Aµg of RNA and oligo-dT primers. PCR for TLR2, TLR4 and I?-actin was performed with primer braces crossing exon-exon concurrences. The undermentioned oligonucleotide primer sequences were used with I?-actin by densitometric analysis of the amplified complementary DNA merchandise. The primer used for I?-actin ( 226 bp ) ( F: GGC GAC GAG GCC CAGA & A ; R: CGA TTT CCC GCT CGGC ) as internal control. Cycling conditions were 94oC for 1 min, 55 oC for 1 min, and 72oC for 1 min at 30 rhythms. Human TLR2 ( 394 bp ) ( F ) : 5′-GCC AAA GTC TTG ATT GAT TGG, ( R ) : 5′-TTG AAG TTC TCC AGC TCC TG ; humanTLR4 ( 506 bp ) ( F ) : 5′-TGG ATA CGT TTC CTTATA AG, ( R ) : 5′-GAA ATG GAG GCA CCC CTTC. Cycling conditions were 95 oC for 40 s, 54 oC for 40 s, and 72 oC for 1 min for both TLR2 and TLR4.Optimal consequences for TLR2 were obtained at 28 rhythms in PBMC, and for TLR4 at 32 rhythms. The amplified merchandises were separated by cataphoresis on a 2 % agarose gel and visualized by ultraviolet light light utilizing ethidium bromide staining. As performed by other writers, semiquantitative PCR consequences were generated by rating a ratio between the densitometry consequences of the mark cistron ( TLR2, TLR4 ) and the housework enzyme I?-actin.

Immunohistochemistry and analysis of NF-B look

Postmortem liver biopsy was performed on FHF patients who expired utilizing tru-cut biopsy acerate leaf ( n=10 ) . Postmortem liver biopsy done in patients, who died of a cause unrelated to liver disease and whose biopsy revealed a normal histology ( n=10 ) , done for diagnostic or curative grounds served as biopsy controls. Informed consent was obtained from the nearest relation or the patient in all instances. Briefly, after deparafinization and rehydration, the tissue subdivisions were blocked in 3 % bovine serum albumen for 30 min and incubated overnight at 37i‚°C with the primary antibody. Immunoreactivity was visualized utilizing an ABC Staining System Kit from Santa Cruz Biotechnology following the maker ‘s protocol. The slides were so counterstained regressively in Mayer ‘s hematoxylin, dipped in methyl alcohol for a few seconds, cleared in xylene, and mounted in Permount. To measure the specificity of staining, subdivisions were processed without primary or without secondary antibodies as controls. The same antibodies were used for the immunohistochemical survey.

Statistical Analysis

The informations obtained from the survey was tabulated and transferred to a personal computing machine. Quantitative information was expressed as mean A± criterion divergence and/or as medians. The information therefore collected was analyzed utilizing standard statistical trials ( Chi square trial of significance or Student ‘s t-test or Fisher trial as applicable ) . P & lt ; 0.05 was considered to be statistically important in all analysis.

Consequence

Forty five patients each with acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure fulfilling the survey inclusion and exclusion standards were studied. The average age in old ages ( scope ) of topics in different groups were FHF, 29.84 ( 14 – 65yrs ) ; FHF-E, 27.65 ( 17 – 55yrs ) ; FHF-S, 33.00 ( 14 – 65yrs ) ; AVH, 29.47 ( 16 – 68yrs ) . Equal figure of age and sex matched normal people served as controls.

Patients with FHF and AVH showed mild to chair look of TLR 2 and chair to high look of TLR 4. Controls showed mild look of TLR 2 and average look of TLR 4 ( Fig. 1, Table 3 ) .

A important higher degree of TLR-2 every bit good as TLR-4 look was observed in patients with FHF than AVH ( p=.019 ) and besides in AVH than healthy topics ( P & lt ; .001 ) . Similarly, amongst FHF group ; greater look was seen in patients who expired than those who survived but this could non achieve statically significance ( p=.17 ) .

Table 3: Expression of TLR 4 & A ; TLR 2

FHF

AVH

Control

MILD

MOD.

High

MILD

Mod

High

MILD

Mod

High

TLR2

14

( 31 % )

31

( 69 % )

25

( 56 % )

20

( 44 % )

45 ( 100 % )

TLR4

14 ( 31 % )

31 ( 69 % )

25 ( 56 % )

20 ( 44 % )

41 ( 91 % )

4 ( 9 % )

Fig. 1Semiquantification of TLR 2 & A ; 4 Expression in mention to I? actin

Lane 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Lane 2 & A ; 5 – FHF instances ; Lane 3 & A ; 6 – Controls ; Lane 4 & A ; 7 – AVH

Besides, no difference was observed in the degrees of TLR 2 or 4 looks depending on whether etiology of FHF was viral hepatitis A to E or non A-E.

Postmortem liver biopsies were collected from 10 patients. Ten individuals in whom liver biopsy was performed for some other diagnostic intent and biopsy specimen showed normal histology on H & A ; E constituted the control group.

