Tourism and Development, Tourism as a Tool for Developing Nations - Poverty Essay Example
Tourism and Development| Individual assignment task: Why is tourism selected as development tool by so many developing nations? - Tourism and Development, Tourism as a Tool for Developing Nations introduction|| Individual assignment task: Why is tourism selected as development tool by so many developing nations? | | The introduction of this essay will be focus on tourism reality selected as a development tool by many developing nations. Development has usually been treated as a process, a particular kind of social change. Nevertheless, development is also a state or condition. Whenever a society is called developed or underdeveloped we refer to its present condition. Similarly, when development is declared to be a major goal of Third World nations, the allusion is to a terminal condition, not to a process.
Thus, the single term ‘development’ refers to both the destination of a journey and to the journey itself. (Goulet, G. , 1968, On the goals of development, Cross Currents, 18) Firstly, “Tourism” and “Development” need a definition, and as UK Tourism Society has been proposed: Tourism is the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and their activities during their stay at these places; it includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits or excursions. (Telfer, 15 Dec 2007)
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Tourism seems to be the largest industry in the past few decades and it’s increasing by the time, also it does an important role in many Third World’s destinations as a market for international tourists. In fact, tourism is best link that these countries have with the exterior because of the importance of their development economic. As we know, tourism is one of the most important forces shaping our world (Cohen & Kennedy, 2000, p. 214) and it is viewed as an attractive development option for many parts of the developing world.
Otherwise, the term refers to development could be applied for those countries which wants to achieve or to get a balance stage or a condition development. Is not just means the way that this country it’s in progress every time, it means the capacity to change overtime and be different from others too. These changes are succeeding in economic, cultural, political and social dimensions, limited by the environment’s capacity of the country. The factors or influence on tourism’s development are: the consumption of tourism, tourism production system, global political economy and global socio-cultural environment.
All of these factors are due to characteristics of the destination, such as accessibility, stage of economic development, social and political structures, resource capabilities, etc. Nevertheless, developed countries are those which are technology and economic advanced, they have a high quality of modern social life and political structures and institutions. In particular, they are encouraged to use it as a means of economic development that wreaks less damage than extractive industries (Russell & Stabile, 2003) and can be used to generate revenue for other developmental activities (Mathieson & Wall, 1982).
However, developing countries are looking for the potential of tourism benefits, to achieve economic (link in rural and economic regeneration in many industrialized nations) and social development in theses destinations. In addition, tourism also contributes to the preservation of cultures at a time when globalisation is arguably a force for cultural accommodation (Cohen & Kennedy, 2000); it is also a good weapon promoting peace and understanding between peoples (World Tourism Organization (WTO), 1980).
Consequently, globalisation is characterised by cultural homogenisation as Western consumption and lifestyle pattern expansion around the world, a process without doubt, facilitated by the abundance from the west to the Third World. The interactions of business corporations in international scales and their challenges have impacts in terms of economies, cultures, politics and environments. An economic globalisation has been the increasing power of tourism companies within the industry, and this makes possible the interaction between destinations and within aim to discover new ones.
Above all, the results have also impact in small scale in Third World countries, and it is those who benefit most. At least, those who propose global capital system have discussed that the growing world economy in which tourism has an important role is vital to global development, but it has to be considered more implications for those destinations less favourable as a process that is dynamic, contingent and contested. (Teo, 2002) On the other hand, term referred to developed country is growing year after year and is used to distinguish the world’s poorest
countries of the non-poor. Although currently there are like 50 developed countries which still received most of the international arrivals (as opposed to total of developing countries are 160), a lot of new destinations such as exotic places or East countries want to join in the list, enjoyed a fast increase in tourism. Anyway, developing countries are classified according to national and/or per capita income, non-development economic indicators, environmental factors or a combination of both.
The country must have a per capita income below $750, as well as, satisfying complex “economic vulnerability” and “human resource weakness” criteria. If they have a non-viable economic, they cannot be developed countries in any sense of the word. (Telfer, 15 Dec 2007). That is the case of some countries which have to establish a nascent tourism sectors that provide and open ways to be considered to economy survival as opposed to develoment strategy. For this reason, tourism is used as a tool for economic development among poorer communities, which form part in vast cases of Third World.
In measures that tourism benefits community we observe its implication in job creation or looking for employees as its best achieving results which are based into the “fair trade in tourism”, but unfortunately sometimes appear difficulties. Therefore, it must take into account the equitable participation of all community members; although it is sometimes difficult because of the uniqueness of races, genders and ethnicities who are involved in tourism development community.
Other problem could be lack of information, resources and power in relation to tourism process. They have no experienced before in this fields so they need good management and learn more business knowledgeable about the sector, which will help them take advantage and use tourism as a procedure of development in every way. As characteristics of underdevelopment countries we can see that economy strongly depends on agriculture production as first sector system, income and foreign exchange earnings.
