This is to certify that project report entitled “Water Level Indicator & Automatic Motor Starter” presented by Sanjay Kumar Singh, Rajesh ydav student of 6th semester BE in Electronics & Communication Engineering is the bona-fide presentation of his work done by him under my supervision and guidance. He has submitted this project report towards partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering of the Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya during the academic year 2010-11. It is further certified that this work has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of any degree.
Guided by: Approved By: Mr.Durgesh nandan Mr. Yashwant Arse (Lecturer Department ECE) (H.O.D. Department)
Sri Satya Sai College Of Engineering Bhopal
Electronics & Communication Engineering
We Sanjay Kumar singh And Rajesh Yadav are student of bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication Engineering, Sri Satya Sai College Of Engineering, Bhopal hereby declare that the work presented in this minor project is outcome of our own work, is bonafide, correct to the best of our knowledge and this work has been carried out taking care of Engineering Ethics.
The work presented does not infringe any patented work and has not been submitted to any University for the award of any degree or professional diploma.
Name: Signature: Sanjay Kumar Singh (0189EC093D03)
Rajesh Yadav (0189EC093D02)
PROJECT APPROVAL SHEEET
Following team has done the appropriate work related to the “Water Level Indicator & Automatic motor Starter” in partial fulfillment for the award of bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication Engineering of “RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA , BHOPAL” and is being submitted to SRI SATYA SAI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BHOPAL.
1. Sanjay Kumar Singh (0189EC093D03)
2. Rajesh Yadav (0189EC093D03)
Place: Sri Satya Sai College of Engineering , Bhopal.
There always remains a pleasure to acknowledge the assistance of several individual in the accomplishment of our goal and completion of the project “Water Level Indicator & Automatic Motor Starter”. We express our sincere gratitude to our Head of Department, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Mr. Yashwant Parse whose devotion of valuable time from his busy schedules and his coordination lead us to complete this project. He was extremely generous and we give our sincere thanks to his constant support & guidance. We would also like to thanks Mr. Durgesh Nandan, who guided our perspicacity in the right direction and gave us his complete technical assistance in the completion of our project. The project owes its existence to a number of persons of college organization, who in some or the other way gave us their support and service. We express our deep sense of appreciation to all of them. At last we are thankful to all our fellow members for providing their exhaustive efforts and wonderful company.
Project By:- Sanjay Kumar Singh Rajesh Yadav
CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview of project
1.2 Block diagram
CHAPTER-2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 2.1 Power supply
2.2 Water level indicator & switch
2.4 Automatic motor starter
2.6 Temperature detector
CHAPTR-3 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 3.1 Component list
3.3 Bridge rectifier
3.5 IC 555
3.6 IC 7809
3.7 Seven segment display
CHAPTER-4 APPLICATION CHAPTER-5 FEATURE CHAPTR-6 RESULT APPENDIX
Appendix-a: Data sheet
Appendix-b: PCB Layout
Appendix-c: The final Prototype
Basic aim of this project is to detect the water level and according to our requirement control the motor , by which we can handle the complete process automatically i.e. check the water level, indication, alarm and start the motor . It is an automatic control system.
It has various sections:-
1. Power supply
2. Water level indicator & switch
4. Automatic starter
6. Temperature detector
1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
FIG: Block diagrammatic representation
2.1 POWER SUPPLY SECTION
FIG: Circuit diagram for power supply section
Power supply section description
230v AC main input supply
Use 2 amp step down transformer
Bridge rectifier for good rectification
Use U1 ic for constant voltage supply
Tripple output [+5v ,+9v , +12 ,]
2.2 WATER LEVEL INDICATOR & SWITCH
FIG: Water level indicator & switching circuit
Water level indicator & switching section description
It is works on 9v Dc
It has three layer water level indicator for upper flower
And one layer water level indicator for ground flower
Use ic 7404 and BC 557 for amplification
Use four seven segment display for water level indication
Indicate level in [A ,L ,H ,F ]
And connect this section to alarm & starter section
FIG: Alarm Circuit
Alarm section description
It is work on 5v DC
Three different different alarm
Connect to level pin of ic
2.4 AUTOMATIC STARTER
FIG: Automatic motor starter circuit
Automatic motor starter section description
It handle the complete processing of switching action.
