Tourism in Pakistan
Pankaj Diyas Sharma HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Impact of Internship on Hotel Operation Thesis CENTRAL OSTROBOTHNIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Degree Program in Tourism June 2012 ABSTRACT CENTRAL OSTROBOTHNIA Date UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES May 2012 Unit for Technology and Business, Kokkola-Pietarsaari Degree programme Degree Programme in Tourism Name of thesis HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Impact of Internship on Hotel Operation Instructor Author Pankaj Diyas Sharma Pages 52 + 5 Supervisor Katarina Broman The primary objective of this thesis was to develop and promote internship.
Internship is the way to help student to get acquainted with what they had did in their school days. Internship can be very useful to utilize time, get practical knowledge. Additionally, this study was directed towards following specific objectives; to analyse the effectiveness of the involvement of hotel management education in the hotel operation during the study period. This thesis illustrates the role of internship and work placement for student. Also the positive effect of internship to enter in the work force. To write this thesis textual analysis and quantitative research has played the vital role.
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Quantitative research method and textual analysis shows the outline for the thesis. In this thesis you will be able to find out different method used to write this thesis. This thesis was written about internship and to get acquainted with hospitality management. A major finding of this thesis has proven that knowledge has both theoretical and practical sides. This thesis overall dealt with hospitality management where all knowledge was seen as essential for the bright future. This result used after the research has been presented in the tabulated form and described it with the help of graph.
The result presented here are all true with respect and 18 questions were asked to 30 employee and interns of the hotel. Later on the results are described in more details with other information. Key words Development, hospitality management, hotel, internship, internship by countries, origin ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1. 1 Aim of the thesis 2 1. 2 Objective of the study 3 2 HOTEL 4 2. 1 History 4 2. 2 Hospitality management training 5 3 INTERNSHIP 6 3. 1 Advantages of internship 6 3. 2 Types of internships 7 3. 3 Objectives of Internship Program 4 HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT 9 4. 1 Origin and development of the hotel industry in Nepal 11 4. 2 Analysis of the interview 13 5 INTERNSHIP BY COUNTRIES 16 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 22 6. 1 Research methods 22 6. 2 Data presentation and Analysis 24 6. 2. 1 Data presentation 24 6. 2. 2 Data analysis 25 6. 2. 3 Major findings 44 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 47 REFERENCES 50 APPENDICES TABLES TABLE 1. Necessity of hotel management trainees in the hotel operation TABLE 2. Level of help from hotel management trainees TABLE 3. Basic knowledge possessed by HM trainees
TABLE 4. Basic job skills possessed by HM trainees TABLE 5. Basic job attitude shown by the HM trainees TABLE 6. Providing training to HM trainees TABLE 7. Stability and confidence level of HM trainees TABLE 8. Overall contribution of the HM trainees TABLE 9. Extra costs for trainees regarding the facilities provided by the hotel TABLE 10. Preference of trainee by the hotel TABLE 11. Significance of industrial exposure TABLE 12. Payment of remuneration to the hotel TABLE 13. Practical implementation of theoretical knowledge in the hotel operation TABLE 14.
Cooperativeness and friendliness of the hotel staffs TABLE 15. Chances of learning during the training period TABLE 16. Training provided according to syllabus TABLE 17. Remuneration for trainees TABLE 18. Satisfaction gained by trainees from the hotel GRAPHS GRAPH 1. Necessity of hotel management trainees in the hotel operation GRAPH 2. Level of help from hotel management trainees GRAPH 3. Basic knowledge possessed by HM trainees GRAPH 4. Basic job skills possessed by HM trainees GRAPH 5. Basic job attitude shown by the HM trainee GRAPH 6.
Providing training to HM trainees GRAPH 7. Stability and confidence level of HM trainee GRAPH 8. Overall contribution of the HM trainee GRAPH 9. Extra costs for trainees regarding the facilities provided by the hotel GRAPH 10. Preference of trainee by the hotel GRAPH 11. Significance of industrial exposure GRAPH 12. Payment of remuneration to the hotel GRAPH 13. Practical implementation of theoretical knowledge in the hotel operation GRAPH 14. Cooperativeness and friendliness of the hotel staff GRAPH 15. Chances of learning during the training period
GRAPH 16. Training provided according to syllabus GRAPH 17. Remuneration for trainees GRAPH 18. Satisfaction gained by the trainees from the hotel 1 1 INTRODUCTION Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which “society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another”. (Gagan 2010). The Hindu Vedas (Hindu holy book), has addressed the immense importance of nowledge in both theoretical and practical disciplines to promote an individual’s superiority in any field. With reference to this very truth, the degree program in tourism currently offered will be of much help to evade our poignant skills to carry out text based knowledge in the real life work environment. With the growing trend towards frequent vacations these days the travel and tourism industry has accumulated fierce competition among many nations. Countries need more active and sound tourism marketing to bring in more and more numbers of tourists.
Tourism seeks unique marketing strategies to attract tourists and make the trip memorable for them. Education can be gained either through practical or theoretical study. Tourism plays a vital role in a human being’s life whenever a person travels to different places they have different motives of travelling; it may be just for leisure activities, recreational activities and attending business seminars or meeting as in business tourism. It is a fact that whenever a person travels to different places than their home town for more than 1 night and less than 365 days it is called tourism. Middleton 2009, 47) “Tourism has become a global leisure activity in 2010 with the growth rate of 6. 6% compared to 2009. When travelling to different countries people always have to think about sustainable tourism, which is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and others needs can be fulfilled while maintaining 2 cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity and life support systems. ” (World Tourism Organization 2009).
Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio -cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. Sustainable tourism involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies that have some of the negative economic and social impacts of ‘mass tourism’. 1. 1 Aim of the thesis Hospitality management is an important pillar in almost every country’s economy. While some countries are really good at promoting themselves, others need to still do some serious work.
Hospitality management is a huge profit-generating industry of an y progressive country. It is accountable for a major portion of the national economic growth. Different factors of hospitality industry bring foreign visitors, which open millions of doors of opportunities for the country? Cultural exchange, foreign collaborations, and employment opportunities for local people are just some of them. In this thesis quantitative research method and textual analysis method are used to perform different findings for the thesis, and later on present the result in the form of bar diagrams and pie charts.
In this thesis there are some facts about internship in the hospitality business that will help to the student of the hospitality industry to develop themselves for the future. Internships help individuals to combine theory with practical work experience. Internships help develop professional work habits, provide an understanding of corporate cultures, give an opportunity to analyze international business settings and offer platforms for workforce. Internships taken internationally offer the privilege to observe differences in businesses, and see how projects are handled in different cultures.
An internship can be conducted differently; either in the trainee’s home country or in the place where they are studying hospitality management. 3 1. 2 Objective of the study The main aim of the study is to assess the impact of the hotel management trainee on the hotel operation. Additionally, this study is directed towards following specific objectives; to analyze the effectiveness of the involvement of hotel management education in the hotel operation during the study period, to recognize the perception created by the teachers regarding the knowledge and the hospitality industry, to find the opinions on the rogram faced by the hospitality management trainees, and to find out whether the syllabus introduced by the University of Applied Sciences is effective and efficient for hospitality management students. 4 2 HOTEL A hotel is that which provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilitie s, including en-suite bathrooms and air conditioning or climate control.
Additional common features found in hotel rooms are a telephone, an alarm clock, a television, and Internet connectivity; snack foods and drinks may be supplied in a mini-bar, and facilities for making hot drinks. Larger hotels may provide a number of additional guest facilities such as a restaurant, a swimming pool or childcare, and have conference and social function services. Hotel rooms are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. (Satyal 1999, 192-194. ) Some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement.
In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours; to avoid this requirement it is not uncommon to come across private hotels which are not subject to this requirement. (Satyal 1999, 192-194. ) 2. 1 History There might be different feeling about the history of hotel where it is originated and how does the name hotel given? ‘Hotel’ is derived from the French hotel (coming from hote meaning ‘host’), it is a French word which refer to a townhouse or any other building where visitors frequently visits.
In contemporary French usage, hotel now has the same meaning as the English term, and hotel is used particularly for the old meaning. The circumflex replaces the’s’ found in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time took on a new, but closely related meaning. Grammatically, hotels usually take the definite article hence “The Astoria Hotel” or simply “The Astoria”. (Lundberg 1992) First of all, people are not properly aware of the importance of the hotel management sector. Similarly, most of the organizations do not have proper materials for their business.
Certainly trained manpower has played a crucial role in hospitality industries. Although the 5 present scenario of the hotel management business is not going well due to several causes, it can be expected that the trained people will be able to maintain service standard of the hospitality industries which would give value for tourism industries. (Satyal 1999, 192194. ) 2. 2 Hospitality management training The Hospitality management program has been designed to bring world-class hospitality education to students and prepare them to enter the hospitality industry at the supervisory level in areas of hotel and catering operations.
Hospitality itself is a term to know and develop the interpersonal skills for the current and future prospective. Hospitality management training helps students to know how to perform work, and how different works are done in the different fields of the hospitality business respectively. Hospitality management training deals with those subject matters where after graduation the students will be able to supervise their positions in the hotels and catering industry with adequate background of management functions.
When student develops skills in hospitality management they can be able to work on any criteria as the work demands. Hospitality management training helps students to know about different factors used in hotel industry, like wise cost control measures to improve economical factor and success in business operations. It helps to set up standards for quality services that they offer to their customers. Knowledge of Hospitality management develops positive attitudes towards the trade with positive impact and self-confidence in handling the operations and become a successful entrepreneur in a small/medium enterprise. 6 INTERNSHIP Internships provide real-world experience to those looking to explore or gain relevant knowledge and skills required to enter into a particular career field. Internships are of relatively short term with the primary focus on getting some of the job training and taking what has been learned in the classroom and applying it to the real world. Trainees generally have a supervisor who assigns specific tasks and evaluates the trainees’ overall work. For internships for credit, usually a faculty sponsor will work along with the site supervisor to ensure that the necessary learning is taking place. (Landes 2007,73. )
Trainees can be adults interested in trying out a new career. Many polytechnic students do internships to gain relevant experience in a particular career field as well as to get exposure to determine if they have a genuine interest in the field. Internships are an excellent way to begin building those all-important connections that are invaluable in developing and maintaining the personal career. An internship is a work-related learning experience for individuals who wish to develop hands-on work experience in a certain occupational field. Most internship is temporary assignments that last approximately three months up to a year. Vaasa University of Applied Sciences 2012) 3. 1 Advantages of internship It is always a good opportunity to test your knowledge about what you studied in your school. Outside world you get lots of opportunities to develop yourself and to get acquainted with economies and globalization, international business and culture. Internship helps individual to experience in an academic program that brings significant change to their career. Internship gives an opportunity to boost you in the way of success. Companies are always looking for those persons who are self-confident, who has high knowledge of a 7 ulticultural world, and who can tackle in any situation in their day to do life. (Erdogan Marketing Manager UCSB International Programs 2009) Internships are the way to fulfill dreams for the future employment opportunities. International work experience is the most beneficial advantage for the students because it gives the way to learn and work in different culture than in your home country. For students having this work experience on their resume is the best way to get the foot in the door for their future work. This can result in more job offers as compared to individuals who lack such work experience. Cox, Buch & Morgan 2011, 87). 3. 2 Types of internships Internships exist in various industries and settings. There are different types of internships among them one of its types is work experience internship. A work experience internship is often done in the second or third year of the studies period. The internship can be from six months up to one full school year. During this period the students are supposed to use the things that they have learned in school and put it in to practice. In this way the students get work experience in their related field of study.
