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Translate the Following Sentences Into a Standard Form Claim

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Translate the following sentences into a standard form claim. Make sure that each answer follows the exact form of an A, E, I, or O claim and that each term you use is a noun or noun phrase that refers to a class of things. Remember that youre trying to produce a claim thats equivalent to the one given; it doesnt matter whether the given claim is actually true or not. Ive supplied the answers to numbers 1, 10, 15 and 21 as examples.

1. Every salamander is a lizard.

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All salamanders are lizards (A claim)

2. Not every lizard is a salamander.

Some lizards are not salamanders (O claim)

3. Only reptiles can be lizards.

No creatures other than reptiles are creatures that can be lizards. (E claim)

4. Snakes are the only members of the suborder Ophidia.

No creatures other than snakes are members of the suborder Ophidia. (E claim)

5. The only members of the suborder Ophidia are snakes.

All members of the suborder Ophidia are snakes. (A claim)

6. None of the burrowing snakes are poisonous.

No burrowing snakes are snakes that are poisonous. (E claim)

7. Anything thats an alligator is a reptile.

All alligators are reptiles. (A claim)

8. Anything that qualifies as a frog qualifies as an amphibian.

All frogs are amphibians. (A claim)

9. There are frogs wherever there are snakes.

All places there are frogs are places there are snakes. (A claim)

10. Wherever there are snakes, there are frogs.

All places there are snakes are places there are frogs. (A claim)

11. Whenever the frog population decreases, the snake population decreases.

All times when the frog population decreases are times when the snake population decreases. (A claim)

12. Nobody arrived except the cheerleaders.

All the people that arrived are people that were cheerleaders. (A claim)

13. Except for vice presidents, noboby got raises.

No employees other than vice presidents are employees who got raises. (E claim)

14. Unless people arrived early, they couldnt get seats.

Some people who did not arrive early are not the ones who got seats. (O claim)

15. Most home movies are as boring as dirt.

Some home movies are things that are as boring as dirt. (I claim)

16. Socrates is a Greek.

No countries other than Greece are countries where Socrates was born. (E claim)

17. The bank robber is not Jane’s fiance.

No fiances of Jane are bank robbers. (E claim)

18. If an automobile was built before 1950, its an antique.

All automobiles that were built before 1950 are an antique. (A claim)

19. Salt is a meat preservative.

Some salts are things used as a meat preservative. (I claim)

20. Most corn does not make good popcorn.

Some corns are things that make good popcorn. (I claim)

21. Students who wrote poor exams didnt get admitted to the program.

No students who wrote poor exams are students who were admitted to the program. (E claim)

22. None of my students are failing.

No students that are my students are failing. (E claim)

23. If you live in the dorms, you cant own a car.

No students living in the dorms are students that own a car. (E claim)

24. There are a few right-handed first basemen.

Some first basemen are people that right-handed. (I claim)

25. People make faces every time Joan sings.

All times when Joan sings are times when people make faces. (A claim)

Instructions

Translate the following into standard-form claims, and determine the three corresponding standard-form claims. Then assuming the truth value in parantheses for the given claim, determine the truth values of as many of the other three as you can. (Hint: use the square of opposition for determining the truth values. Number 1 has been done for you.)

1. Most snakes are harmless. (True)

Translation: Some snakes are harmless creatures. (True) I-claim

Corresponding A-claim: All snakes are harmless creatures. (Undetermined)

Corresponding E-claim: No snakes are harmless (False)

Corresponding O-claim: Some snakes are not harmless creatures. (Undetermined)

Using the square of opposition, a true I-claim means that our corresponding E-claim must be false because I-claims and E-claims have opposite truth values. However our A-claim and O-claim are undetermined truth values because all we know is that both an I-claim and an O-claim cannot both be false, but they can both be true or one true and one false.

2. Not all anniversaries are happy occasions. (True)

Translation: Some anniversaries are not happy occasions. (True) O-claim

Corresponding A-claim: All anniversaries are happy occasions. (False)

Corresponding E-claim: No anniversaries are happy occasions (Undetermined)

Corresponding I-claim: Some anniversaries are happy occasions. (Undetermined)

3. There’s no such thing as a completely harmless drug. (True)

Translation: No drugs are are completely harmless. (True) E-claim

Corresponding A-claim: All drugs are completely harmless. (Undetermined)

Corresponding I-claim: Some drugs are completely harmless (False)

Corresponding O-claim: Some drugs are not completely harmless. (Undetermined)

4. Woodpeckers sing really well. (False)

Translation: All woodpeckers are birds that sing really well. (False) A-claim

Corresponding E-claim: No woodpeckers are birds that sing really well. (Undetermined)

Corresponding I-claim: Some woodpeckers are birds that sing really well (Undetermined)

Corresponding O-claim: Some woodpeckers are not birds that sing really well. (True)

5. Mockingbirds can’t sing. (False)

Translation: No mockingbirds are birds that can sing. (False) E-claim

Corresponding A-claim: All mockingbirds are birds that can sing. (Undetermined)

Corresponding I-claim: Some mockingbirds are birds that can sing (True)

Corresponding O-claim: Some mockingbirds are not birds that can sing. (Undetermined)

Find the claim described, and determine whether it is equivalent to the claim you began with. (Hint: When determining equivalence remember that conversion and contraposition can only be performed on certain types of claims or they are not equivalent.)

6. Find the contrapositive of “No Sunnis are Christians.” (E-claim)

Contrapositive: No non-Christians are non-Sunnis (Not equivalent)

7. Find the obverse of “Some Arabs are Christians.” (I-claim)

Obverse: Some Arabs are not non-Christians (Equivalent)

8. Find the obverse of “All Sunnis are Muslims.” (A-claim)

Obverse: All Sunnis are not non-Muslims (Equivalent)

9. Find the converse of “Some Kurds are not Christians.” (O-claim)

Converse: Some Christians are not Kurds (Not Equivalent)

10. Find the converse of “No Hindus are Muslims.” (E-claim)

Converse: No Muslims are Hindus (Equivalent)

11. Find the contrapositive of “Some Indians are not Hindus.” (O-claim)

Contrapositive: Some non-Hindus are not non-Indians. (Not Equivalent)

 

Cite this Translate the Following Sentences Into a Standard Form Claim

Translate the Following Sentences Into a Standard Form Claim. (2016, Sep 29). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/translate-the-following-sentences-into-a-standard-form-claim/

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