E xtended Response 2 – Vaccines 1. List and describe the four traditional methods of preparing vaccine with examples. The four traditional methods of preparing vaccines are: * Method One – contains living annuated microorganisms. These microorganisms have a reduced virulence meaning they have a reduced ability to produce symptoms so that the immunised patient has a very low chance of contracting the disease. This type of vaccination causes and immune response thus causing the production of antibodies.
Examples of vaccines of annuated microorganisms include polio, tuberculosis, rubella, measles, mumps and yellow fever. * Method Two – contains dead microorganisms. This method does not usually last the same amount of time compared to the use of living annuated microorganisms. Examples of these types of vaccine are whooping cough and typhoid. * Method Three – contains the filtrates of bacterial cultures containing toxins. When the cause of the sickness is due to bacteria releasing a toxin, scientists produce a vaccine from the deactivated toxin called a toxoid rather than the whole bacteria.
The use of a toxoid is safe and the immune system quickly locks to the toxin and negates its effects. Examples of these vaccines are a tetanus vaccine. * Method Four – contains fragments of the bacteria and is called the sub unit vaccine. Instead of the use of a whole bacterium, a fragment of the organism is inserted and used to cause the immune response. Examples of these vaccines include the vaccination of hepatitis B and Gardasil virus. 2. Describe the new techniques for the manufacture of vaccines with examples.
Developers of modern vaccines are trying to produce vaccines that last a longer period of time and produce no side effects. Vaccines have aided the battle against diseases for well over 200 years. The successfulness of vaccinations can be seen in the eradication of smallpox and the immunization from polio. Although there has been huge success, the future still contains diseases such as HIV and Malaria which a cure or treatment is yet to be found. To combat this scientists have introduced new techniques in which they can provide new opportunities where they can answers to prevent diseases.
Some of these newly produced methods are: * Live recombinant vaccines – this is the process in which the DNA of a pathogenic organism is slightly changed so it becomes less virulent. Another method is to insert certain DNA sequences from the pathogen causing production of antigen into harmless bacterial cells. An example of Live recombinant vaccines are the vaccination of Hepatitis B ( where Hepatitis B virus is grown harvested and purified in yeast. ) * DNA vaccines – this is a process in which DNA coding for a particular antigen is taken and inserted to the muscle of the patient.
The DNA would then, within the patient’s body, enter into the individuals’ cell. Since the body recognises the DNA as foreign, it beings to produce an immune response. An example of DNA vaccines is the vaccinia virus. 3. List a minimum of 8 common side effects that are linked to the use of vaccines. Side effects that are linked to the use vaccinations are: * The injection may cause swelling, itchiness, redness or a burning sensation at the injection site for 1 – 2 days. * Fainting * Vomiting or Diarrhoea * Drowsiness * Loss of appetite * Fevers * Seizures * Swelling of the glands e. . Cheeks and neck * Headaches * Tenderness at the injection site. 4. Discuss the risks and ethical concerns with the production and use of vaccines. Before any vaccine is produced for the use of the general public, it is thoroughly tested to examine the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. Within Australia, the vaccine would have to pass through the Therapeutic Goods Administration to recognise if it is at a high standard. The most concerned risk that The National Health and Medical Research Council is strict on is the causes of an allergic reaction.
For example Flu vaccines are produced in fertilised eggs. This may cause and allergic reaction to people allergic to egg proteins. Much like Influenza vaccines, people vaccinated for Hepatitis B would be cautionary as it is grown harvested and purified in yeast. Other concerns include the risk of cross-species disease introduction and the use of preservatives in vaccines. In relation to the cross-species disease introduction, it is impossible to separate viruses from each other in animal tissues being used as a culture medium and thus produce a cross species disease introduction.
There has also been evidence to suggest that the AIDS virus was spread from apes to humans thought the contamination of a polio vaccine given to some 300 000 African residents although this theory has not been confirmed. Ethics, “The Moral principles that govern a person’s or group’s behaviour”. The ethical concerns about the use of vaccines are mainly situated on how the vaccine was produced and how it was tested. As the reproduction of viruses for vaccines require host tissue, the treatment of animals whom they are used to reproduce viruses are questioned.
In some cases human tissue is required to grow the virus as viruses originating from other species do not grow well. The treatment of humans in the testing of vaccines can be shown as an example from the manufacture of vaccines through aborted foetuses during the 1960’s. This was a period where cell lines were harvested from aborted foetuses. This was quickly named unethical and the practice has not been in use since. Parents also have ethical views on vaccinations. Some even believe their children will develop a better immunity by naturally acquiring the disease, or through the process of homeopathy.
Recently, doctors have been calling on schools to obtain parents with unvaccinated children to sign a form stating they understand and take responsibility for the risks they are exposing their children to. This was brought up after the results of a recent survey showed that more than 10 000 Australian students had not been fully immunised. This can be deadly as an infected child could easily spread a disease to an unknowing pregnant woman causing a miscarriage or birth defects. Some examples of ethical concerns include the requirement of fertile eggs to breed influenza viruses.
Another was of the Gardasil vaccine production where the brains of mice were used to breed the active component. Afterwards it was also shockingly tested on young girls. Overall vaccine production is a hugely unpopular topic among parents and health professionals. 5. Provide information on the success of Smallpox and Polio vaccinations. Poliomyelitis of “polio” is an entrovirus and is passed on from person to person usually from means of faecal- oral. The success of the immunisation of polio in Australia is renowned with the only one case of polio since 1978.
This is due to the high coverage of poliomyelitic vaccines (IPV). The vaccine is administered to children as one of four injections over a period of two years. In adults, the vaccine was given to achieve herd immunity. Also helping its succsess was the replacement of the oral administration to an injection. This eliminated the chance of vaccine associated paralysis. From 1958 – 1966, the global smallpox eradication program sought to rid of small pox forever. They were sucsessful. Since there has been only mild cases. 6.
Discuss the MMR vaccination controversy. The MMR controversy was a ‘scientific misconduct’ during the 1998’s where an article was posted in a well-known medical journal, the Lancet, linking MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) vaccinations to cause autism. The author of the article, Andrew Wakefield, who at the time was an academic researcher, was hugely backed by the media on his research with numerous press conferences and video news releases in which both the media and Andrew Wakefield criticized the MMR vaccinations.
He theorised that the combination of the three virus strains contained in MMR may overload the body’s immune system and cause the bowel disorder to develop and suggests individual vaccinations instead at a press conference. After overwhelming evidence that there was no link, in April of 2000 Dr Wakefield and Professor John O’Leary, director of pathology at Coombe Women’s Hospital in Dublin presented their research to the US congress showing evidence that of the 25 children with autism tested, 24 contained a measles virus in their gut.
When the allegations were made in 1988, it began a huge investigation by Centres of Disease control and Prevention, the American Academy of Paediatrics, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, the UK National Health Service and the Cochrane Library. All of which found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism. The claims made by Andrew Wakefield caused a decrease in vaccination rates and an increase in the number of cases of measles, mumps or rubella.
It was said that Andrew Wakefield acquired information and evidence and manipulated it. He also had interests which corrupted his findings. Because of this Andrew Wakefield in May 2010, was found guilty by the General Medical Council of “Personal Misconduct”, thus reviewing and redrawing his medical contract so that he could no longer practice as a doctor. A 2011 journal article described the vaccine-autism connection as “the most damaging medical hoax of the last 100 years”.