The knowledge that they gained through the internship will be helpful to finish up the last year of the study with better knowledge and better skills. While discussing about different types of internships, another internship type is research internship. This is done by students who are in their last year. This kind of internship a student can do for different companies who are looking for researchers. There are lots of things in a business that need to be changed rapidly and the company feels like changing or improving the company and in this way the students can choose a topic within the company themselves. Intern Nation, Ross, 2009) 8 3. 3 Objectives of Internship Program Internships are the factor where a student gets the opportunity to test their interest in their career before permanent commitments are made. Whenever a student does their internship they get the opportunity to develop skills in theory and practical work situation. Internships program helps students to generate themselves in the field of work and provide student the opportunities to test their work qualities before any permanent commitments are made to their working career. (Intern Nation, Perlin Ross, 2009)
Internship has always been positive impacts to the students, where doing internship students develop different working skills and techniques. Internships is been a method to start their career from a college graduate to full time employment. Internship plays different positive impacts on students. Internship helps students to develop sense of responsibility, specialization in different area, good work habits and enhance employment opportunities. Internships show the path to the students and provide in-depth knowledge of different formal and informal functional activities of a participating organization. Intern Nation, Perlin Ross, 2009) Internships give the opportunity for a student to understand informal organizational interrelationships and to increase earning potential upon graduation. An internship program helps students to enhance advancement possibilities of graduates. Those students who had done internship in their schooling days have higher levels of academic performance. (Shellenbarger Sue January 28, 2009 Wall street Journal) 9 4 HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Presently there has been an immense interest among a section of students to pursue hotel management education as a career in the hospitality industry.
Apart from different institutions offering hospitality management, there is a large number of Hotel Management and Training Institutes, which have cropped up almost in every state of the world imparting catering education to interested candidates. (Dangi 2009, 114-116) The systematic study of hotel management has taken up a big lead in recent times and there has been a growing tendency among the new generation to pursue this field of education for the sake of a different kind of lifestyle.
Hotel management is a diversified field composed of several areas. It provides in-depth description of those sub-areas, which are of importance even for readers and managers and proprietors who are involved in Hotel and Catering. (Dangi 2009, 114-116. ) The increased competition and complexity in the tourism and hotel industry as well as the sophisticated demands of tomorrow’s travelers, mean that tourism and hotel employees will need to be better educated. The emergence of several hotels has totally revolutionized the tourism and hotel industry.
At government and industry’s level, Hotel Management institutes, Food Craft Institutes and Travel and Tourism Institutes have been established at certificate, diploma and degree levels to improve the industry’s experience. (Peterson’s guide 2003. ) Hotel management has become a profession which young people are proud to join, and get trained for various level positions. The hotel management education has proliferated into a series of courses offering technical certificate courses of specialized nature, diploma, basic training and degree program in hotel, catering and tourism. (Satyal 1999, 192-194. )
Hotel has close and intimate contact with its customers. Basically, it is a capital intensive business, i. e. high capital to sales ratio. Being a service-oriented industry, it places strong emphasis on the management of people taking into account different nationalities, their cultural tastes and all personal values, including education, standard of living etc. In the 10 functioning and operational stage the hotel and restaurants are required to maintain standards as per the requirement of the star classification of low-budget hotels to cater the need of the young, low-income, middle-income group and budget tourists. Satyal 1999, 192-194. ) The hotel management institutions are an attempt to give a general idea to students describing the managing of a hotel business. The approach adopted is to provide a simple and reasonably comprehensive outline of various departments of a modern hotel. This course provides a framework, within which the hotel business is studied in such depth as may be required for a specific purpose. This course is primarily based on practical knowledge. (Walker. R. John 2003) The field of hotel management is inter-disciplinary.
It draws ideas from tourism, travel, economics, psychology, accounting and finance, food technology, management, food chemistry, microbiology, physics, architecture, engineering, marketing, law etc. and from these disciplines are formulated approaches systems and analytical tools designed to make hotel a satisfying experience for people when they are away from home. (Walker 2003. ) Managing a hotel is a complex activity involving the application of a wide range of skills and a broad spectrum of knowledge to many types of business problems.
It essentially deals with employees, guests, suppliers and other trade men who have the prime human relationship through which the hotel functions. With increasing rapidity, costs of operation are continuously rising, manpower is in short supply, finance is proving difficult to secure etc. (Walker 2003. ) The scope of management in the hotel and catering industry demands expertise unlike that in most other industries, as being an integral part of the hotel industry it demands 24 – hour service throughout the year and a full range of commercial activities occurs under the same roof.
The purchase of raw materials and their subsequent preparation and processing are linked closely to the sale of finished goods. Hotel management, whether at a small, medium or large scale, must be concerned with ways to trim costs and expenses and beware of the amount of increase in prices. Basic hotel management optimizes the return on the resources of the enterprises and provides a healthy climate where hospitality can be 11 extended. It is a science of knowledge based on certain basic principles. (J. O’Fallon & Rutherford 2010. ) 4. Origin and development of the hotel industry in Nepal The history of Nepal is long in the field of hospitality management. Nepal is rich in geography as Nepal has 8 mountains which are more than 8000 meters above sea level. Nepal has lots of potential to improve in the field of hospitality management. If the situation of the country improves then there will not be any mistake if we say Nepal is the best place to enjoy the beautiful nature with a gorgeous scenario. In Nepal there are different stories in every historical period from developing from ancient times to the modern days.
