Formal teams have a clear membership and a defined structure, as well as the goals they have – in place are systems to ensure those goals are reached. Formal teams may have been created by senior management to solve a particular problem so are all picked for a specific purpose, E. g. a multi-agency safer city partnership team who work together across a variety of organisations to combat anti-social behaviour on government behalf. Informal teams are much more flexible, individuals can move in and out of the team as and when they are needed.
Goals may be less defined but the nature of informal – allows for innovative and new ideas. Small types of team will consist of few members which will probably have smaller tasks to complete – much easier to communicate and get on in smaller groups, and less confusion when it comes to assigning tasks and roles. Large groups are quite the opposite to small teams, as they may have a bigger task to complete and therefore have more team members, this is a benefit as more work will get done with more people on the job, however there may some confusion, and there may be more conflict with the more people there are in the team.
Temporary teams are only together for a short period of time to carry out a task and leave when the objective/goals are achieved. It can be difficult as they won’t know each other long they may not come to terms with each member’s strengths and weaknesses; however they can be good at troubleshooting as things can be seen differently with different views and opinions. Project teams are much like temporary team; they are only together for a specific time to complete a specific task/project.
These types of teams are usually made up of specialists in specific areas – and a project manager will be in place to ensure the project runs to plan. A project in the fire service could be that all the primary schools in a certain region have a visit from a fire safety team about the dangers of fire. Permanent teams are most common in the public services, many hours and shifts, watches and the same members can be kept in regiments for years at a time. These are considered the stronger teams, as they all know each other’s strengths and weaknesses and therefore can assign the better suited team member with the task.
However these types of teams will be set in their ways, new ideas aren’t considered. Types of team in the public services Divisional team is a team that is grouped together according to their standing, skill, age or weight – with the idea they will work better as a team. Departmental teams are teams that all work together regularly in the same area of work completing similar tasks together, such as provides other members support and promote continuous improvement.
Sectional teams are split into sections; each section is responsible for a different task, or area of work. Geographical teams in the public services are responsible for ensuring all maps and travel information is correct, if there is wrong turn, this could affect the department’s response times and could risk lives. Multidisciplinary teams consist of staff from several different professional backgrounds who have different areas of expertise. These teams are able to respond to clients who require the help of more than one kind of professional.
Multidisciplinary teams are often discussed in the same context as joint working, interagency work and partnership working. Regiment is a military unit of ground troops, which work in a team, however have a direct leader, the colonel. Brigade is a body of troops, whether cavalry, artillery, infantry, or mixed, consisting of two or more regiments, under the command of a brigadier general – e. g. fire brigade. Force is a term often used in the police – it is a group of police officers, referred to as the police force.
For example people may speak about contacting the local police force. Multi-agency teams require different members from agencies to work together for the needs of an objective or task – for example, people from social services work with people within the emergency service and police services. Specialist teams are made up of people who specialise in a particular area – for example, forensics specialise in a science about the body, in the public services this can help in murder cases especially.
Search and rescue teams includes general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, typically determined by the type of terrain the search is conducted over. These include Mountain rescue; ground search and rescue, including the use of search and rescue dogs; urban search and rescue in cities; combat search and rescue on the battlefield and air-sea rescue over water. Project teams is a team whose members usually belong to different groups, functions and are assigned to activities for the same project. A team can be divided into sub-teams according to need.
Usually project teams are only used for a defined period of time. They are disbanded after the project is deemed complete. Due to the nature of the specific formation and disbandment, project teams are usually in organizations. Emergency services are all organisation, individually as each organisation they work as a team to complete task, such as police work together to solve the crimes and carry out investigations such as drug raids, and fire departments work as a team to put out a fire – however in many circumstances all the emergency services must work together.
For example in the case of a fire, fire-fighters will be called to put the fire out, police may be called to find out the cause of the fire, with help from the fire departments, and any injured people will be cared for by ambulances and paramedics, after fire fighters have taken them to safety. Types of teamwork activities Paper-Based Disaster is a paper based teamwork scenario – and there are 2 main kinds: Seminar is a discussion based exercise which is designed to explain and outline to different agencies exactly what their roles and responsibilities are in a major incident.
This can be done in small groups, or a large team – services attending can then break it down to smaller groups or pass the information along. Table top is very similar to a seminar but it usually involves smaller teams. Public services and any other agency talk about their roles and responsibilities of a major incident in the order they would occur if the incident was actually taking place. It is usually conducted at a conference table.
This acts as a practise, and test plans for a major incident. Logistics is the process of managing and tracking raw materials, a very common example in the public services, is the movement of the troops and equipment in the armed forces, this can be very dangerous and time critical and often requires a logistics expert to a plan it out prior to the actual move, to give the quickest, safest and most time effective way – it is usually done on computer these days.
