The Value of Higher Education for Police Officers
The debate on the value of higher education for police officers continues to be one of the most persistent and pervasive issues in policing. Although there are several different interpretations of what constitutes a professional police officer there appears to be a consensus about the need for professionalism in policing. Researchers have attempted to measure performance through such variables as officer attitude, discretion, ethics, cynicism, decision-making, and use of deadly force.
Despite the different measures of performance used, several studies have reported a positive relationship between educations and “job performance” found that college-educated officers consistently received higher performance ratings from supervisors. College education police officers have a positive effect on academy performance and career advancement and have a positive relationship between educational levels and officer promotions.
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College-educated officers tend to have better peer relationships than non-college-educated officers do are likelier to take a leadership role in the organization, and college-educated officers tend to be more flexible, be less dogmatic and less authoritarian. College-educated officers take fewer leave days, receive fewer injuries, have less injury time, have lower rates of absenteeism, use fewer sick days, and are involved in fewer traffic accidents than non-college-educated.
These benefits are all important in citizen-officer interaction ability to communicate, to be responsive to others, and to exercise benevolent leadership, ability to analyze situations, to exercise discretion independently, and to make judicious decisions. Strong moral character, which reflects a sense of conscience and the qualities of honesty, reliability, and tolerance, a positive relationship between higher education and fewer citizen complaints, fewer disciplinary actions against officers, and fewer allegations of excessive force.
Citizen complaints and departmental disciplinary actions are both important indicators of officer performance national study of police higher education found that 98 percent of the responding police departments indicated that officers with two or more years of college received fewer citizen complaints than their counterparts who had less education. Police departments indicated that officers with two or more years of college had fewer disciplinary problems.
More attention was given to the education variable and its relationship to the numbers and types of founded complaints received by the officer population. Generally, officers without college degrees generated approximately 42 percent of the total founded complaints while only accounting for about 29 percent of the total officer population. Because the most common complaint noted in the departmental records was that of “rudeness” or a lack of courtesy, an additional analysis was conducted using “rudeness” complaints as the dependent variable.
Officers who had completed college degrees had fewer founded citizen-initiated complaints for rudeness. Only five of the 85 officers (6%) with four-year college degrees had one or more founded complaints for lack of courtesy or rudeness. In contrast, seven of the 35 officers (20%) without four-year college degrees had one or more rudeness complaints. Police officers generally have broad powers to carry out their duties. The Constitution and other laws, however, place limits on how far police can go in trying to enforce the law.
As the videotaped beating of motorist Rodney King, in Los Angeles had illustrated, police officers sometimes go too far, violating the rights of citizens. When this happens, the victim of the misconduct may have recourse through federal and state laws. A primary purpose of the nation’s civil rights laws is to protect citizens from abuses by government, including police misconduct. Persons bringing this claim assert that police violated their Fourth Amendment right against unreasonable seizure.
If the officer had probable cause to believe the individual had committed a crime, the arrest is reasonable and the Fourth Amendment has not been violated. Police can arrest without a warrant for a felony or misdemeanor committed in their presence. Some states also allow warrantless arrests for misdemeanor domestic assaults not committed in the officer’s presence. Even if the information the officer relied upon later turns out to be false, the officer is not liable if he believed it was accurate at the time of the arrest.
To prevail on a false arrest claim, the victim must show that the arresting officer lacked probable cause, that is, facts sufficient to cause a reasonable person to believe that a crime had been committed. That why many states create programs to help them fight the corruption in the police department. One of them is Combat Police Corruption in New York. The Commission to Combat Police Corruption (CCPC) was created in 1995 to monitor and evaluates the anti-corruption programs, activities, commitment, and efforts of the New York City Police Department.
CCPC is independent of the New York Police Department and is appointed by the Mayor, who names the full-time staff. Was created based upon the 1994 recommendations to Investigate Allegations of Police Corruption and the Anti-Corruption Procedures of the Police Department. My personal opinion about which group has more civil rights completing I think that each police officer needs to have ethical codes and he/she does not have the right to violated someone civil rights. It has to see all people equal rights and not to make a difference between them.
I think all police officers shall respect and protect the civil rights of all individuals, treat every situation with professionalism and concern for the welfare of the individuals involved and with no intent to personal gain, and shall refrain from allowing personal interest to impair objectivity in the performance of duty while acting in an official capacity. Unfortunately, not all police departments pay for school police officers. Why? Many do not have the financial resources to this problem. In this case, the police officers who want to continue school must pay for themselves.
In many cases, they can enroll in programs offered by state-sponsored school. Yes, I believe that education makes a difference. I don’t think there is a difference in which group is more likely or not likely to accept women as police officers, definitely there were some questions back in the ’70 if the women could perform uniformed patrol assignments, now nearly thirty years later, if is no longer the question. Numerous studies have shown that women can and do perform all the duties of patrol officers.
Women and racial minorities are entering mainstream policing, ostensibly, on both an equitable basis with white men and in markedly larger numbers than ever before. Numbers, however, do not reveal the changing nature of the work itself, the job environment, and treatment by others on the job, internal support for career development, promotion and other rewards. One objective of recent research has been to examine these topics. The women’s responses during interviews help to support and give meaning to statistical data on women’s uneven distribution throughout police ranks and women’s virtual absence in some specialized units.
One research shows that female police officers found that, “are extremely devoted to their work, see themselves as women first, and then police officers, are more satisfied when working in nonuniformed capacities”. In the matter of which requires all applicants to have a bachelor’s degree before being hired in that state I personally think that is Alabama ( I am not sure, but I tried all the possibilities I hope I am right). I do not approve their decision that all the employee by state to have a bachelor degree, I think that is unfair for other who has an associate degree or a high school diploma.
I think that people who have taken this decision regarding employment criteria have made a bit of discrimination and should review the law a little bit. There are capable people who have an associate degree or a high school diploma. However, this is my personal opinion. Works Cited: Bibliographies Blumberg & Niederhoffer, The Ambivalent force: Perspectives on the police 1985 Criminal Justice A Brief Introduction: by Frank Schmalleger 2010 Ethics, Crime, and Criminal Justice: by Christopher R.
Williams and Bruce A. Arrigo The Impact of a College-Educated Police Force: by Rebecca L. Paynich, February 2009 http://utsa. edu/swjcj/archives/7. 1/Davis%20&%20Sorensen%20Article. pdf http://www. ncjrs. gov/policing/fem635. htm http://www. fdle. state. fl. us/Content/getdoc/a68d0fd7-2cb3-4236-a378-81005626dd34/Horne2. aspx http://www. moolanomy. com/3572/the-pros-and-cons-of-a-college-degree/ http://www. pic. nsw. gov. au/RoyalCommission. aspx