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University of Phoenix Material

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    University of Phoenix Material

    1.       Complete the chart by identifying six actions that decrease the risk of infection and strengthen the body’s immune system. In the second column, describe how the action reduces the risk of infection and strengthens the body’s immune system.

    How action reduces risk or strengthens immunity
    The body develops an immunity to the inactive pathogen as it is introduced and once a real infection occurs, the body already has defenses in reserve to combat them.
    Avoid Smoking
    Since smoking reduces levels of certain immune cells within the body, the avoidance of this will enable the body to retain optimal levels of immune cells.
    Exercise regularly
    Regular exercise helps to strengthen the body, making it more resistant to infections. However, exercise should not be done when sick, because this would weaken the body’s defenses.
    Eating healthy and balanced foods
    The nutrients within certain food aid in the strengthening of the immune system. Therefore, balancing one’s diet ensures the intake of these immune-boosting foods, leading to a stronger immune system.
    Get enough sleep
    When the body is tired, the immune system is weakened. Getting enough rest ensures that the immune system is at its optimal levels of functioning. This makes it more capable of fighting off infections
    When ill, allow oneself time to recover
    When the immune system is compromise through illness, it becomes necessary for the individual to remain rested in order that it might regain its full strength. When a person is ill, the likelihood of acquiring other illnesses increase because of the state of the immune system. Therefore getting rest and remaining away from the public will discourage exposure to further pathogens and give the immune system adequate time to recover

    2.       What does it mean when a physician is Board Certified?

    ABMS Board certification of a physician occurs at the specialty level and grants a Gold Star status demonstrating the excellence of the physician in a specialty area. Once a physician has completed study leading up to the M.D., he or she must then complete a period of residency within an area of specialization. This activity is overseen by an ABMS specialty board and grants him/her permission to operate legally within a given area of specialty.

    3.       Explain the difference between a Doctor of Dental Surgery and Doctor of Medical Dentistry.

    According to the chapter, the Doctor of Dental Surgery and Doctor of Medical Dentistry are identical degrees awarded to those who specialize in oral and dental care after completing four years of dental studies. The difference lies simply in the organizations awarding the degree

    4.       Explain the difference between an allopathic and osteopathic physician.

    Osteopathic physicians undergo training that focuses on the musculo-skeletal system and the methods of manipulating these as a means of therapy. Allopathic physicians (MD’s) tend to be more focused on the application of medication in the treatment of patients than are osteopathic physicians. While, both types are fully trained and empowered in the prescription of medication, osteopathic physicians are encouraged to adopt a holistic approach to their methods of therapy.

    5.       Complete the chart. For each provider category briefly describe the education and licensing requirements for practice in the state in which you reside. Then, in the scope of care column, describe the type of care the provider can and cannot legally provide in the state in which you reside.

    Provider Category
    Education required
    License Required
    Scope of Care
    Can the provider write prescriptions?
    M.D. plus specialization
    American Board of Ophthalmology
    All care including surgery
    Doctor of Optometry
    Use of drugs for diagnosing and minor treatment
    Orthopedic Surgeon
    M.D. plus specialization
    American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
    All care including drugs for diagnostics and treatment, plus surgery.
    Doctor of Podiatric Medicine
    National Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners
    All care including invasive surgery
    Doctor of Chiropractic
    National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
    No invasive surgery or oral drugs. Musculo-skeletal (including spinal) manipulation,
    Physical Therapist
    Bachelor of Physical Therapy
    American Physical Therapy Association
    Massage and manipulation of patient body; giving advice on ambulatory procedures; no drug administration; no surgery
    Physician’s Assistant
    Certificate; 40 weeks of clinical training
    National Commission on Certification of Physician’s Assistants
    Diagnostic procedures including imaging tests and drug administration.
    Nurse Practitioner

    American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
    Administer (not prescribe) medication.
    DDS or DMD
    Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations
    Treatment of oral conditions including surgery
    Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards
    No prescription drugs; no invasive therapy
    M.D. plus specialization
    American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology
    Administration of drugs;
    Hypnosis Practitioner
    Diploma certification
    American Association of Professional Hypnotherapists
    No prescription drugs; no invasive therapy
    Reiki Therapist
    No state info available
    No state info available
    No state info available
    No state info available
    M.D. Residency in Radiology
    American Board of Radiology
    Use of ionizing/nonionizing radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes
    National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
    Dispensing of drugs; recommendation of medication, dosages and methods of administration; giving information about side-effects.

    6.       Explain the decision-making process you use when deciding whether or not to seek medical care for the types of symptoms listed in the chart. Provide an example for each of the five symptom categories; one example of when you would treat the symptom yourself, and one example of when you would seek professional care. Include who you would seek care from in your example.

    Symptom Category
    Decision-making process
    Example for Self-care
    Example for professional care
    Seek medical assistance
    Non-prescription medication; ice pack, massage
    Orthopedic manipulation or prescription drugs
    See physician
    Watchful waiting to see if symptoms are progressive
    Blood, stool or urine samples; biopsy; surgery
    Wait, and then see physician if symptoms take longer to clear up than usual
    Watchful waiting; self-examination
    Prescription drugs; diet change
    Seek medical attention after first couple of occurrences
    Over-the-counter medication; massage therapy for muscle pain/tightness
    Prescription medication, injections,
    Seek medical attention immediately
    Ice-pack, covering wounds with cloth, allergy medicine
    Medication, surgery


    Ellenbogen, P. H., T. R. Hoffman, B. W. Short & A. Gonzalez. (2007). “The radiologist assistant:           what radiologists need to know.” J. Am Coll Radiol. 4: 461-470.

    Insel, P. L. & W. T. Roth. (2008). Core Concepts In Health. McGraw-Hill.

    NYSED. (2008). “Office of the Professions.” New York State Education Department. New York: NYSED Retrieved on October 27, 2008 from

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