It is automatic starter According to water level & ac voltage Adjustable motor starting voltage in [160 to 260v AC]
Also soft switch for manual motor start
It connect to timer circuit
FIG: Timer circuit
Timer section description
Protection to voltage fluctuation for motor
Adjustable time [1to 10m]
9v Power supply
2.6 TEMPERATURE DETECTOR
FIG: Temperature circuit
Temperature detector section description
9v Power supply
Adjustable temperature [40 to 800c]
Connect to power supply section
And automatic starter section
Using lm35 ic
3.1 List of components:
I. Transformer: 2A
II. Diode: IN4007
III. Zener: diode 9.1v
IV. Capacitor: 100µf 25v, 100µf 35v, 470µf 35v, 1000µf 25v V. IC 7805, 7809
VI. Transistor BC 547, BC 557, SL 100
VII. IC 7404 14 Pin
VIII. Relay 6v
IX. Seven segment display
X. Resistor 1mΩ, 100kΩ, 33kΩ, 470Ω, 680Ω, 560k 4.7k, 2.2k, 1k XI. Variable resistor 10kΩ, 1m,
XII. Switch ON/OFF, Push to ON
XIII. RJ 45 socket
XIV. 3Pin Audio jack
XV. 8 pin, 2 pin, 3pin male female connector
XVI. 2 Pin power connector
XVIII. Amp meter
XIX. IC lm35
XX. IC UM3561
XXI. IC NE 555
XXII. 6v fan
XXIII. 1Ω speaker
Transformer converts AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. Transformer work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC. Step-up transformer increase voltage. Step-down transformer reduces voltage. Must of power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage (230v in uk) to a safer low voltage. The input is called primary binding of coil and output is secondary binding of coil. There are no electrical connection b/w two coils. Instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft iron core of the transformer. The two line in the middle of circuit symbol represent the core.
3.3 BRIDGE RECTIFIER
A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes, but it is also available in special packages containing the four diodes required. it is called a full wave rectifier because it use the entire AC wave (positive and negative section). 1.4v is use up in the bridge rectifier because each diode uses 0.7v when conducting and two are always two diodes conducting, as show in diagram below. Bridge rectifiers are rated by the maximum they can pass and the maximum reverse voltage they can withstand (this must be at least three times the supply RMS voltage so the rectifier can with stand the peak voltages.)
A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a device for storing electric charge. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at last two conductors separated by a non-conductor. Capacitors used at parts of electrical systems, for example, consist of metal foils separated by a layer of insulating film.
7809 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7806 provide +6V regulated power supply Capacitors of suitable value can be connected at input and output pins depending upon the respective voltage levels.
3.6 SEVEN SEGMENT DISPLAY
The SLR /SLO /SLG /SLY 2016 is a four digit 5×7 dot matrix display module with a built in cmos integrated circuit. This display is X/Y stackable. The integrated circuit contains memory, a 128 ASCII rom decoder, and multiplexing circuitry and drivers. Data entry is asynchronous.
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the outer relay creates a magnetic field which attracts the lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be switched ON/OFF. The relay allow one circuit to switches other circuit which can be Completely separated from the list. For EX- A low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230v ac mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay b/w the two circuit, the link is magnetic and mechanical.
The relays switch are usually labelled com, NC and NO: COM: Common, always connect to this. It’s the moving part of the switch NC: Normally closed. COM is connected to this when the relay coil is OFF NO: Normally closed. COM is connected to this when the relay coil is ON Denote COM, NC, NO is Pin 3, 2, 1
In this circuit a 6v magnetic relay is used. In magnetic relay, insulated copper wire coil is used, to magnetise and attract the plugged. The plugged is normally connected to N/C terminal. A spring is connected to attract the plugged upper side. When output is received by relay, the plugged is attracted and bulb glows.
A resistor is a two- terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm’ s law: V=IR
Resistor are elements of electrical network and electronic circuit and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistor can be made of various compounds and film, as well as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high- resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome). The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, The tolerance, maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise and induction. Less well – known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor. Resistor can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as integrated circuits. Size, and position of lead (or terminals) are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.
It can be used as a home appliance.
It can be used at larger scale like in industrial field
It can be used in agriculture
It can also be used at city water tank.
It can also be used at purifier plant.
Use two mode only upper flower tank or upper and ground flower tank Three layer water indication for upper flower tank and one layer water level indication for ground flower tank Use RJ 45 connector (UTP network cable) for connection to water level terminal and indicator circuit Automatic electronic motor starter and timer with adjustable input voltage Use
temperature controller for long time system performance
There are four water level indication points, three for upper tank and one for ground flower tank. When water level is at low position the timer start and motor is switched on in 10-15 second, but only when water is available in the ground tank. And again motor is automatic switched off when upper tank is full.
APPENDIX – B
APPENDIX – C
THE FINAL PROTOTYPE
“Integrated Electronics”-Millman, halkias
Ramakant A. gayakwad “Op- Amp and linear integrated circuit”, person education Efy Magazine
Cite this Water level indicator
Water level indicator. (2016, Jul 10). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/water-level-indicator/