Activity Based Physical training is a very good way to promote teamwork, and uses sports such as football, basketball and rugby to encourage people to work in teams to achieve a goal – in these cases winning the match. This is good and improves and encourages everyone, even those who are less physically able – as they have the chance to improve themselves for the better. Teambuilding can be any activity that brings people together to complete something.
Military/emergency exercises test a small part of the major incident plan – it is very realistic and uses fake casualties and media response, to give a real feel for the environment which may occur, and gives teams opportunity to prepare for what could be and get to grips with what they will have to do in that type of situation. Work Related Achieving Objectives is one of the main goals for teams in a workplace, usually set by the organisation, they could be things such as reducing patient waiting times, 999 response times, reducing crime in a particular area.
Planning & Achieving a Project are common in the workplace and require initiative and planning. Teams are responsible in developing a strategy to achieve objectives, and monitoring its process. Benefits of a team:- Contribution to organisational productivity and effectiveness| Contribution to organisational productivity and effectiveness is a vital part of making an organisation flexible and ready for new challenges and needs of its customers.
The public services have a potential of 60 million customers – and everyone is different, so each public service must be able to cater for each of their needs. | Reduction of alienation| Reduction of alienation is where people feel they are not needed, as people like to be needed as part of a team or in a group, such as sports, churches, pressure groups and hobby groups. Teams allow people to feel like they belong and have a purpose. | Fostering innovation| Fostering innovation is about new ideas and new Reponses and approaches to problems both old and new.
Teams are a very good opportunity to foster innovation as each person has their own opinion, and can express this to the group. | Sharing expertise| Sharing expertise is also best done in a team, as everyone is different everyone has different experiences, whether it is in work or in general life, each person can share their expertise this can help educate other team members on what to do in similar situations also it gives the team experience on how to identify possible problems early on. Implementing change| Implementing change is a role of the public services, as they change regularly with the change of policies and society – a role of the teams in the public services is to move the change forward and this is driven by the leaders knowledge and understanding of why the changes must take place for the better. | Identification and development and talent| Identification and development of talent is all about team performance, and this is judged on the skills of the team members.
It is very important to identify early on strengths and weaknesses of people within the team, so they can be assigned to tasks which best suit them – for example a new police recruit may be identified as being very good at dealing with difficult situations therefore the senior officer may ensure they get the correct training to develop those skills further. | Belbin| Belbin is a researcher that noticed something which occurred in teams that was termed Apollo Syndrome.
This is a trend which sees teams of talented and clever individuals under-perform against teams of ordinary individuals, once Belbin looked at this in more detail, he discovered that Apollo team members often undermined each other, thinking there ideas were the better ones, essentially working as individuals, rather than working together and becoming a united front. Belbin then went and created his own theory of what stands for the best teamwork, in which he named the roles in a team – to which make that team effective. | Roles in Teams Leader
A leader is someone who controls and oversees every aspect of a team and the task they are set, a leader will guide the team, giving clear instructions of what to do and when to do it. Leadership leads to team cohesion, because in many cases in the public services, it required and common that there is a clear rank of hierarchy and there is someone in charge so many team members rely on the prospect of being told what they must do. A leader can delegate jobs to those who he/she feels are best suited to complete them the best, this helps the team work together, with each task being completed well by each team member.
The police force have a direct leader in certain circumstances such as a drugs raid, this is massive responsibility and a very important procedure. Some team member will not be confident enough and the task is too sensitive for anyone but the leader to take control and tell team members what needs doing and when, the leader will have much more experience in these kinds of situations and will know what works best. Expert An expert is someone who will specialise in a particular area and will know everything to do with that area.
The role of an expert is very important in relevance with the team working together coherently. For example in the army, if there is a bomb alert, although the soldiers themselves are trained and qualified, they are not trained to handle and dispose of bombs, a special bomb squad will be called in to dispose of the bomb safely and effectively. Without this part of the team, there could have been serious implications, therefore in this scenario it’s important that all team members work together to complete a task well. Team Player Team players are member of the team that complete the task, usually under instructions.
Each team player will have a specific role within the team, and as a team player it’s important they complete their tasks so that all teamwork comes together effectively. Within the public services each team player is very important, for example the ambulance and emergency services, each person must complete their task in order to get people to safety for example right from 999 being called, the ambulance must be straight to the scene of an accident after being informed, and paramedics must be ready in the back of an ambulance to complete any emergency procedures based on the seriousness of any injuries.
