# Transmission Lines Essay - Part 2

Transmission lines with different phase shifts support the flow of voltage and current with respective amplitudes varying in respect to their position along the line - Transmission Lines Essay introduction. Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) a ratio between maximum and minimum voltage along transmission line determines the properties of transmission line. The ratio is usually 1: 1 and this means that measurements are the same at any given point of transmission line (Gibilisco Stan, 2005). The flow of voltage leads to creation of voltage waves reflected in the transmission line and this happens because of source wave and reflected waves.

Major properties of transmission line that are measured by use of standing wave ratio include line equivalent circuit, impedance matching, return loss, crosstalk and longitudinal balance. Impedance matching determines degree of reflection and for this to happen, transmission lines impedance and antenna should match. This is a very critical measurement step as it leads to maximization of energy and signals transfer from line to antenna. Standing Wave Ratio is stated at impedance of 50 ohms as most wireless systems operate at this range.

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In addition, antennas are designed in a manner that matches the impedance. High voltage standing wave ratio is dangerous to antenna, transmission line and other electronic gadgets. Standing Wave Ratio determines amplitude and phase angle of input impedance, length of line and characteristic impedance (Zwislocki Jozef, 2002). At a small ratio, input impedance is usually resistive and as mentioned above high input impedance is very reactive. These impedances are represented by series circuits that consist of resistance and capacitors or coil. Transmission lines are subject to loss due to certain factors such as conductor resistance responsible for flow of more or less electrons. In other instances, the loss of voltage is attributed to poor insulating materials that consume some power.

References:

Gibilisco Stan, 2005, Electronics Demystified, McGraw-Hill.

Zwislocki Jozef, 2002, Auditory Sound Transmission: An Autobiographical Perspective, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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