Running head: UNIX VERSUS. WINDOWS NETWORKING UNIX Versus Windows Networking Anthony Gowin, Steve Groff, James Mahan, Manny Garcia University of Phoenix – Tulsa, OK. Introduction to UNIX POS/420 Pedro Serrano November 24, 2009 UNIX Versus. Windows Networking A Comparison of the file processing of Linux and Windows. The definition of a process in computer lingo is a program in the state of execution (Unix Intro, 2009). Windows and Linux make use of memory differently to accomplish these tasks. Comparing the two is much like comparing apples to oranges.
Windows has been dominating for many years in the desktop market, in which Linux/Unix systems have dominated the supercomputer market. The main reason for these slants in markets is the general mission’s of each operating system, or OS. Each OS has a different focus pertaining to stability, ease of use, cost, versatility, profit, and customer support. Organizational needs are the biggest deciding factor when choosing the best OS for organizations needs. Windows has been the OS with which most schools teach and therefore seems like the obvious choice.
However, as many organizations have come to realize, Windows is not very stable and it has some difficulty in handling multiple task at the same time. The designs of the Windows operating systems exist around a pleasant and easy to navigate and use graphic user interface, also known as a GUI. The use of the GUI makes locating programs, applications and files quite easy, but at what cost. Memory allocation is necessary for all this ease of use and pleasant appearance. Each time the user logs on to the system, memory allocations are required.
The random access memory, RAM, is pre-loaded with the user’s preferred settings. This uses vital memory that could ultimately enhance file processing. This bogs down in the RAM and leads to slower processing times when the user calls for multiple programs or files. Windows is memory hungry and requires most if not all the systems RAM to work. Windows has remained popular because of its ease of use by the average person. Linux/UNIX has remained mostly true to its roots as an open-source OS. This means that any person who has the ability and knowledge can develop free applications.
With Linux/Unix, each generation of programming extends instead of replacing old programming. This allows new and old systems of UNIX to be compatible. Linux/UNIX Operating Systems typically do not have a GUI for the user to use. This makes navigating in the OS a little difficult for the novice user. This requires the user to become virtually an expert to use UNIX based systems. Some GUI makers have designed interfaces to ease the use of these systems, though true hardcore UNIX users still use strictly use the command prompt.
The lack of a GUI interface is one of the reasons that UNIX systems are typically faster than the Windows counterparts are. Because the startup process for UNIX systems does not have to pre-load a user’s desktop with its pleasant view and shortcuts allows UNIX to allocate more RAM to the processes called upon. With RAM so readily available in UNIX Operating Systems, file processing happens at a much quicker rate. This availability of RAM also allows the user to run multiple jobs, programs, and processes at the same time without slowing the user’s job running in the foreground.
UNIX Operating Systems do not require large amounts of memory to be available, allowing older CPU’s with small amounts of memory to be usable. In comparison of the two Operating Systems, the user and his or her organization have to decide what is best for all. Each OS has its advantages and disadvantages in reference to file processing. If the company has a focus on speed of processing information, UNIX Operating Systems like Linux maybe the way to go. If the organization is not as concerned with speed or is highly dependent on the GUI to allow ease of use, then Windows Operating Systems will best fit it.
File Descriptors is something else one should consider in Linux. These are the integers or abstract key for accessing the files that will open a file and take up memory. These file descriptors are also present in windows OS but are called file handlers not descriptors. Descriptors assist the OS in opening up the required files for the user to work with. Some of the Operating Systems available limit the number of File Descriptors to be opened creating a bottleneck within the system and ultimately slowing it down. Adding additional file descriptors can also cause unwanted results to he Operating Systems performance. Before adding an additional file descriptor, the OS needs tuning to its optimum levels and if needed, add additional file descriptors to assist in system performance. Contrasting the Programming and Application Capabilities Windows OS and Ubuntu Linux have a wide range of differences. Windows OS has very little programming ability. Unlike the first Windows when it had “Basic” programming language to make small apps and widgets for the curiosity seeker who wanted to know more about windows and how it worked.
Windows has evolved in which the different software applications for programming are not part of the Windows OS anymore. Microsoft has concluded that Windows OS and software applications should be separate but can be bundled into the installation of Windows so that there is a variety of software to use and enjoy. The reason Microsoft has the highest market share is the ease of usability of Windows OS and the large variety of software that can run on Windows OS for the average user to enjoy.
Ubuntu Linux has a terminal mode to program different apps for use with Linux. These are not for the novice programmer as Linux can be unforgiving and hard to learn the basics that can help a person understand Linux better and give some insight in applications and GUI interface buttons that assist the user in making other applications to work on the GUI interface. Ubuntu is just one of many flavors of Linux. Each has its own GUI interface and when one is using a version, they need to understand that any programming they do is mainly for that flavor of GUI.