Story is not just sitting in one corner and listening it, the story can be learnt through visiting different places as in Nepal it is said that “Athiti Devo Bhava” which means Guest are gods. (Chand Diwakar 2002, 57. ) The history of accommodation establishment is very old. It is one of the oldest professions in the world. Accommodation as a branch of hotel management has been known to all parts of the world since ancient times. Many references have been made in different religious books of the people of the world regarding accommodation.
Hindu epics mention accommodation in many places of India and Nepal for the shelter of tourists and pilgrims. (Shrestha Hari Prasad 2000, 80-82) Many such references are also given in the bible. The growth of all the new types of tourism dwellings such as camps, youth hostels, holiday castles and inns has appeared in the 20th century. The evolution of motels was manifest after the Second World War (Satyal, 1999,57-58). Before the unification of Nepal, many Chinese as well as Indians visited Nepal for religious purposes.
The Chinese Buddhist used to travel to Lumbini, travelling millions of miles across vast countries. Similarly, the Indians used to make journeys to pay homage to Lord Pashupati Nath, Muktinath and Barahachetra etc. on the commercial level. The lure of Nepal wool impelled the merchants from India and China to make long journeys to seek 12 rare and sought tribes and the exchange of envoys between neighboring countries were greatly appreciated in the world of that time. (Shrestha Hari Prasad 2000, 80-82) In the ancient times there was traditional lodging in the form of inns, satal, bihar which existed for the travelers.
Many references of ‘Paati’ and ‘Pauwa’ (temporary accommodation for travelers and pilgrims), are also given in the historical accounts of Nepal. In fact the growth of tourism is closely related to the hotel industry. Tourism stands as an end while the hotel industry as the means to achieve that end. (Shrestha Hari Prasad 2000, 80-82) After the unification of Nepal, in addition to Indians and Chinese, British came to Nepal for political purposes. During the reign of Prithvi Narayan Shan, the country was virtually closed for the outsiders especially for Europeans to preserve the independence and strengthen the unity. Shrestha 2000, 80-82. ) During the 104 years of the Rana regime, the growth of tourism was paralyzed since the door of Nepal was not opened for all the foreigners except for some British personalities who had to ask for permission from the government before their arrivals. Among the European visitors, British Emperor George V and Prince of Wales who came over for hunting in terai jungle were remarkable. Due to the deliberate conservative policy of Rana rulers, Nepal remained virtually isolated and unknown to the outside world. Gautam Bishnu Prasad 2008, 80-82) The Revolution of 1951 marked a new era in Nepal. The Royal Family headed a popular revolution and overthrew the autocratic family rule of the Ranas. After this political change, Nepal adopted the open door policy. The conquest of Mt. Everest by Tensing Norgay and Sir Edmund P. Hilary in 1953, the acquiring of membership in UNO in 1955 and other International Organization like International Union of Official Travel Organization (IUOTO) were some of the coronation of late kin g Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev on May 2nd. 956 many state guest and diplomats from the various parts of the globe were invited. All these events led to growth of Tourism industry in Nepal. (Gould Tony 2002) 13 The history of the development of hotels in Nepal is not so long. No doubt, Nepal since a long time in history, had established inns at different places for the benefits of traveler. But the hotels as an instrument of production or an enterprise for the production of goods and of services are of recent origin. (Gould Tony 2002) The growth of the hotel industry in Nepal began in 1955.
Mr. Lissanevitch Boris started the Royal hotel in February 1955. For the promotion of tourism in Nepal, the Government established Directorate of Tourism in 1956 under the Minister of Transport and Commerce. In 1970 “Nepal Tourism committee” was created to promote tourism in a coordinated way. In 1976, the Hotel Association of Nepal was established for arranging and organizing seminars, workshops, exhibitions and suggesting the Government of Nepal to solve the problem being faced by the hotels and the hoteliers and providing the facilities.
This association jointly works with the travel agencies to bring the coordinated plans and policies. Similarly, in 1977, the Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation was set up for the development of tourism in Nepal. (Gould 2002) 4. 2 Analysis of the interview An interview with the Managers of three five-star hotels shows different opinions. Most of the hotels are not happy to welcome trainees in their hotel but they stated that every hotel must have open doors for the trainees since it will upgrade their confidence level and personality so as to develop as professionals.
Similarly, they also said that the foreign products have more exposure, good communication and technical skills and are also forward and therefore they are slightly more preferable than local products. They have found the graduates from abroad to be more confident and articulating than Nepalese graduates. They say that Nepalese graduates, are as skillful as the graduates from abroad but they seem to lack in their confidence level. It might be due to insufficient exposure to the industry as they say that an internship of six months is not sufficient to make a graduate polished and competent.
They need further exposure. 14 Mr. Shrestha Surya Kiran states in his report “Need of Paradigm Shift in Hospitality Higher Education in Nepal” that the five star hotels of Nepal take trainee on the peak seasons. After they have accomplished hospitality management training to the trainee they are just awarded with certificates and told goodbye. Similarly, he said that these apprentices must also pay the trainees’ fees to the hotels in Nepal whereas internationally, in internship the apprentices get remuneration.
