US History Chapter 7

Why did people want a written constitution?
It would spell out rights of citizens and set limits on the power of the government.
What were the Articles of Confederation?
The first national constitution. It was a firm league of friendship.
Name several powers that Congress had under the Articles of Confederation.
Congress could declare war, appoint officers, and handle foreign affairs.
Did the states or the federal government have more power under the Articles of Confederation?
The states had more power.
Did the Articles of Confederation create a powerful or weak central government?
It created a weak federal government.

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What were some of the Articles of Confederation’s weaknesses?
Congress could not regulate trade between states and foreign countries. It could not make laws to collect taxes. Congress could not appoint a president.
What are the parts of the Land Ordinance of 1785?
It divided into townships. I township= 36 sections. Tax money was set aside to support public schools. It was a way of settling the northwest territory.
What are the parts of the Northwest Ordinance 1787?
This was a system of settling the northwest territory. It set up a government, outlawed slavery, and allowed a region to divide into 3-5 territories/states later. Once there was 60,000 people in a territory, it could apply for statehood.
What is an economic depression?
A period when business activity slows so businesses don’t earn money. Wages go down and unemployment goes up.
What did Shay’s Rebellion reveal about the government?
It showed that the Articles of Confederation did not work.
Why did the Constitutional Convention keep their discussion secret?
It allowed people to speak freely and change plans and compromise. The information may also be misunderstood by the people.
What were the important parts of the Virginia Plan?
It favored the states with larger population made by James Maddison and Edmund Randolph. It had 3 branches, including a bicameral legislature- 2 house legislatures. It is based on population.
What were the important parts of the New Jersey Plan?
It favored the states with smaller population made by William Paterson. It had 3 branches including a unicameral legislature, executive, and judicial. It was based on 1 house per state.
What were the various objections to either plan? (Virginia and New Jersey)
The Virginia plan gave too much power to the states with large populations and the New Jersey plan didn’t give enough representation for the states with larger populations.
What did the Great Compromise decide?
The Great Compromise is created by Roger Sherman. It has 3 branches. Two houses in the legislative branch included an
Upper house called the Senate based on 2 per state and serves 6 years and a
Lower House called the House of Representatives based on population and serves 2 years.
What did the Three-Fifths Compromise decide?
3 out of 5 slaves count toward population in the house of representation.
What did the Slave Trade Compromise decide?
It cut off slave trade in 20 years (1807) if southern states ratified the constitution.
Why were there objections to the Slave Trade Compromise?
Northern states wanted to ban the slave trade but southern states said they needed slaves for the economy.
Under the Constitution, what are the three branches of government?
The three branches are legislative, executive, and judicial.
What is the main job as the executive branch?
President, enforces/ executes laws. Serve as commander in chief of the armed forces. It is responsible for foreign relations.
What is the main job as the legislative branch?
Makes/ passes laws.
What is the main job as the judicial branch?
Determines if law is fair/ constitutional.
What is the electoral college?
It is an indirect way of voting on the president and vice president. A group of electors meet every 4 years to vote president and vp of US.
Why was the electoral college created?
The founding fathers believed well informed citizens would choose the president wisely.
News traveled slowly.
What is federalism?
Division of power between states and federal government.
Name some of the specific powers given to the federal (delegated) government.
They could declare war, regulate interstate and foreign trade, post offices, create armies, and print money.
Name some of the specific powers given to the state (reserved) government.
They could pass marriage laws, establish schools, trade within states, and have a local government.
Name some of the specific powers given to both (concurrent) levels of government.
They could pass laws, build roads, and raise taxes.
What did the federalists want?
They wanted a strong national government and supported it as it is.
What did the anti-federalists want?
They wanted a bill of rights and a government with states with more power. They felt that the government and president had too much power.
What is the supreme law of the land?
The constitution.
What did some states want added to the Constitution before they would ratify it?
A Bill of Rights.
What freedoms are granted by the First Amendment?
Freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly.
What do amendments 5-8 guarantee?
It protects people accused of crimes.
Every citizen has the right to due process of law.
How may the Unites States Constitution be changed?
2/3 of both houses in congress must agree or 2/3 of states must request a special convention. Then, 3/4 states must ratify it. It goes through the amendment process.
What is a bill?
A proposed law.
What is a republic?
A nation in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them.
What are the two steps of the impeachment process?
The House of Representatives decide whether or not to impeach. Then, the Senate holds the trial. Then, if 2/3 of the senate finds him guilty, president will leave office.
What ideas/concepts did John Locke contribute to the formation of the United States?
Social contract- the government will protect your rights between ruler and ruled.
Natural rights- life, liberty, and property.
Government has a duty to protect citizens.
What ideas/concepts did Baron de Montesquieu contribute to the formation of the United States?
Separation of powers- we didn’t want one person to have all power (3 branches of government).
Rule of law- everyone must follow the law.
What ideas/concepts did Thomas Jefferson contribute to the formation of the United States?
He was a strong anti-federalist that voiced his opinions on governments. He wrote the Declaration of Independence.
What ideas/concepts did James Maddison contribute to the formation of the United States?
He was the Father of the Constitution. He had a priceless notebook that he took notes in and is one of the best known federalists.
What ideas/concepts did Roger Sherman contribute to the formation of the United States?
He created the Great Compromise.
Checks on the legislative.
Executive can veto bills.
Judicial can declare acts of congress unconstitutional.
Checks on the executive.
Legislative can override veto (2/3), approve people appointed by the president, and impeach the president.
Judicial can declare execution acts unconstitutional.
Checks on the judicial.
Legislative can remove judges.
Executive can appoint judges.
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