The treatment of addicted children
Addicted Babies and The Best Treatment for addicted Children The treatment of addicted children 2 Abstract The role of this study is to bring out the best way to address and treat the addicted children in a positive and effective manner.
Approximately a 100 people including the mothers of addicted children and clinical professionals will be taking parting this project. They would be dealing with the various kinds of approaches, problems and methods they usually do. The process will show them to analyze what they other ways do in a multidimensional organized set up. Thus, the study will be making them a step closer to be objective. The data will be brought out in order to equip the world to face the regime of addiction in more practical and able manner.
The treatment of addicted children 3 Table of content Chapter 1 An Introduction to the treatment of addicted children 4 Chapter 2 The Existing literature on the medication of addicted children 5 Chapter 3 Methods 7 Discussion 8 Reference 9 The treatment of addicted children 4 Chapter 1 An Introduction to the treatment of Addicted Babies. The paper investigates deeply about the effective way of medication to the addicted children in the contemporary situations in the world. The author looks for a better understanding of the methods followed today and their efficacy. It is very much in consideration that the knowledge gathered through this study must help the professionals in the future to practically aid such children to a new life.
It was calculated in 1988 that the cost of Americans drug addiction comes around $58.3 billion each year by different means such as law enforcement, loss of productivity and social and health problems. Once the costs associated with the care of infants born addicted or exposed to illicit drugs and other consequences like the exacerbation of the AIDS epidemic are considered, the economic cost of drug abuse will even go higher than
$100 billion in 1991 (Rice et al. 1991) Reports in the lay press based on the anecdotal evidence resulted in premature rush to judgment about the impact of in utero exposure to illicit drugs, particularly cocaine, up on the health, behavior and development of children (Mayes et al. 1992).
Crack kids, who are portrayed in the media as inevitably and permanently damaged, are children with a history of parental cocaine exposure. Researches found that great majority of children exposed to significant amounts of drugs in the womb appear to have suffered brain damage which cuts into their ability to make friends, choose right from wrong, control their impulses, gain insight, concentrate on tasks and love and to be The treatment of addicted children 5 loved (Blockner 1990, p14).
These babies are, like no other babies, brain damaged in ways yet to be known (Hopkins 1990, p1). It can always be within the domain of health professionals to structure a substantial parental program for substance abusing women. However to accomplish this goal, one may require the association of many health care organizations that may work independently of one another. Thus it is, the creation of formal ties with the co ordination of service, going to be the very foundation of a community wide parental substance abuse program (DeLeon and Jainchill 1991, Giles et al 1989).
In light of the above described situation it is always crucial to develop a completely tied and tested method of medication to bring the addicted children back to normal life styles. Chapter 2 The Existing literature on the medication of addicted children. Within therapeutically effective range, It is often necessary to administer the drug several times to achieve and maintain a drug concentration.
In some cases, this results in a peaks and valleys profile of drug concentration in the blood and tissues (Zaffaroni 1991).
Transdermal delivery appears to be especially useful for administering drugs with poor oral bio availability and short half lives. Transdermal drug delivery systems have several components in common.
The two basic types of passive transcenderminal delivery systems currently on the market are matrix systems and membranes controlled systems (Chien 1987, Ledger and Nicolas 1989) premature births, low birth weight, pregnancy complications and neurobehavioral
The treatment of addicted children 6 abnormalities have been associated within utero drug exposure. Neonates and infants born to cocaine abusing mothers usually do not go through withdrawal, instead, often show signs of neurotoxicity like irritability.
There can also be serious complications like seizure can occur in cocaine or opiate affected infants (Dicker and Leighton 1991). Data gathering on the subject of our study will require comprehensive interview with the mother, reports from drug treatment agencies and social service agencies and more objective measures such as urine toxicology assays drugs and their metabolites. Recognizing the limitations of urine testing, it is now known that drug exposure may be dictated over a wider gestational period by assay of infant meconium samples or infant and maternal hair samples (Callahan et al. 1992, Ostrea et al 1992). The treatment of the cocaine exposed neonate rests on an objective assessment of the impact intrauterine drug exposure. It is similar to the treatment for the exposure to opiates. But unlike opiate exposed infants, cocaine exposed infants do not undergo a physical abstinence or withdrawal. These infants do, however, show signs of neurotoxicity such as transient irritability and tremulousness (Doberczak et al. 1988). A poor interaction with caretakers, lethargy and a period of hypo reactivity are experienced by the cocaine exposed infants soon after the period of CNS irritability. In addition, specific neurobehavioral testing has led to a general agreement that these infants evidence liability of states, with wide swings from hyper alertness to reduced reactivity, decreased habituation and visual tracking difficulties (Mayes et al 1993). Cocaine exposed infants show a very wide spectrum of such effects ranging from a lack of obvious symptoms, to neurobehavioral dysfunction, to more spectacular complications such as seizure (Kramer et al. 1990). These serious complications could be caused by a hemorrhage from acute hypertension or an ischemic insult secondary to vasoconstriction. As many as 50 per cent of The treatment of addicted children 7 cocaine exposed infants, in one study, have been found with EEG abnormalities (Dobreczak et al.1988). Moreover, echo encephalographic abnormalities have been in 35 percent of infants exposed to either cocaine or methamphetamines (Dixon and Bejar 1989). These abnormalities can be categorized as ischemic injury with cavitarylesions (8 per cent), intraventricular hemorrhage (12 per cent), subependymal hemorrhage (11 per cent), subarchnoid hemorrhage (14 per cent) and ventricular dilatation (10 per cent).
