Tools and Techniques in Decision Making - Decision making Essay Example
Tools and Techniques in Decision Making
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Decision making and problem solving are essential in our daily life as well as in organization. Problem solving requires a lot of decision making. Hence, it is vital in management and leadership. There are processes, tools and techniques to improve decision-making and quality choices.
Problem-solving and decision-making are interrelated. It involves creativity in identifying and developing options.
One of the earliest models of the creative process was attributed to Graham Wallas.
In 1926, he proposed that creative thinking proceeds through four phases. These four phases are as follows:
1. Preparation – it involves definition, observation, and studying the issues or problems.
2. Incubation – setting time frame.
3. Illumination – encompasses moment when new ideas transpire.
4. Verification – engaging the idea.
In 1988, Torrance emphasizes that Wallas’ model is the basis for most of the creative thinking training programs available today. The inclusion of incubation followed by illumination in the said model explains why many authors view creative thinking as a subconscious mental process that cannot be directed.
The concept of creative thinking begins with purposeful preparation and ends with critical verification. Thus, indicates that creative and analytical thinking are complementary to each other. Creative thinkers study and analyze problems as well as the possible solutions. They are trained to view things differently that other people might miss viewing. This is reflected to varying degrees in other models of creativity.
Many authors believed that good decision-making entails combination of skills as follows:
a.) creative development and identification of options
b.) clarity of judgments
c.) firmness of decision
d.) effective implementation.
Moreover, there are two main aspects of technical creativity which is the programmed thinking and lateral thinking. Programmed thinking is based on logical or structured ways of creating a new product or service. Examples of this approach are Morphological Analysis and Reframing Matrix. On the other hand, lateral thinking is a method in our brain that encompasses the pattern of recognition systems. Examples of lateral thinking includes: brainstorming, random input, and provocation.
In year 1985, Edward de Bono developed and popularized lateral thinking. Sometimes, solutions developed were based on previous solutions with similar problems. More often, it does not occur as solutions from other patterns. Lateral thinking techniques were applied to untangle the problem and be presented to a simple problem.
Lateral thinking techniques aided them to come up with surprising, brilliant and original
solutions. It is significant to point out that each type of approach has its strength. Logical and disciplined thinking is enormously effective in making products and services better. Lateral thinking can create completely new concepts, ideas, and brilliant improvements to current systems. However, it can also generate disorder or unproductive results when applied to wrong place.
For example, a university student on his last week meeting with his course is having difficulty balancing his time with his studies, family life, and full-time job. His grades are low and he wonders if he will have to repeat the class. With this event, he was reminded of one of the lessons in management. He tried to apply it to his own problem by virtue of recollection or recognition system. Further, he identifies the problem which is the failing grades. Moreover, he examined and recalled if at one point in his life, he had experienced this same situation. Lastly, he recalled that during his 5th grade he experienced this same situation. As a preliminary step to his problem, he asked help from his wife by taking turns in doing household chores and picking up the kids in school. In addition to, he asked consideration from his immediate boss regarding his duty shifts in order to have more time in his studies. With these steps, he passed his class.
Sometimes, problems are presented in complex ways. Moreover, problems may lead to another problem. With this kind of situation, intent analysis of the problem is required to make it simple to attain achievable solutions.
1. Working Paper (1996) Models for the Creative Process, Paul E. Plsek
2. Putting creativity to work in Sternberg, RJ (1988) The Nature of Creativity, Barron, F: Cambridge Univ. Press.
3. Sternberg, The Nature of Creativity (1988) The Nature Of Creativity As Manifest In Its Testing, Torrance, EP: Cambridge, England
4. Harcourt Brace (1926) The Art of Thought, Wallas, G: New York