Table 4: Expression of p50 & A ; p65

Protein

NORMAL ( N=10 )

FHF ( N=10 )

Expression

Nothing

MILD

Medium

Moderate

Nothing

MILD

Medium

Moderate

p50

7 ( 70 % )

3 ( 30 % )

3 ( 30 % )

5 ( 50 % )

2 ( 20 % )

p65

2 ( 20 % )

8 ( 80 % )

6 ( 60 % )

4 ( 40 % )

Figure 2: Immunohistochemical analysis of look and localisation of p50 and p65 in normal every bit good as postmortem liver biopsies of FHF patients

Paraffin-embedded subdivisions ( 4-5 I?m midst ) were immunolocalized with the Santa-Cruz antibodies specific for p50 and p65 of NF-kB. ( A ) IHC utilizing p65 antibody in normal liver tissue ; ( B ) IHC utilizing p50 antibody in normal liver tissue ; ( C ) IHC utilizing p65 antibody in post-mortem liver biopsy ; ( D ) IHC utilizing p50 antibody in post-mortem liver biopsy.

When we analyzed the look profile of p50 and p65 proteins that heterodimerizes to organize functional NF-i?YB composite by immunohistochemistry we observed that most patients with FHF besides showed a moderate to high degree of p50 look while p65 had a mild look ( Table 4, Figure 2 ) . A lessening of p65 look and increased p50 look was found to be both atomic every bit good as cytoplasmatic ( Figure 2 C, D ) . In contrast, atomic localisation of both p50 and p65 was observed in normal liver biopsies ( Figure 2 A, B ) .

TLR2 and -4 Genotypes of Patients

In this survey, we have analyzed TLR genotype polymorphisms of TLR2 Arg677, TLR2 Arg753, TLR4 Asp299 and TLR4 Thr399. TLR2 Arg677 polymorphism was detected in none of the topics every bit good as the control group. TLR2 Arg753 polymorphism was detected in 8.8 % of patients with FHF and 2.2 % and 4 % in AVH and control, severally.

TLR4 Asp299 polymorphism was seen in 8.8 % and TLR4 Thr399 polymorphism in 11.1 % of patients of FHF. Both of these polymorphisms were detected in approximately 4 % of patients of AVH and normal controls.

Therefore prevalence of these SNPs failed to demo any important difference between the AVH, FHF and controls.

Discussion

TLRs belong to a category of cell surface molecules known as pattern acknowledgment receptors. The ligands for these receptors are constituents of infective bugs called pathogen-associated molecular forms ( PAMPs ) .5 TLRs are portion of the innate immune system, although they besides modulate mechanisms that impact the development of adaptative immune responses.

Stimulation of TLRs triggers the association of MyD88 ( myeloid distinction primary-response protein 88 ) , which in bend recruits IRAK4 ( IL-1R-associated kinase 4 ) , thereby leting the association of IRAK1. IRAK4 so induces the phosphorylation of IRAK1. TRAF6 ( tumour-necrosis-factorreceptor- associated factor 6 ) is besides recruited to the receptor composite, by tie ining with phosphorylated IRAK1. Phosphorylated IRAK1 and TRAF6 so dissociate from the receptor and organize a complex with TAK1 ( transforming-growthfactor-I?-activated kinase ) , TAB1 ( TAK1-binding protein 1 ) and TAB2 at the plasma membrane, which induces the phosphorylation of TAB2 and TAK1. IRAK1 is degraded at the plasma membrane, and the staying complex ( dwelling of TRAF6, TAK1, TAB1 and TAB2 ) translocates to the cytosol, where it associates with the ubiquitin ligases UBC13 ( ubiquitinconjugating enzyme 13 ) and UEV1A ( ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 discrepancy 1 ) . This leads to the ubiquitylation of TRAF6, which induces the activation of TAK1. TAK1, in bend, phosphorylates both mitogen-activated protein ( MAP ) kinases and the IKK composite ( inhibitor of atomic factor-I?B ( II?B ) -kinase composite ) , which consists of IKK-I± , IKK-I? and IKK-I? . The IKK complex so phosphorylates II?B, which leads to its ubiquitylation and subsequent debasement. This allows NF-I?B to translocate to the karyon and bring on the look of its mark cistrons.

Several lines of grounds indicate that TLRs are implicated in inflammatory and immune upsets. Earlier surveies have shown polar function of TLRs in pathogenesis of chronic enterocolitis,12 homograft rejection,13 development of atherosclerosis,14,15 SLE and arthritic arthritis. In add-on to these immune-related upsets, TLR acknowledgment of commensal bacterium has been shown to play a important function in the care of enteric epithelial homeostasis.16 Thus, TLR-mediated tracts are likely involved in many facets of immune responses, even in the absence of infection.