Likewise, he also stated that if there is a good liaison between the hotel industry and the institutions, then the institutions can produce qualified personnel to meet the requirement of the hotel industry. (Shrestha 2000) In regard to syllabi designed by the hospitality institutions he said that the syllabi they are using seem very conventional. Some of the institutions have focused on practical modality but only covers basic requirements of the industry and some of the institutions are trying to cover the practical portion of the syllabi by theoretical modality of teaching. (Hehir 2005. Increased demand for skilled recruits is going to continue to be a challenge in every hot el. Therefore, thinking creatively and drawing upon the resources of regional hospitality institutions can be extremely helpful in overcoming these challenges. Internship programs, for example, save not only recruitment and hiring time but also prove to have financial benefits. In addition to fulfilling temporary staffing needs, Internship placements prove to have long term return on investment by having a “readily available hiring pool” for full time positions after the student graduates.
With the current labor statistics it is too risky to wait until the last minute to recruit. (Hehir 2005) Reyelt Kelly, Assistant Director of Human Resources from The New York Palace says; Interns bring in new energy to the team. They can look at status quo situation and give recommendations on how to improve the existing system. Not only do they help with special projects but they also bring in fresh perspectives and cutting edge technology and systems into the job (2005). The hotels should always bear in mind for taking advantage of an internship program which is more than hiring for a “temporary position”.
Internship is like the basics need for the student and it is also good for the hotel because student also help fulfill immediate staffing needs; when doing an internship student should be given some challenging task and projects to solve and to analyze their talents. Doing an internship is not only for 15 knowledge the employer also had to know that their goal is also to get a permanent work.. Therefore, it is the employer’s challenge to stimulate the learning and career development of these future leaders by assigning special projects that will benefit both the intern and the hotel. (Reyelt 2005)
Reyelt Kelly recommendation would be to formalize the internship process as much as possible. The Leading Hotels of the World launched The Leading Hotel Schools of the World which is a network of internationally renowned hotel schools that provide the 430+ Leading Hotels of the World hotels with a solution to their employment needs through the placement of qualified interns and graduates. It also offers continuing education through on-site training programs and regional seminars. Since the November 2004 launch of the Internship Placement Program, over 130 students have interned in over 75 Leading Hotels around the globe. Reyelt 2005) Make the workplace fun but set the rules so that the expectations are clear. Give them the same set of goals as you would for a full time employee. Hold them accountable for a performance review at the end of their term. This generation knows exactly what they want and they have more options available to them, so it is in our best interest to keep them once we find them. By taking advantage of an Internship Placement Program, the hotel brings in team members from early stages of career development, creating its “raving fans”, learning to manage this new generation of workers.
This human investment in return, decreases turnover, increases employee morale, which positively affects guest service and satisfaction-at the end isn’t that the main objective? (Byrne 2002. ) 16 5 INTERNSHIP BY COUNTRIES Internship does not only mean working in some organization to get paid or unpaid job, it refers to gain the knowledge on a practical base. Internships are given different names and are used in many ways in different countries. Internship is always not the place where you get salary for what you work.
In different countries there are different views and ideas about internship. Some countries offer very less salary to the trainees and hire them to work to save money. In some countries internship are not so common in use. Here are some countries listed below which explain how they influence student life in a positive way and show them how to achieve goal in their future. Denmark In the research it is seen that it is not appropriate to work where student does not get any salary for their labor.
Now a days Danish universities are placing their students for free work where they can earn their work credits. The company is then compensated and the intern gets welfare during this period, which normally lasts about three months. There is a monitor who is assigned to look after the interns about their job. (Poses 2006. ) France It is so common in French universities to do internship, and student does their internship in their 3rd or final year of studies. In France internship time varies from student to student, it is usually used to be 2-6 months.
In France doing internship after study is also becoming so popular these kinds of internship are done by those students who were not been able to do their internship during their school days. (Poses 2006. ) 17 In France internship is said as stage which refers to the internship program, which is common in French Universities. An internship is most popular among foreign students because this is the way to learn language, culture, working methods etc. In France Company seeks people from different countries as it is a plus point for the companies where their workers speak multiple languages. Poses 2006. ) Germany As in other countries in world Germany has different ways of doing internship. In Germany most of the students do their internship in 4th and 5th semester. In Germany most of the students do internship regarding their thesis of the company where they are working as interns. Due to recession high unemployment has increased in Germany. Due to high unemployment students do not find the right job they are looking and especially those students who just graduated and lack work experiences. (Poses 2006. ) India In India many students from different countries comes to do internship.
In India people like to do internship to learn Indian language, to know about the culture and to know Ayurveda etc. For the Indian students in India only the few do the internship because in India more than a practical training good marks plays a vital role for pursing a goo d post. That is why company does not use internship as a recruitment method. (Poses 2006. ) Italy In Italy internship is made as a compulsory to do by all the students who are doing Bachelor and Master degree especially in technical, scientific and in economic faculties.
Internship is made compulsory in Italy to reduce the gap between the companies and new recruits. Usually internship is offered in universities which are not real work. So every student has to do their second or third internship after completing their studies. (Poses 2006. ) In Italy internship periods last for 6 to 12 months. In Italy internship can be both paid and unpaid internship. If a student is paid than the salary will be 600€ per month which is very 18 low and students has to bear housing by themselves, there won’t be any holiday, no parental leave.
This is the huge problems for the new graduates and there are few companies who hire new graduate to save money. Salary and decent remuneration is creating problems to new graduates, that are why Italian leave their parental house in their late 30’s. (Poses 2006. ) The Netherlands In The Netherland it is also common to do the internship. Here internship is as similar as French universities. In The Netherland student get internship for up to 5 months, some companies’ pays to the interns and some small companies do not pa y anything to internship.