Most of population live in poor conditions, so there is a low standard of living, health, child mortality, education, etc. This set out some serious problems and in few decades more countries has experimented a decrease of life’s quality, in the same way the majority of world’s population live in developing nations (around 80 %) against developed countries, which cover around only 0. 5 %. In general, the economies are weak, with low financial reserves, severe balance of balance payments and high levels of international debt.
They have strong differences between political and social structures, as a result from inequalities, and power’s distribution just benefit a small privileged class, which in many cases determinate the nature of development, as local as national level. But, these characteristics of underdevelopment are non-comparable in all developing countries levels, because it has also been considered other factors such as security, safety and human rights as actions of development, for instance.
In addition, not all developed countries has the same development level and same power, maybe few of them has less developed and need to add more challenges. That is the way that tourism impact positively on some of these particular challenges. As a result of that, the concept of “pro-poor tourism” has received much support from development agencies, tourism organizations and governments. This term has been analysed long time in consequence of their contribution or not to poverty reduction.
According to Regina Acheyvens (2009), data which have been implementing for this strategy are based on a growing sector in some countries in process of development, because tourism is on the top of the contributors to develop economy’s country and provide opportunities, well-being of the poor through generation of jobs and revenue of infrastructure development. Also, tourism can enable some rural communities to survive avoid out-migration of young and old people.
She argues about realities to face it, based of inequalities related to international tourism, where difference between tourists and locals are evident. Also, is mentioned tourism as a dubious route to alleviate poverty, because of the negative impacts that occurring in the lives of the population of these countries. Many times only add more inequality between the rich and the poor in the same country, as not only takes into account the consumption of tourism, but also the production.
She focuses in a way that tourism is dressed as a “green tool” for global industry tourism image due to the rising profile of climate change issues, and how pro-poor tourism advocates arguing with the associations of a growth-oriented strategy in terms of environmental sustainability, which generates net benefits for the poor. She also disputes government’s participation in promoting fair trade in tourism and the labours of comprehensive policies that support labour rights (like in South Africa, where government has difficulties to commit and implements changes).
Taking part of neoliberal agenda, governments tends to economy instead of environment, so it has more interest for consumers than for the poor, as well as poverty not is just focused in basic needs, is it more a huge approach to benefit as more ways as possible. At she concludes, there is a controversial between those who believe in Pro- poor tourism and the needs to change policy governments to achieve the proposes of well-being of the poor and alleviating poverty, and who those who are following neoliberal poverty-alleviation agendas, which are just interest in the tourism and the travel industry.
In the same way, Dorothea Meyer (2009) wants to debates and response to Scheyvens citations. She disagree with Regina and supports the idea of include equality issues as main important part of pro-poor tourism approaches, not just be considered neoliberal ideologies. She argues and point out fundamental changes in global tourism that will give big powers to developing countries, which will benefit the poor.
She takes part of small sector and privates tourism industries that have to promote and speed-up economic development thorough its main activities in the industry or workplace. All business tourism has to be involved and join with communities to contribute to local economic development and poverty reduction in big and small scale. She ends with the possibility to see together and integrated society segments into the tourism field in terms of employment. Finally, David Harrison (2009) also criticizes Regina’s review and gives his point of view.
For him, wealth discrepancies between international tourism in destinations are unsuitable, because tourism occurs as developed as non-developed areas, so it can be an equal status in many destinations. In addition, he mentions inability to compare huge and important destinations recognized worldwide with other emerging developing destinations, because is not the same tourism to consider and not the same economy. Then, other one of Regina’s aims that he disagrees is the necessity to involve poor in all levels, because the best way would be combined them in the tourism markets as possible.
So, as he can observe poverty alleviation is not simply an interest of satisfy very basic needs is fully accepted by PPT proponents, and non an exploitation way for enterprises in tourism, it’s more a movement and an alternative for the system, but it needs involvement and motivation governments to undertake appropriate development at all levels in each country, whether is it developing or not. In conclusion, after all premises that are being discussed, tourism could be a way to facilitate, or depends of policies and other considerations could impede, development from the perspective of poorest countries and societies in the world.
At the same time, this term may have different meanings and various perspectives, because it has changed over time and has not same purposes depends on destinations. Currently, is linked with sustainable tourism and poverty reduction and today it’s continues to be one of the best suitable tool and development strategy. It has to be considered power and control within a globalized world and a range of factors involved directly or indirectly development process.
There is a complex interdependence between states and communities at local and international levels, where governments has always an important role in ways to maximise benefits from activities backing communities which involve tourism. Government policies and actions must be proposed and recreated thoroughly committed, assessing the environment’s community surrounding. Because of this, tourism development process could be successful or not, helping the economy and population, or instead, just get more impoverish to destination and have to taking up measures.
Participation and integration of stakeholders involved, each at required levels, is important because it will help the social integration and even would solve some of still social inequalities in many underdeveloped countries, such as racism, sexism or ignorance. Ultimately, it seems that tourism is today the best tool of development in a country, more even than other activities. But just as not all destinations are equal, not all types of tourism can be used for same all countries, so each community should be choose the best one in order to progress.