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Training Evaluation and the Transfer of Training

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    After companies determine through their HR departments that their employees need training to strengthen or acquire certain knowledge, attitudes and skills inherent in the successful development of a particular job, the next step would be to determine what type of training is better suited to the needs of the company. In addition, they should determine where, when and under what conditions they should be conducted. However, more frequently managers and supervisors are the first hurdles that a company must overcome for healthy training implementation.

    Many managers and supervisors consider training as something that should be implemented within the organization because of superiors’ mandate, but in which they do not have any expectations about possible outcomes or achievements, or simply because they perceive it as a threat. From this explanation, can deduce that if training process is unnecessary, much more the evaluation process. If there is no added value in training, there will be not reason of evaluation.

    This research analyzes some important journal articles showing the results of the investigations carried out in certain colleges, whose objective was to determine the possible relationship between employee attitudes and levels of effectiveness of training. The research results suggest that training effectiveness can be determined by evaluating the formation and implementation of a system to consistently evaluate the results of the training and how that transfer of training is implemented in workplaces.

    Both the evaluation of training and how that training is transferred to the workplace are strategic because they allow determining the benefits that organization which covers the costs, gets from the training. Keywords: training, evaluation of training, transfer of training, training effectiveness Training Evaluation and the Transfer of Training Job analysis is a summary of a job’s tasks and the knowledge, skills and abilities required for a suitable performance.

    Companies, through their human resources departments, carry out the process of selecting candidates, seeking candidates who best meet the requirements of the job. With this selection carefully and detailed, companies seek to optimize the goods and services they offer, which makes the process of selection of employees of vital importance. The human resources department evaluates the performance and quality of employees and often detects problems caused by lack of training. They must then determine what type of training would be the best solution to the deficiencies of either employees or the organization.

    These training processes are designed to improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills of employees, trying to make a difference in their overall performance, or to solve problems related to organizational objectives, operational, administrative or planning. The goal is to improve the performance of employees in general, seeking to create a positive impact on public taste and achieve greater productivity. There are many methods used by companies to train their staff. Among the most used include training in the same workplace, conferences, classroom training, distance learning, closet-circuit television, among others.

    The purpose of this research is to determine how to carry out the evaluation of the training and how it does the transfer of training to the workplace. The purpose of the training is to develop employees KSAs, therefore it is healthy that employees know they can make a career in the business and have a desire to do so. The training evaluation seeks to determine the effectiveness of training and its impact on the development of company’s human capital. By evaluating training companies get feedback that makes it possible to determine whether the training was well designed and executed, and to determine whether the objectives have been achieved.

    If so, it have had benefit to the organization that is what has made ??the investment. It is this systematic evaluation process that determines the impact that training has on employees and how much of this formation results in any changes that benefit the organization through its implementation in the workplace. That is the reason why the evaluation of training is the instrument through which we can validate, correct, and improve the training processes, as well as help the transfer of training to the workplace.

    The impact that training has on employees who have been exposed to it has a positive effect on organizations, since the objective is to enable them to effectively transfer and apply the new skills on the job. There is a direct relationship between the frequency of training evaluation and transfer of training to the workplace. The assessment determines where the weaknesses are and tries to produce answers to correct these deficiencies and achieve greater efficiency in the provision of training.

    At this stage, feedback, positive or negative, is an important piece because it helps determine whether the training has been effective and helps identify and define the corrective actions necessary to achieve the desired results. There is a constant: a higher frequency of training evaluation, a greater transfer of training. Among the conditions for the transfer of training to the workplace include the implementation of learning and the continuation of training followed by periodic assessments that will determine until when it is necessary to reinforce the new skills learned.

    According to the Cambridge Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, “attitude is a feeling or opinion about something or someone, or a way of behaving that is caused by this. ” The attitude of students affects the effectiveness of learning. The attitude depends largely on the motivation. When people are motivated, their attitudes, interests and expectations, predispose them to perform effectively. By that means, the acquisition and transfer of knowledge and skills that are necessary for the optimization of their work become easier.

    Noe (1986) suggests that if we have an understanding of how to improve the probability of participation in the training program it will lead to behavior change and performance improvement, it is important to identify specific individual characteristics that affect the effectiveness training. In this regard he notes that the attitudes of the participants and how they will see themselves in relation to their work determines the effectiveness of training. Training Evaluation Criteria While it is important to assess the effectiveness of training, it first requires that we determine the means used to carry out the evaluation.