Once the ambulance reaches the hospital doctors and nurses must be at hand immediately to treat the casualty, timing is a big thing in this circumstance and can be the difference between life and death, therefore each team player, must remember they are in a team, and conform ensuring they are on time, so each step of the process and task can be carried out to achieve a successful procedure. Belbin
Belbin had a theory that each individual played a specific role in part of the team, and any weaknesses within these roles, could produce a failure within the whole team. Belbin described teams as: ‘A team is not a bunch of people with job titles, but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a role which is understood by other members. Members of a team seek out certain roles and they perform most effectively in the ones that are most natural to them. Belbin believed that team roles would help identify team members strengths and weaknesses in the workplace, which can then be used to aid recruitment process ensuring necessary candidates are successful in getting their job, build productive working relationships therefore knowing who works well with who to ensure a job is done well, raise self-awareness and personal effectiveness as people can continue to improve and grow at their own strengths, and build mutual trust and understanding.
Belbin believed that it wasn’t personality which aided individuals to work part as a team but how they behaved and contributed towards other members of the team. Belbin identified 9 team roles which should be carried out to make a strong and successful team – and enabling individuals to assess their own weaknesses and strengths. The 9 team roles are: * Plant – are usually individuals ‘planted’ into a team, however are usually creative and good at solving problems. * Monitor Evaluator – also known as the logical eye, weighs up teams judgements and options. * Co-ordinators – Delegate work appropriately and focus on the teams objectives. Resource Investigator – Provide inside knowledge of the opposition, and ensure that concepts and ideas would carry into the world outside of the team. * Implementers – carry out a planned work strategy efficiently. * Completer Finisher – scrutinises the work and polishes up – so that improvements can be made and everything has gone to plan and has been done well, almost like a double check. * Team workers – help the team gel and identify work to be done and complete it on behalf of the team.
* Shaper – challenges individuals in the team, ensuring they don’t lose focus and keep motivated. Specialist – will specialise and carry expertise in a particular area so that the task is done correctly using the right information. Each team role contributes to balance, which was what Belbin found, that each key team role is needed in order to make teamwork effective and successful. Which is logical, as for example without plants in the team, there will be lack of creativity and it may become increasingly harder to reach conclusions in debates and overcome problems, without a monitor evaluator a team may not recognise a poor judgement, without co-ordinators jobs may be delegated to the people not best suited.
Also, without team workers, certain jobs may be left late or undone, and without shapers, team members may lose focus and lack the drive to complete tasks, and without a specialist the team may not have all the necessary information, or even the wrong information. Honey Honey had the same idea and his theory is very similar in the way that each team role is needed to work as a team, however instead of the 9 roles in Belibins theory Honey has limited it to 5. Which are as follows? * The Leader – makes sure the team have clear objectives and that everyone is motivated and focused. The Challenger – who questions effectiveness and presses for improvement and results. * The Thinker – who produces carefully considered ideas and weighs up and improves ideas From others.
* The Doer – who urges the team to get on with the job in hand and does practical tasks. * The Supporter- who eases tension and maintains team harmony. P7 Team Development Each theorist has identified different roles within a team, which will make that team work much better and achieve more. Teambuilding is very important, as processes in teambuilding, help make the team much more successful.
Recruitment is the beginning of the process at which all the right candidates must be recruited, the best qualified, or best believed to conduct activities well should be employed, therefore they will get a job done well – if it’s in team work, people recruiting should aim to pick a candidate who is different and may offer some different experience to the team. Induction is the next process from recruitment, as this is when new employees will get their first feel for their new job, and gains an understanding of what their job role fully entails and what is expected of them.
This process is very important in the public services, as there is usually a probation period or long terms of training. Motivation of a team is very important, if they receive praise for what they are doing ad understand they are doing well, this encourages them to carry on. Training/Coaching are key aspects in any job role, as people must know how to get a job done and in the correct way. In Public services this is very important as there are also many policies and safeguards in place there is no room for mistakes – therefore extensive training must be undergone beforehand to decrease the chance of any slip-ups.
Mentoring is offered in most organisations, where an experienced colleague is on hand for advice to other employees, it is never a manager as there may be conflict in interest. A mentor offers support for individuals, with things they may be struggling with and ways to help them achieve work goals. Team Knowledge is about understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each member of your team – this means that each person will be given the tasks which they will perform the best in. Tuckman is a theorist who has a theory on team development.
He made a model of team development in 1965 – it shows how teams develop from the very start to end in 5 stages. 1. Forming – this is the stage where the team will be meeting for the first time – they will be very dependent on the leader and look to them for guidance and support. 2. Storming – this can be a very turbulent stage, individuals may be struggling for position and power within the team, relationships are beginning to form between team members both good and bad, the team must be very goal focused and not become distracted at this stage. 3. Norming – this is a much calmer stage.