In Netherland normal rate for the internship is 300€ per month. The rate as the students get over here is not enough which creates more pressure to student. (Poses 2006. ) Spain In Spain it is uncommon to do internship. In Spain students first finish their studies and then after being graduated they do internship to get the job as their education and talent. It is seen common in Spain that foreign students from other European countries are visiting Spain for internship and companies are showing interest to the new interns. (Poses 2006. Nowadays Spain has been a most popular destination for a student to do internship. In Spain students wants to learn Spanish because Spanish is almost the universal language spoken in European countries, America and Africa. Student gets difficult to get direct contact with companies. In Spain the most common salary for interns in 6€ /hour and which tends to be 1000€ / month. (Poses 2006. ) South Africa Cape Town in particular is becoming more popular among international students for internships, student exchange and volunteer work.
Cape Town is also popular for medical students who want to do a summer internship at for instance Groote Schuur hospital. Gaining work experience in this different environment with more pressure and different challenges is very valuable for future employees. (Poses 2006. ) 19 Most internship’s in South Africa are unpaid at present but some companies are willing to cover some of the living costs. However, a great deal of companies are not familiar to interns and do not fully know the educational or academic value it provides its students.
When this is not explained to the company, it could happen that the intern is merely seen as a cheap laborer rather than a valuable asset to the company. (Poses 2006. ) It is therefore practice by many students to pay an internship company that sorts out the agreements with the companies and arranges accommodation during their stay in for example Cape Town. However, there are also new initiatives that provide students with all the necessary information and tools to sort out their own internship in South Africa. (Poses 2006. ) United Kingdom, Canada and Australia Sandwich Placement’ it is often referred in the United Kingdom. In UK, Canada and Australia university staff give student access to vacancies and student direct apply to work. Some universities are so helpful to students that they hold fair, exhibition, and other activities to show student what university has to offer and show the path with lots of possibilities for the bright future ahead. (Poses 2006. ) It is said that the people with ‘Sandwich Placement’ has more desire and the employees also seek a lot of workers who has work experience as an interns. In these countries the purpose of the internship may be different.
Some Universities in English speaking countries are more flexible in internship as they think with the theoretical knowledge practical knowledge is also essential for better employment opportunities. Since March 2009 it was stated that there were huge problem in the job market. (Poses 2006. ) United States of America United States of America quoted as ‘land of dreams’ offers internship to their students which are more careers specific. In USA companies are happy to open and employment opportunities to new interns where they can get experience and earn money also.
Here student has the possibility to choose internship in their university as their major. Gunhus 20 Jeff, CEO for one of the largest internship programs in the U. S. said, “Undergraduates face different challenges than the average person looking for a career. (Poses 2006. ) United States of America has its own fare rule that all interns has to be paid, at least the minimum wage as the fare level standard act but still some interns are not been paid. When a student do not get paid also work as an interns because to get the class credits.
The Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division allows an employer not to pay a trainee if all of the following are true: The training, even though it includes actual operation of the facilities of the employer, is similar to what would be given in a vocational school or academic educational instruction. The training is for the benefit of the trainees. The trainees do not displace regular employees, but work under their close observation. (Poses 2006. ) The employer that provides the training derives no immediate advantage from the activities of the trainees, and on occasion the employer’s operations may actually be impeded.
The trainees are not necessarily entitled to a job at the conclusion of the training period; and the employer and the trainees understand that the trainees are not entitled to wages for the time spent in training. (Poses 2006. ) Finland Most internships in Finland involves international students as the Finnish system believes that international students bring new perspectives to business activities, make the working environment multicultural, and help businesses strengthen the internationalization of their operations.
In addition to their competence, international students also provide knowledge about the culture of their home country as well as potential contacts and partners. An exception is allowed for individuals who volunteer their time, freely and without anticipation of compensation for religious, charitable, civic, or humanitarian purposes to non-profit organizations. An exception is also allowed for work performed for a state or local government agency. 21 In Finland Universities of Applied Sciences offer internship to their student to gain knowledge of what they have studied in their classes.
Universities of Applied Sciences give access to their students in the related field as of studies to know more about working environment where they get paid as well as credit which is referred to as Tyoharjoittelu in Finnish (Work Placement). For the students of Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences, the school offers work as an internship program in the school-owned camping site Svanen/ Joutsen which is very beneficial for students. 22 6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter is concerned with research methods that have been used for this thesis.
This is the general introduction of the research method that was used and the different types of research methods that were used to complete this thesis are explained. Quantitative research method and textual analysis were used to complete this thesis where 18 different questions were prepared for quantitative research and different website, newspaper articles interviews and books were used as textual analysis methods. Research is systematic empirical investigation of social and physical search phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques on a specific topic.
A detailed fact and study is needed for the research to earn good results. In other words, research is the study of practical activities that helps to produce, technique, or develop the model and findings the problem with the help of available data and books to optimize and make endorsements, intrusions for implementations. (Kothari 2006, 5-37. ) There are different ways to describe research methods with different terms and conditions. A famous writer, Kuhn, who wrote about the quantitative research method in his book in the late 60’s stated that the result that are collected when it is tabulated in figure the result might be strange.
This is all because the data that is collected and presented might have different views on the same question. (Kuhn, 1961, 180) 6. 1 Research methods Research methods vary according to the researcher; research might take in every transaction of the day to day life. To find an exact result with the mathematical expression, the quantitative research method is used. Quantitative research can use a closed questionnaire where the person who takes part in a survey has few option s, generally four options, where they have to choose the correct answer which they find most effective. In any research method it is not obelized to ask personal questions.