    The evaluation model is used most is Kirkpatrick’s four levels of training evaluation. This model comprises four levels of evaluation of the effectiveness of the training, namely: evaluation of employees’ reactions to the training, employees’ perceptions of learning environment, and employees’ perspectives of the transfer of learning into the workplace or behavior change, and employees’ perceived training outcome. The reactions of employees to training are the most used method to determine the success of the training, even though many criticize its effectiveness.

    By this method it is possible to determine the level of satisfaction of the participants with regard to the content and implementation of the training program. Training reaction questionnaires measure trainees’ perceptions and attitudes about training. There are two types of questionnaires: affective questionnaire reaction and utility questionnaire reactions. The affective questionnaire measures the emotional reaction of the general feeling about training participants. The utility questionnaires reflect the beliefs of apprentices on the value of training.

    Some important categories to consider in the development of reaction questionnaires are: relevance of training, training content, materials, exercises, behavior trainers, and facilities where training develops. “A caution is in order regarding reaction questionnaires sent out to trainees sometime after training asking them about the amount of transfer of training that has occurred on the job. They tend to indicate that transfer has occurred when other measures suggest it did not “(Blanchard 336). “The learning criteria measure the learning outcomes of the training, they are not measures of job performance.

    They are usually develop through performance testing, using paper and pencil. According to Tannenbaum and Yukl (1992),” the apprentice learning seems to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for behavior change “(p. 425). The person analysis serves as the pre training measure of the person’s KSAs. These results can be compared with post training to measure to determine whether learning has occurred and whether those changes can be attributed to training (Blanchard 337). After determining the effectiveness of learning, we proceed to determine whether the transfer of knowledge to job is operating effectively.

    In order to determine and identify the effects of training on job performance, commonly it is used performance criteria which are measures of actual performance in the workplace (Winfred). The need for evaluation at this stage of the process is crucial. The difficulties presented by these measurements due to their complexity, are generally ignored. The behavior in the workplace can be assessed by using interviews, questionnaires, and direct observation of performance log file. The reasons why many people use the questionnaires are, among others: • The views can be obtained about the specific behaviors of a large number of employees. Information can be tabulated to give a numerical answer. • Respondents are anonymous, making it more likely to be honest. • Time to get data is relatively short “(341). Employees’ perceived training outcome or results criteria “are the most distal and macro criteria used to evaluate the effectiveness of training. Results criteria are frequently operationalized by using utility analysis estimates (Cascio, 1991, 1998). Utility analysis provides a methodology to assess the dollar value gained by engaging in specified personnel interventions including training (Arthur 235).

    Conclusion In conclusion, this research has pointed out the importance of employees’ attitudes in the training effectiveness and its impact in the transfer of training. We identified what we considered are the components of a trilogy in the process of training evaluation and the transfer of training. Our results suggest that there is a direct relationship between training, training evaluation, and the training evaluation criteria implemented, to measure and help the transfer of training within the workplace.

    References

    Arthur, W. Jr. 2003) Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features. Journal of Applied Psychology. Retrieved from http://psycnet. apa. org/journals/apl/88/2/234/ Blanchard, N. & Thacker, J. W. (2010). Effective training systems, strategies, and practices. 4th Edition. Prentice Hall Cambridge Advanced Learners’ Dictionary. 2008. Cambridge University Press. Cascio, W. (1992) Applied psychology in personnel management, (Englewood-Cliffs, N): Prentice-Hall Kirkpatrick, D. (1967). ‘Evaluation of training’ in Training Evaluation Handbook. R. Craig and L.

    Bittel (eds). New York: McGraw-Hill. Noe, R. A. (1986). ‘Trainees’ attributes and attitudes: neglected influences on training effectiveness’. Academy of Management Review, 11: 4, 736-749. Noe, R. A. , Holenbeck, J. R. , Gerhart, B. & Wright, P. M. (2011). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, Publisher. Tannenbaum, S. I. , Mathieu, J. E. , Salas, E. , & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1991). Meeting trainees’ expectations: The influence of training fulfillment on the development of commitment, self-efficacy, and motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 759–769.

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