Amongst liver diseases, TLR-mediated signals have been associated with infectious,17-23 granulomatous19,20, alcoholic liver disease24-26, ischemia-reperfusion injury27-31 and liver regeneration32-38. Recent surveies besides provide grounds for a function of TLRs in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ( NASH ) 39,40, autoimmune hepatitis41, primary bilious cirrhosis ( PBC ) 42-46, hepatic fibrosis47-50, and hepatocarcinogenesis51, and in the map of RNA-helicases, peculiarly in chronic hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) infection52-58. Experimental surveies in animate beings have even co-related increased look of TLR 2 and 4 in acute liver failure.59-61

Both acute viral hepatitis and fulminant viral hepatitis have same aetiologic factors but a markedly different clinical class. While former is a self-limited disease, the later is a extremely mortal status frequently necessitating liver graft. This difference is likely due to host immune factors. This is due to the fact that in fulminant hepatitis B virus ( HVB ) infection, humoral antibody response is enhanced and a significantly faster rate of clearance of HBsAg is seen compared to patients with terrible unsophisticated hepatitis. On admittance anti-HBs Ab is found in approximately 40 % of patients with fulminant hepatitis whereas it is really seldom detected in unsophisticated hepatitis at this stage.

The cardinal elements that determine this difference in host response are ill-defined. In our survey, we observed that significantly higher degrees of TLR2 and 4 look are associated with fulminant hepatitis than in patients with acute viral hepatitis. Patients with acute viral hepatitis besides had important increased look as compared to normal controls. Among fulminant hepatic failure group, patients who died besides showed greater look than was seen in patients who survived nevertheless consequences here were non important. Therefore, increased immune response affecting TLR 2 and 4 has an association with differential look of AVH and FHF.

NF-B is the maestro regulator of all TLR-induced responses and its activation of is the polar event in TLR-mediated activation of cytokines that mediate the development of unconditioned unsusceptibility. To measure functional significance of the increased TLR look, immunohistochemistry for p50 and p65 proteins that heterodimerizes to organize functional NF-B was done in liver tissue. We observed that patients with FHF largely showed a moderate to higher degree of p50 look while p65 was expressed really weakly while a rearward form of look of NF-kB constituents was besides observed in control group which predominately showed weak p50 look but moderate to high look of p65.

Therefore, proposed etiopathogenesis of differential ordinance of NF-kB signaling tract at the transcriptional degree through upregulation and homodimerization of p50 fractional monetary units but selective suppression of its canonical dimerization spouse p65 and thereby taking to finish dislocation of the immune system with terrible liver harm is farther supported. Similar consequences have been shown in a larger survey on HEV infected pregnant adult females with FHF.62

Familial polymorphisms-for the most portion, individual base polymorphisms ( SNPs ) -are common discrepancies within a population that are found at a frequence of over 1 % . SNPs may change the aminoacid sequence ( non-synonymous SNPs ) , affect booster features, or may be wholly “ soundless ” . Mutants do non happen indiscriminately within the genome, but instead depend on the peculiar genomic part, every bit good as on selective pressure.63 Thus, one might anticipate that cistrons encoding for proteins involved in unsusceptibility or disease opposition should exhibit a high grade of polymorphisms, a hypothesis that was strengthened by informations obtained from genome-sequencing approaches.64,65 Within the cistrons involved in immune acknowledgment, several non-synonymous SNPs have been described, including pattern acknowledgment molecules and cytokines. However in our survey presence of SNPs failed to demo a important difference between the three groups.

Surveies have suggested an association of these SNPs ( peculiarly: TLR2 Arg677Try ; Arg753Gln ; TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile Asp299Gly ) with incidence of premature birth, 66 Crohn ‘s 67, lepromatous leprosy68, badness of asthma69, decreased susceptibleness to rheumatoid arthritis70, lower incidence of diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetics71 and lower rate of ague homograft rejection72. However in our survey presence of SNPs failed to demo a important difference between the three groups.

In decision, it is suggested that immune response mediated by TLR 2 and TLR 4 in analogue with activation of NF-B plays a major function in etiopathogenesis of both AVH and FHF. The survey besides indicates that increased TLR 2 and 4 degrees are related to hepatic hurt in hepatitis and the activity correlates with badness of the disease, but such a correlativity may non be extended straight to mortality. The inquiry remains as to whether increased TLR 4 is an illustration of dysregulation or normal immune response.

However, functionally effectual polymorphisms of the Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 cistrons appear to hold seemingly no influence on the single susceptibleness for AVH and FHF.

STUDY HIGHLIGHTS

Current Cognition:

TLRmediated signals have been associated with legion diseases including liver diseases such as ischemiareperfusion hurt and liver regeneration.

What is new:

TLR 2 and 4 look is besides increased in Fulminant Hepatic Failure and it is significantly more than that in acute viral hepatitis.

Cite this The Toll Like Receptors Tlrs Biology

The Toll Like Receptors Tlrs Biology. (2017, Jul 08). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-toll-like-receptors-tlrs-biology-essay/

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