Each water molecule is joined to _____ other water molecules by ____ bonds.
The unequal sharing of electrons within a water molecule makes the water molecule _____
The tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself is referred to as its _____.
What type of bond is found between oxygen and hydrogen in a water molecule?
Why are hydrogen bonds weaker than covalent and ionic?
They are weaker than covalent because they do not involve the sharing of electrons, and they are weaker than ionic bonds because they involve the attraction of partial (not full) opposite charges.
What allows insects to walk on water?
Water is high surface tension
Examples of adhesion
-Water molecule clings to plant cell walls
-Water molecules cling to the side of a beaker
Examples of cohesion
-Water molecules are attracted to each other
-A drop of water spilled on a table forms a drop on the table, rather than spreading out over the surface
Examples of surface tension
-A water strider runs across a pond without breaking the surface
-A sewing needle floats when it is placed gently on top of water in a bucket.
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Higher specific heat
indicates that something is more resistant to temperature change than something with a lower one/
Also when a molecule has higher specific heat is requires more to raise the temperature to raise 1g of X by 1 degrees celcius
Water/ specific heat
Water has a high specific heat due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules
Because organisms are made primarily of water, they resist rapid temperature changes. This useful quality is based on water’s _____.
high specific heat
Which property of water allows a paper towel to pick up a puddle of water?
adhesion of water molecules to other kinds of molecules
Which property of water allows a water strider to walk on water?
water’s high surface tension
Why does ice float in liquid water?
Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water.
Which property of water allows dogs to cool themselves by panting?
water’s high heat of vaporization; dog loses heat as the water on its tongue evaporates allowing him to cool down by panting. (energy is released when water goes from a fluid to a gas)
Vitalism gave way to mechanism, the view that _____.
physical and chemical laws govern living systems (Living things are subject to physical and chemical laws. They do not exist outside of them.)
Which functional group plays a major role in energy transfer?
Phosphate because it is a component of ATP
What is the main reason that the oceans are becoming more acidic?
absorption by the oceans of carbon dioxide generated by burning fossil fuels
The ocean covers how much of the earth’s surface?
How much greenhouse gas does the ocean absorb?
20 million metric tonnes everyday
How much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans on a daily basis?
20 million metric tons
What is the chemical reaction responsible for the oceans becoming more acidic?
carbon dioxide reacts with seawater, forming carbonic acid
How are oyster larvae affected by ocean acidification?
Oyster larvae cannot grow shells in acidified ocean waters.
What are consequences of ocean acidification?
Clams, mussels, lobsters, and shrimp are not able to form strong enough shells.
Corals and coral reefs are not able to form their hard skeletons.
Because of ocean acidification, the price of which of the following foods is most likely to increase?