In quantitative research, the researcher always has to think about different options and has to be efficient 23 and the question has to deal with the entire required elements which are helpful in the research. In quantitative research methods all the data collected are kept confidentially because while preparing the question or while doing the research using quantitative research method it is not obelized to ask name as the research may be of any thing. In this thesis the quantitative research method has been used as the main research method, because the quantitative research method has its own boundary of research.
While writing this thesis the quantitative research method has played the vital role as all the data that are presented here in the tabular form and in the figure form are taken from the mathematical solution of the data. These data are the data as given from the staff members and the trainees of three different five star hotel managers. After using this quantitative research as the thesis main source it helps a lot to get the accurate result about the people’s behavior and their potential decisions. Textual analysis can be defined in many ways.
As textual analysis is where the researcher analyses different findings from the different sources. Textual analysis can be done directly from the face-to-face interview, or through different other sources where the researcher finds the articles through different mass communication methods. Textual analysis is very useful while writing a thesis as it gives the idea about the subject matter that a researcher is going to analyses. Textual analysis is a way for researchers to gather more important information about how other human beings make sense in different ways.
Textual analysis is a method to gather data and for those researchers who want to understand data in different ways. Textual analysis is useful for every kind of researcher who is working in any field because it gives a bright vision about different findings. The secondary research method that has been used here is textual analysis method because when performing textual analysis on a text, we make an educated guess at some of the most likely interpretations that might be made about that text.
We interpret texts, films, television programs, magazines, advertisements, and other media in order to obtain a sense of the ways in which, in particular cultures at particular times, people make sense of the world around them. 24 Importantly, by seeing the variety of ways in which it is possible to interpret reality, we also understand our own cultures better because we can start to see the limitations and advantages of our own sense-making practices. While performing this thesis there are different sources that made this thesis a complete guide like people’s magazine, business age magazines, different websites etc.
When there is a textual analysis of a subject matter there has to be knowledge of different terms to express the analysis data in a proper way to gain an accurate result. 6. 2 Data presentation and Analysis In this chapter all the data that was collected from the staff and interns who were doing their internship is presented in the form of tables and graphs. All the data shown in the tables and graphs below are the result given by the staff and interns from three different five star hotels of Nepal. All the data was collected with the help of the quantitative research method. 6. 2. 1 Data presentation
The presentation and analysis of data is an important and a vital portion of a research. The justification of any thesis is done on the basis of analysis and presentation of facts. In addition, the valid conclusion and recommendation is drawn based on data analyzed and interpreted by the researcher. In this chapter, the data that has been collected from human resource personnel and staff from three five star hotels of Nepal with the quantitative research method and the survey of impact of internship on hotel operation, has been presented and analyzed. The results and findings have been presented using tables and graphs.
The opinion of the hotel management trainees regarding their internship program has also been justified. 25 6. 2. 2 Data analysis The data has been presented and analyzed data through different bar diagrams and pie charts and rational interpretations have been given to find out the actual impact of the internship towards the hotel and the views stated by the trainees about the internship period. The researcher had tried to include as many detail as possible to find out the rational of the study and tried to make it as informative as possible. 6. 2. 2. 1 Analysis of data obtained from the hotel staff
Here is the data that is presented in the form of tables and graphs. After the research all the results that were collected are presented here. Every question listed here is about hospitality management which gives the idea about the staff, interns and working environment 1. Are hotel management trainees necessary for your hotel? TABLE 1. Necessity of hotel management trainees in the hotel operation S. NO Necessity of hotel management trainee in the No. of hotel operation Respondents a Yes- because they are skilled and qualified 16 b Yes- because of understaffing problem in 8 Percentage 3% 27% peak season c No- because of overstaffing problem in the 4 13% hotel d No- because they have other problem GRAND TOTAL 2 7% 30 100% The above table 1 is the tabular representation of question no. 1 “Are Hotel Management trainees necessary for your hotel? ” where the survey was done with 30 employees from different hotels and asked the same question. The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table. 26 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes- Because they are Yes- Because of No- Because of skilled and qualified. understaffing problem in overstaffng problem in peak season. he hotel No- Because they have attitude problem. Graph 1. Necessity of Hotel Management Trainee in Hotel Operation Graph 1 shows that 53% of the hotel employees think that hotel management trainee are effective and necessary since they are skilled and qualified workforce. Similarly, 27% think that HM trainees are necessary so as to overcome the understaffing problem during peak season, 13 % think they are not necessary as already the hotel is facing an overstaffing problem, and the remaining 7% think that HM trainee have attitude problems and regard themselves as superior than others 2.
Level of help from HM trainee to the departmental staff on hotel operation during peak season? TABLE 2. Level of help from hotel management trainee S. NO Level of help from HM trainees No. of Percentage Respondents a Very Much 10 33% b Satisfactory 18 60% c Not Much 2 7% d Not at All 0 0% 30 100% GRAND TOTAL 27 The above table 2 is the tabular representation of question no. 2 “Level of support from HM trainee to the departmental staff on hotel operation during peak season? ” where 30 employees from different hotels were surveyed and asked the same question. The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table.