Each of these GUI’s are different and react differently so that the programmers have to ensure that the flavor they are using could become the dominate one and slowly replace the others. Linux is gaining market share for small companies and companies will use Linux in some servers to gain the speed and security. Other than the fulltime hobbyist who are happy to maintain and work on Linux to make different applications work or having to design new applications is where the big companies end. These companies do not want to spend their hard-earned budget on something that needs more attention than windows.
Linux is not a full operating system. Linux is a kernel and it has no GUI interface on it unless someone has built one for it. Linux has worked hard to attempt to make serious inroads into Microsoft market share. Linux is open source whereas its freedom to choose, freedom to select source code and freedom to change some applications are not the goals of the average user or company, attempting to watch every penny that IT uses is a major goal. Windows OS can have a GUI that is seamless and runs very well for the average user.
Applications use icons or menus, which enable the average user to click and the application opens without thought or care of how this program opens. The average user does not want the hassle of having to go through so many different steps for an application to work or to worry that the file that is saved can only be viewed in Linux unless it is saved as a windows specific application file. Linux has a terrific programming ability and is extremely robust. For the enthusiast it can result in many hours of enjoyable programming time.
When the product is finished the joy of seeing the application work in a Linux environment is very satisfying. Linux will slowly evolve into one or two open source GUI’s. These developers could band together to make sure that all applications work with all flavors of Linux and their respective GUI’s. The possibility exists that applications developed will also work with Windows applications so that the enthusiast can cross applications ability to use Windows OS along with Linux for better security and operability. In today’s world, money is tight for IT budgets.
Convincing management that more money is needed for better software is hard if not impossible to manage. Linux, on the other hand, can look like a nice easy answer, as it is either relatively cheap or even free, whereas Microsoft products are expensive. When looking at this, it will almost sell itself, and the company should just jump on the chance to save large amounts of money by using Linux. At first, this should be the logical choice but when the average user takes Linux and it boots up and goes to a command prompt most users would think that it is broken.
With Windows OS, the average user sees the windows GUI come up and can navigate around the GUI with ease to open applications required. Because of previous training in Elementary, Middle, High school and colleges to work with Microsoft Products, most users have no big learning curve and productivity is automatically up higher than with the Linux OS. Almost all software applications made today are for Windows OS and very few are for use within Linux and even fewer work with both. The programmers of today do not want to have to program an extra 100k of code so that Linux can have it work within ts’ environment and the company hiring the programmers do not want to waste the time nor the money to do just that. In order for Linux to gain market share, it must come up with some serious standards regarding company support and ease of use for applications through a Graphical User Interface. Ease of use would require that the average user function within the software without some major training. Until this is accomplished, Linux will continue to have a very small niche market. Another red flag for Linux is that it is primarily unsupported.
The availability of manuals for Linux OS and applications are almost nonexistent. The programmers that work with Linux wants to have everything developed as open source, but they will never attract a serious amount of users or large companies to use it unless the average company user can comprehend what the OS is doing. Productivity goes down and so does profit. That is what the company does not need nor want. They want high profits each year with minimal amount of financial layout. A large amount of talk exists about “Average User” and why is it so important to cater to those user’s needs.
Microsoft has learned long ago that if there is an OS that has very good application software for the companies with minimal training for those applications then productivity is up and the company can grow. If using Linux there is a huge learning curve and if companies waste large amounts of time and effort training their personnel to use it, then productivity is stagnant and profitability for the company is in jeopardy. Ubuntu Linux or any other flavor of Linux has approx 2000 different software applications that can be used with Linux to enhance the OS for different uses such as Word, Excel.
Other forms exist that work like PowerPoint, paint, mail, outlook, etc. The Linux community is making applications and software that operate within Linux. These programs also have the capabilities of saving files for use in Windows OS software. Fast strides have been made into developing applications for Linux that can have the files saved and used with windows applications. Linux applications are still lagging behind Windows applications software as windows has been around longer and it has approx 40,000 software applications that can be used with Windows OS.
Microsoft woke up to the facts when it went from Windows 3. 1 to Windows 95 and the software was not compatible and the public was outraged that they had to buy the software all over again. Over the years and different versions of Windows, Microsoft worked hard to ensure that the Microsoft products used by the customers were compatible with the next version of Windows OS. This was a good direction but the other software makers today may not be compatible with the new Windows OS and will either have to find another software package that can be used or have to pay for an upgrade or a full software suite again.
The other vendors that make software for windows are also attempting to work toward compatibility with the other windows versions. On the other hand, Linux flavors have almost all the applications that they can use are compatible with each flavor and each change to the Linux OS. This has enabled the programmers and developers of software for Linux to focus on new applications and not have to fix the applications that the programmers developed years ago. Analysis of UNIX and Windows Networking.