However cocaine exposure did not increase the incidence of intravetricular hemorrhage or per ventricular leukomalacia compared with controls (Dusick et al. 1993).
Chapter 3 Methods Participants The in depth Data collection of this study will include 50 health care professionals and 50 mothers who were ones bore the addicted children themselves. We will choose participants of deferent living conditions of bringing up the affected children and sample them with demographical interviews. We will provide the participants with a purposeful approach of a sample with little bit of work experience as we will be in need of learning more about these tow group before we will go in to detailed data collection. Regular interviews will occur every other The treatment of addicted children 8 month beginning from the first session. The professionals will be enquired about their usual approaches and will be confronted with the pros and cons of such practices. Procedure The participants will be participating in at least five interviews in a period of ten months which will be duration to observe some kind of a change in their subject’s situation. There will be a protocol developed for each section to cover such a broad areas like their children’s welfare, The medicines administered to the children, The time and quantity it is given and the basic change in the symptoms of addiction. In the first section itself a list of specific points to be observed will be handed over to the participants, so that they will know what to expect for the sessions to follow. All the participants’ queries about the purpose of the study will be answered at any time of the process. Our findings will provide valuable lights into the lives of millions children as well as the professionals.
The findings will be thoroughly assessed in the light of simple and normal behavioral patterns and, at the same time, clinical support and demographic data of the varying life styles. Clearly the transition from the situation to welfare will be the tenure in which we need to observe the effect of best approaches. Thus analyzing it would be the real time study one would make with this project. Descriptive data will be collected for demographic characteristics, such as age, race ethnic background, etc and reported. Here, based on what we heard from the clients, we provide The treatment of addicted children 9 programmatic and policy recommendations to continue to serve this group and help these families in their transition to work and greater self-sufficiency. Discussion Clearly, the transition from welfare to normalcy is complex, compounded by the many challenges children face. How successful respondents were in this transition and in the progress they made depended partly on the extent of personal challenges they faced. The professionals or the parents who may have still been addicted would not clearly dictate these challenges always. One can not infer causes as the study is in a quasi experimental design. The largest danger to exterior soundness or generalizability in this study comes from the small sample size. The parental narcotic habits can impair specific learning functions along with some autonomic system regulating mechanisms also may be impaired; the whole thing may not be identified until school age.
Thus, it is obvious that child raring by addicted or recovering mothers may be more dysfunctional than that of a normal woman. Considering the immense significance and the vast area covering this field, comprehending the jeopardy experienced by drug-exposed infants. A study of such a limited period may not bring all the needed data on this particular issue. The treatment of addicted children 10 References Blockner S (1990) ‘Crack Babies’ The New York Times August. Chien, Y.W (1987) Transdermal rate controlled drugs delivery: Theory and practice. Drugs today 23: 625-646. Callahan, C.M, Grant, T.M, Phipps, P, and Raisys, V.A (1992) Measurement of gestational cocaine exposure: Sensitivity of infants’ hair meconium and urine. 120:763-768. Chasnoff, I.J, Bussey, M.E, Savich, R and Stack, C.M (1985) Perinatal cerebral infarction and maternal cocaine use. 108: 456-459. DeLeon G, Jainchill N. (1991) Residential therapeutic communities for female substance abusers. Bull NY Acad 67: 277-290. Dixon, S.D, and Bejar, R (1989) Echo encephalographic findings in neonates associated with maternal cocaine and methamphetamine use: Incidence and clinical correlates. 115: 770-778. Dicker. and Leighton, E.A (1991) Trends in diagnosed drug problems among newborns: United States, Drug Alcohol Depend 28:151-165. Doberczak, T.M, Shanzer, S, Cutler, R, Senie, R, Loucopoulos, J and Kandall, S.R (1988) One year follow up of infants with abstinence associated seizure. 45: 649-653. Dusick, A.M, Covert, R.F, Schreiber, M.D, Yee, G.T, and Tebbett, I.R (1993) Risk of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse outcomes after cocaine exposure in a cohort of 323 very low birth weight infants. 122: 438-445. Giles W, Patterson, T. sanders, R.N, Batey R. and Thomas D. (1989) Outpatient methadone program for pregnant heroin using woman. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 29:225-229, The treatment of addicted children 11 Hopkins E (1990) Childhood’s End Rolling Stone, October 18. Ledger, P.W and Nicholas, K.C (1989) Transdermal drug delivery devices. Clin Dermat 7: 25-31 Mayes, L.C, Granger, R.H, and Bomstein, M.H (1993) Neurobehavioral profiles of neonates exposed to cocaine; parentally pediatrics 91:778-783 Mayes L.C, Granger R.H, Bornstein B.S (1992) The problem of parental cocaine exposure: A rush to judgment. Ostrea, E.M, Chavez, C.J, and Strauss, M.E (1992) A study of factors that influence the severity of neonatal narcotic withdrawal. 88:642-645. Rice D.P, Kelman S and Miller L.S (1991) Economic costs of drug abuse. In: Cartwright. Cost effectiveness, financing and community based drug treatment. Zaffaroni, A (1991) Overview and evolution of therapeutic systems. Ann NY Acad Sci 618: 405-421