FIGURE 2. Level of help From HM Trainee 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Very Much Satisfactory Not Much Not at All GRAPH 2. Level of help From HM Trainee Graph 2 shows that 33% of the hotel employees think that hotel management trainees are efficient and very much supportive while working in various departments of the hotel which shows that they have a positive impact on the hotel operation. Similarly, 60% think that HM trainees show a satisfactory level of support in the hotel operation, 7 % think they are not much supportive, and no one thinks hotel management trainee are not supportive at all. . Does the hotel management trainee require the quality of basic job knowledge? TABLE 3: Basic knowledge possessed by HM trainee S. NO Basic knowledge required from HM No. of Percentage trainee Respondents a Not Adequate 0 0% b Adequate 22 73% c More than Adequate 6 20% d Exceptional 2 7% 30 100% GRAND TOTAL 28 The above table 3 is the tabular representation of question no. 3 “Does the hotel management trainee possess basic job knowledge? ” where 30 employees from different hotels were surveyed the same question. The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table. 0% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Not Adequate Adequate More than Adequate Exceptional GRAPH 3. Basic Knowledge required by HM Trainee Graph 3 shows that 7% of the hotel employees think that hotel management trainee possess high quality or exceptional job knowledge. Similarly, 20% think that HM trainee possess more than adequate job knowledge, 73 % think they possess adequate job knowledge required to work in the field, and no one thinks HM trainee possess not adequate job knowledge. 4. Does the hotel management trainee possess basic job skill? TABLE 4.
Basic job skill possessed by HM trainees S. NO Basic job skill possessed by HM No. of Percentage trainee Respondents a Not Adequate 0 0% b Adequate 21 70% c More than Adequate 7 23% d Exceptional 2 7% 30 100% GRAND TOTAL 29 The above table 4 is the tabular representation of question no. 4 “Does the HM trainee possess basic job skill? ” where 30 employees from different hotels were surveyed and asked the same question. The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table. 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Not Adequate Adequate More than Adequate Exceptional GRAPH 4.
Basic job skills possessed by HM Trainee Graph 4 shows that 7% of the hotel employees think that HM trainee possess high quality or exceptional job skills. Similarly, 23% think that HM trainees possess more than adequate job skills, 70 % think they possess adequate job skills required to work in the field, and no one thinks HM trainees possess not adequate job skill. 5. Does the hotel management trainee possess basic job attitude? TABLE 5: Basic job attitude shown by HM trainee S. NO Basic job attitude shown by HM No. of Percentage trainee Respondents a Not Adequate 5 17% b Adequate 5 50% c More than Adequate 6 20% d Exceptional 4 13% 30 100% GRAND TOTAL 30 The above table 5 is the tabular representation of question no. 5 “Does the HM trainee possess basic job attitude? ” where 30 employees from different hotels were surveyed and asked the same question. The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table. 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Not Adequate Adequate More than Adequate Exceptional GRAPH 5. Basic Job Attitude shown by HM Trainee Graph 5 shows that 13% of the hotel employees think that HM trainees show a high quality or exceptional job attitude.
Similarly, 20% think that HM trainees show more than an adequate job attitude and character, 50 % think they show an adequate job attitude required working in the field, and the remaining 17% thinks HM trainees do not show an adequate job attitude at all. 6. Providing training to hotel management trainee? TABLE 6. Providing training to HM trainees S. NO Providing training to HM trainees No. of Percentage Respondents a Very Hard 0 0% b Much Hard 0 0% c Not Much Hard 20 67% d Not at All 10 33% 30 100% GRAND TOTAL 31 The above table 6 is the tabular representation of question no. “Providing training to HM trainee? ” where 30 employees from different hotels were surveyed and asked the same question. The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table. 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Very Hard Much Hard Not Much Hard Not at All GRAPH 6. Providing Training to HM Trainee Graph 6 shows that 33% of the hotel employees think that providing training to the HM trainees is not hard at all. Similarly, 67% think that providing training to the HM trainees is not much hard, no one thinks that it is quite hard to train the HM trainee and no one finds it very hard to train HM rainees. 7. Stability and confidence level of hotel management trainee during work? TABLE 7. Stability and confidence level of HM trainees S. NO Stability and confidence level of HM No. of Percentage trainees Respondents a Unconcerned 0 0% b Moderately Concerned 10 33% c Reasonably Concerned 15 50% d Very Much Concerned 5 17% 30 100% GRAND TOTAL The above Table 7 is the tabular representation of question no. 7 “Stability and confidence level of HM trainee during work? ” where 30 employees from different hotels were 32 surveyed and asked the same question.
The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table. 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Unconcerned Moderately Concerned Reasonably Concerned Very Much Concerned GRAPH 7. Stability and confidence level oh HM trainees Graph 7 shows that 17% of the hotel employees think that HM trainees are very much concerned with the hotel operation and show high level of confidence during work. Similarly, 50% think that HM trainees are reasonably concerned, 33 % think they are moderately concerned and no one thinks that they are unconcerned and lack confidence towards them. . Overall contribution of hotel management trainee in Hotel operation? TABLE 8. Overall contribution of HM trainees S. NO Overall contribution of HM trainees No. of Percentage Respondents a Very Good 4 13% b Good 16 53% c Satisfactory 10 34% d Not at All 0 0% 30 100% GRAND TOTAL The above table 8 is the tabular representation of question no. 8 “Overall contribution of HM trainee in Hotel operation? ” where 30 employees from different hotels were surveyed 33 and asked the same question. The data collected for the survey are tabulated in the above table. 0% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Very Good Good Satisfactory Not at All GRAPH 8. Overall Contribution of HM Trainee Graph 8 shows that 13% of the hotel employees think that the overall level of contribution by HM trainees is very good towards the hotel during their internship, similarly, 53% think that the contribution level of HM trainees is good, 34 % think that the level of contribution is satisfactory, and no one is found unsatisfied with the contribution made by HM trainees during their internship period. . Extra cost for trainee regarding provision of food, pickup/ drop out and other facilities? TABLE 9. Extra costs for trainees regarding the facilities provided by hotel S. NO Extra costs for trainees regarding the No. of Percentage facilities provided by the hotel Respondents a High 0 0% b Reasonable 7 23% c Not Much 10 33% d Not at All