There is usually agreement of what is to be done and clear roles and responsibilities for team members are established, and commitment is growing. 4. Performing – is a crucial team of team development and is when the team will be working really well together. The team is able to work positively to achieve its goals. 5. Adjourning – this is often not seen as the main theory however this is the process where after the project has finished team members begin to miss that team as they move to new projects as they have made strong bonds and began to work well together.
Weaknesses are a barrier to a team successful performance, and may affect the rest of the team. Some are easy to rectify and others are much harder. Awareness of team member’s strengths This is very important for team development, as to help the team do well and succeed each task and job done must be completed well, being aware of team member’s strengths helps delegate tasks well, ensuring that the person chosen to complete a task is the best person for the job. Being aware of someone completing a job and completing it well, is also good as recognising someone’s good work, this in turn will help motivate them.
Supporting Team Members All members of the team are responsible for either the success or the failure of the team, in order for the team to develop well, it’s important that they are on hand to help each other, some team members may be struggling – therefore its good for other team members to help, that way success will be achieved. Team Performance Performance indicators are a set of figures which measure the extent to which performance and targets are being met.
Indicators in the public services include things such as, customer satisfaction ratings, emergency response times, crime statistics and measurement against the performance of other similar services. An example of how performance indicators are used is within the police force – A police team their performance indicators may be the reduction of incidents of anti-social behaviour by 10% in a 6 month period. Also notice the targets are SMART targets, Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-related.
Target setting is important for teams to achieve their goals if they set themselves targets it’s much easier for the team to follow and eventually reach success. In the public service, many of these are set by the departments; however all work in to achieve aims and goals of the department. Monitoring in the public services is the exact same as the performance indicators and target setting. There are benchmarks which are national performance indicators that inform the services how well a similar service is doing.
There are 43 police constabularies in the UK and wales, each can compare itself to other constabularies, to compare how well or how poor it is doing. This isn’t really an accurate way of monitoring and not always the best, unless compared with a very similar constabulary as each area is different, with different crime rates etc. Reviewing a team and its performance is important in team development, and is valuable if the team are going to move forward. A review is an analysis of the team’s performance; this will indicate what they are doing well, and what could be done better, helping the team to improve.
How Team performance is evaluated in the public services & Support and Development of team members Everyone will make observations when a task is carried out, and hopefully each member of the team will have their own opinion of how the task was carried out, in terms of what they feel went well for the team and what didn’t go as well – most of the time the team will not get together to discuss their feelings. However this is important as it can help the team remember what their initial goals where and whether or not they are on the track to meeting the goals.
This also helps build team relations, as team members can praise each other’s good work and celebrate success together. Evaluation is a good way of gathering information as a team, which can be used to set group boundaries, and identify individual development within the team, helping also to identify how the team works best together. The public services often use group evaluation, questioning and evaluating their own performance, and the effectiveness of the procedures in place, which help them do their job well.
The services also use debriefing in specific situations, this helps each member of the team get across their feelings, welcoming new ideas of what may help better, then the procedures already in place. Team Cohesion Team Goals are quite straight forward, and any team must have them if they stand any chance of success, as each team must have something to work towards, this helps team cohesion, as each team member knows what needs to be done, enabling the team to pull together.
Group Conflict can’t be avoided – there is going to be a time where team members don’t agree with a particular idea, and can’t agree on which direction is best for the project and the team. This however isn’t always a bad thing and can help a team in several ways – * An increased understanding for other team members – conflict can turn out to be one of the best ways of getting to know your other team members, as you get an understanding for how they feel about certain things and how they react under pressure. Improved team cohesion – if conflict is resolved constructively then this is a benefit for the team as they will be much closer, there is much more respect for one another when there is agreement. * Increased self-awareness – conflict can be hard and upsetting to more sensitive people, however it makes people evaluate their own behaviour and grow as people finding out their own motivation and help understand why they behave the way they do. Group Turnover Group turnover is all about people moving in and out of team.
This is good for team cohesion if the group turnover is low, people in the team have already got to know each other and are working well together, constantly adding and swapping team members can upset a happy workplace – however new people equals new skills and new ideas which may benefit the team, leading to better success, more motivation. Opportunities’ for career progression & recognising contributions A great aid for motivation is a promotion at work is the offer of a promotion, people are going to work much better with the offer of a job promotion, this helps team cohesion, as everyone is working to the best of their ability.
