Unit 8 Study Guide Essay
Unit 8 Study Guide 1 - Unit 8 Study Guide Essay introduction. How many liters of blood does the average adult have? 5 Liters 2. What are the components of blood? WBCs, Plasma, RBCs, and Platelets 3. What does the hematocrit measure? It calculates the proportion of complete blood which is made of red blood cells. 4. What percentage of blood are cells? 45% 5. What percentage of blood is made of plasma? 55% 6. What do erythrocytes look like and what is their function? Erythrocytes provide oxygen to the body, they’re red blood cells, and have an even leveled surface. 7. How do mature erythrocytes differ from immature ones?
The immature cell has a nucleus and the mature cell doesn’t contain a nucleus 8. What is a normal RBC Count? For adult males, it is nearly 4. 8-6. 2 Million cells per mm cube and for adult females it’s approximately 4. 4-5. 4 Million cells per mm cube 9. What makes blood red? The hemoglobin makes the blood red. 10. How long does the average RBC live? They live for about 120-130 days 11. What hormone controls the rate of rbc synthesis? Erythropoietin 12. What element is part of a red blood cell? Calcium is a part of a red blood cell 13. What is sickle-cell anemia and what is its cause?
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A problem in the blood because an irregular hemoglobin. The cause of it is an inheritance. 14. What are the causes of Anemia A Low hematocrit causes Anemia. What is the difference between sickle cell anemia and sickle trait? Sickle cell is the absolute disease, and sickle trait is someone who may carry the trait for the disease which may mean, if they were to have a children they could perhaps get the disease. 15. What percentage of white blood cells are eosinophils? 2-4 16. What is a Lymphocyte? A cell of the lymphoid system that partakes and is active in the immune response. 17.
What is a chemical that stimulates cells to produce antibodies? Antigen 18. What percent of blood is lymphocytes? Lymphocytes construct up 20-30% of the WBC population 19. What is a normal white Blood Cell Count? A typical microliter of blood has 5000-10000 WBCs 20. What does a rise in WBCS indicate? A decrease? Extreme WBCs indicates the attendance of some formate of leukemia. A reduction in WBCs could maybe designate a health issue. 21. What is a normal WBC differential? WBC count: 3,500-11,000 polymorphonuclear neutrophils: 1800-7800 band neutrophils: 0-700 lymphocytes: 1000-4800 monocytes: 0-800 eosinophils: 0-450 basophils: 0-200
Differentials add up to 100% 22. What is pus? An buildup of dead and dying cells, necrotic tissue, fluid and debris. 23. What do elevated monocytes indicate? You may have an illness that the body is presently demanding to fight off. 24. What is Diapedesis? The movement of white blood cells through the walls of blood vessels by relocation stuck between adjacent endothelial cells. 25. What is leukemia? An acute or chronic disease in which abnormal increases in WBCs in the tissue. 26. What is the function of fibrinogen? Clotting 27. What are 3 Lipoprotein molecules? extremely small dense lipoprotein, Low dense lipoprotein, High dense ipoprotein 28. What is agglutination? The aggregation of red blood cells due to activity between surface antigens and plasma anitbodies. 29. What keeps blood from clotting? Epithelial cells 30. What is fibrinogen? a plasma protein that is of course the soluble precursor of the insoluble protein fibrin. 31. What is a globulin? Any of a classes of proteins unsolvable in water, but soluble in saline conditions 32. What are the major ABO groups? O, A, AB, B 33. What are antigens and antibodies associated with each blood group? Antigen: A Antibody: Anti-B Antigen: B Antibody: Anti-A AB- Antigens: A&B Antibody: AB
O- Antigen: None Antibody: Anti-A and Anti-B 34. What blood type is universal donor? Universal recipient? Universal donor- O Universal recipient- AB 36. What is the Rh factor and why is it significant? The Rh system was created a title after rhesus monkeys. If the antiserum binds your red cells, you are Rh+. If it doesn’t, you are Rh-. Despite its genetic complexity, the inheritance of this trait usually can be expected by a simple conceptual model in which there are two alleles, D and d. Individuals who are homozygous dominant (DD) or heterozygous (Dd) are Rh+. Those who are homozygous recessive (dd) are Rh- .