In analyzing the comparison of UNIX and Windows Networking, one must compare the purpose of consumer’s functionality and product adaptability to market shares. The computer networking consumer market can be broken down into several computing layers: The desktop home and office user, the midrange networking environment, and the data center environments. Midrange environments are also known as back office functionalities such as accounting but can also have Web and Application server functionalities with a Front End UNIX Kernel firewall and UNIX connectivity utilities.
Data center do their processing in cluster environments with some version of UNIX or Windows client/server environment. The most fundamental and broadest networking consumer segment is the desktop consumer. The SOHO (Small Office Home Office) environment consumer falls under this category. This consumer likes and wants simplicity in functionality. They like the plug and play functionality of computer devices and sharing capacity of such devices. Over the years Windows has cater to this particular market segment and made up the original grass roots for their OS (Operating System) development.
With the popularity of internet broadband networking to the home and the ease of plug and play networking functionality has been a major selling point for this consumer’s market segment. In contrast to Windows OS, UNIX historically has been a manual networking configuration OS and until recently desktop networking product vendors did not even provided system drivers for UNIX in their release packages. The consumer has always had the responsibility to manually mount network devices and configure those devices with IP addresses and networking broadcast configuration ranges.
Most casual computer consumers found networking tasks too confusing and opted for the ease of Windows auto configuration for their networking functionalities. The popularity with plug and play and the ease of functionalities has also become a major malware problem for SOHO consumers. Most devices auto configurations leave open networking interfaces for network snoopers and data security risks. Virus strains with worms have caused millions of productivity dollars to Windows users in all environments. Once a network becomes virus infected productivity may stop or slow down to a crawl.
Some viruses target critical OS file systems, so with its removal of infected areas the OS itself can become useless and a complete reimage of the computer is required to maintain data integrity. The rapid development and popularity of open source systems in the UNIX OS environment is making vendors aware of market demand for networking drivers’ development in several open source UNIX consumers’ flavors such as Linux Red Hat, Ubuntu, in which malware intrusion is less popular and product development is becoming more abundant. Compare and contrast the cost of the operating system.
In comparing and contrasting the cost of an OS we must consider the startup cost and constant maintenance upkeep cost. The Windows OS sells as a package on a Wintel computer environment. A common market cost is usually several hundred dollars per Windows computer terminal or workstation. Add to this, the cost for security software to treat and prevent the infection of malware propagation and data corruption. A periodical maintenance fee may also be required for SOHO consumers to update software releases and install OS patches.
Several free open source versions of UNIX exists to fit a consumer’s needs, so the initial startup cost maybe mitigated to hardware devices cutting the initial startup cost almost in half for the SOHO consumer in comparing to Windows. Maintenance upkeep may also be less of a cost without all the malware software cost requirements. Compare and contrast the market share of the operating systems. ++++ In comparing the market shares for Windows and UNIX we must realize that Windows had a huge market startup from the onset of the PC (Personal Computer) market release, hanks to IBM who marketed the original PC with the MS (Microsoft) operating system. At one point, the PC OS market was considered a captive market. OS options were very limited and UNIX OS was limited to back office functionalities. Even with the release of the Unix X-Windows environment, the acceptance was only limited to back offices environments because the hardware chassis to support UNIX functionalities was limited to high-end cost hardware. UNIX OS has gained some popularity and acceptance in the PC market thanks to Linux OS and the Open Systems development community.
Windows has fought several government lawsuits to maintain their monopoly of the PC market and this has fueled the need for further OS options. UNIX has filled in some of the market requirements and some countries have set up requirements that all government business dealings use a UNIX open source format. Windows still controls a majority stake of the PC market share but knows that UNIX market share is rapidly growing. Even IBM has thrown its weight behind Linux by supporting its development in the Mainframe enterprise environment and using Linux as the company operating system.
Compare and contrast the hardware requirements of the operating systems. Hardware requirements for both Windows and UNIX systems are about the same. Initially the PC market share was a Wintel environment. The functionality of UNIX OS in the desktop environment was primarily for high-end hardware computers with 64-bit processing support such as RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) computers. With the onset of UNIX open source development, cross platform developments, the hardware vendor chassis requirements has become gray areas and is considered a matter of consumer preference.
Data centers such as Google have thrown their considerate weight into the UNIX open source development because of their considerate cost savings and ease of deployment on low-end hardware equipment. This has cause an interest in the development of Cloud computing environment. http://www. doc. ic. ac. uk/~wjk/UnixIntro/Lecture4. html Comparison of Windows and Linux. (2009, November 16). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:46, November 17, 2009, from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Comparison_of_Windows_and_Linux=326208530 http://www. unixtools. com/windows-vs. -linux. html
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