Team Cohesion can also be helped by the team leader, as everyone is motivated by knowing that their work is good and is a help, the team leader should help motivate the team, this in turn will have an effect on teamwork, as praise will be wanted by the whole team. P6 & M4 Team Activity| Appraisal of own performance| Evaluation of team members’ performance. | Basketball| In this team activity, I think I worked well under the circumstances, I couldn’t participate physically as I forgot my kit, however I was given the role of team captain and I did my best to motivate the team.
After watching my team play a game of basketball, I observed and realised some members of the team needed slight improvement moving the ball past the opposition. Once the team had a break I introduced an activity where one person would start at one end of the court and had to get it to the team member at the opposite end, however one team member would be aiming to stop the ball reaching the other end of the court.
This definitely improved the games performance. I also made a conscious effort to remind the team of what they were doing well, so they would keep up the good work and remain motivated. Some members of my team did quite well in the sport and were very motivated and moving around and participating, however one member in particular was often put down by the fact no one would pass her the ball, this may have knocked her confidence as the games progressed and began to lack motivation to keep trying – I think if she were to do the task again, it may help to communicate more with other team members as if they knew how she felt, they would make an effort to rectify this, perhaps involve her in the game more and pass the ball.
This would improve her confidence knowing she has support from her team and that she has full involvement in the activity. | Birthday Line Up| During the birthday line up, we all had to get in order of age, without speaking. I know I am 3rd year and therefore stuck to the older end of the line, I communicated with others at that end, holding up fingers to show my date of birth – I think I used really good communication skills, and this was proven as I was in the right place, and so were the people either side of me.
Although my end of the team were in order in the line-up, there was much confusion in the middle, many of the middle section of the team were in the wrong places and weren’t in order of age – the main reason for this was because a large group of the middle section were all born around the same time and birthdays may have been very close together or in the same month, which may have caused more confusion when communicating, the they communicated may need changing also to be much clearer and defined so people can understand more – a recommendation would be as I used which is the fingers for day month and year – but try be much more clearer if you are trying to communicate with a larger amount of people. | Breast Cancer Bake Sale| We were a team of 4 and we had to hold an event.
I was given the role of event co-ordinator – it was my role to come up with the ways of which would make the most money for charity; I came up with the idea of cakes. I also participated in other team activities, such as helping decorate the stands and meeting with the college event manager Andy deighton – collecting T-shirts, and tables for the vent to take place. The event was a success and proof for this is the total we raised for charity which was £98. | One member of our team left and had bad attendance before hand – therefore didn’t for fill there part of the work, their role was arranging and deciding about the advertising, where we should advertise and in what way e. g. posters, videos other media.
The team had to then take responsibility for all the work that hadn’t been complete. I think if we were to do it again, we would delegate the responsibility to those more able and willing to complete the work. | Leadership Presentation| For our first assignment, in pairs we had to create the slides and put together a PowerPoint, to then present to the class. My partner was Rachel and we delegated each leadership style so we each had different slides to do, before we gave the presentation we have to take part in briefing each other, and helping motivate each other. We put in a lot of effort and it paid off, much of the feedback we got was positive, and the negative feedback we spoke about in our debrief.
All throughout the preparation for the presentation was really good, each task was split equally and we both came together to deliver the work well, we also did a good job briefing each other before the presentation, however at some point my team member couldn’t read what was on the board accurately, I think this was because she may have been nervous or couldn’t see clearly enough, I think if we did a presentation next time, we should make the font larger, as so much was crammed onto the PowerPoint it was hard to read to the small writing, also it would be a good idea to make notes on paper, that way there is no need to read from the board. However my team member was very good at motivating me and when I got nervous she would ensure that it would be fine, that everyone had to do it – this was good as it meant I performed better when giving the presentation. | Straws Tower| In groups of 4 we needed to build a tower made of straws – just straws on their own, nothing to stick them to. It proved very difficult at first, and each team member was trying out different ways which they thought would be best, in the end, we decided as a team which method of connecting the straws was the best.
Once we had decided we began building our tower – at the end of the task, each team towers were measured against each other, although our teams weren’t the tallest it stood on its own, and so we did achieve in the task given its difficulty. | Some of the team members in the group were quite bossy and always had to be in control and at times began to build the tower on their own. This wasn’t good for the team as people felt pushed out and not involved in the group activity – however a good thing about members of the team was they were all vocal in the way that each of them would get their opinions across of how best to build the tower, without conflict. I think if we were to do the activity again, it would be important that teamwork is present and there isn’t a or a few individuals who are aiming to complete the task themselves. |
Cite this Types of Teams and Their Characteristics
Types of Teams and Their Characteristics. (2016, Oct 11). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/types-of-teams/