How to Go From Class-Room to Web-Room as Painlessly as Possible1.0 ABSTRACT Getting your course onto the World Wide Web (WWW) is best doneusing a systematic approach. There are a number of steps that need to be takenprior to starting any of the actual web work. Meetings should be held withvarious groups within your institution. Once the actual coursework is begun,there are some essential components and some optional components. There arespecific skills and talents that you either need to acquire or you need toaccess.
Each web-based course is unique, but they often have many components incommon. Some are essential, others may be optional. Resources can be found onyour campus, from the many web companies and from the web itself.
2.0 KEY WORDS World Wide Web, WWW, Distance Education, HTML, Web-BasedInstruction3.0 INTRODUCTION The number of degree credit courses available on the WorldWide Web (WWW) has increased at the same astonishing rate as other activities onthe WWW. There are some specific steps that can be taken that will help totransport the professor from the idea stage to the delivery of a course over theWWW.
Also, just like any other educational technology, web-based instructionworks better for some situations than others. Web-based instruction is usefulwhen you want to create a virtual environment which is not easily or, perhaps,safely accessible. An example is sending learners to a virtual nuclear lab or ona “virtual tour” of the Louver in Paris.
4.0 WEB BASED INSTRUCTION Web-based instruction it allows learners to gainknowledge and skill more effectively than traditional methods. Simplytransferring material such as lecture notes to the web is not using thetechnology to its best advantage. Lengthy text such as lecture notes are, infact, best printed because most learners experience eye strain and sensorydisinterest reading long passages of text on a screen. Some specific situationstend to lend themselves to web-based instruction. 4.1 Encouraging CommunicationYou want to encourage communication through conferencing. Through internetconferencing learners may participate in discussions or group work with oneanother with or without the participation of the instructor. Role plays,simulations of historical events and debates are also examples of how learningcan be facilitated through the conferencing option. 4.2 Accessing SourceDocuments You want learners to use “source documents” to completeassignments such as conducting an analysis or designing a project. These sourcedocuments may not be readily available to learners or perhaps, based on theassignment, will not be equally significant to all the learners. For example,you may ask learners to research and analyze issues pertaining to Canadianelections. To complete the assignment, various learners may access archivedinformation such as newspaper and journal articles which specifically relate totheir particular interest or point of view. One example is a site operated bythe University of Victoria (http://web.uvic.ca/history robinson/index.html)which contains letters, maps, biographies and newspaper articles about themurder of William Robinson committed on Saltspring Island in 1868. Theinformation at the site allows learners and the public to pursue their researchas they please and to access original documents which are not generallyavailable. Individuals are free to interpret the meaning of the documents andreach their own conclusions. 4.3 Flexibility of Learning You want to providemaximum flexibility to allow learners to undertake learning and research in theorder which best suits them. Because the web allows learners to “movearound” at will, they do not need to follow a structured hierarchy.
Generally learners need and want some direction but the web allows a moreflexible approach. 4.4 Further Study You want learners to pool data and/oranalysis to find patterns and trends or to undertake further study.
5.0 ASSUMPTIONS For a starting point and to keep us on track in this paper, Iwill discuss degree credit courses delivered by the University of New Brunswick.
I will assume that for your case there is ready WWW web access for the professoras well as web access for students. Again, for consistency, I expect my studentsto have at least Netscape 3 (or its equivalent), their own internet serviceprovider (ISP), and the skills necessary to access the WWW. These are mystarting points – but most concepts discussed will transfer across institutionallines.
6.0 BEFORE YOU START YOUR COMPUTER 6.1 Steps to Take There a number of thingsthat you should do before you begin to do any coding, contracting or late nightcomputer hacking. There are meetings to setup, there is paper work to be doneand decisions to be made. Then, and only then, do you get to “play”with the computer. 6.2 Meetings I would advise that you consider the followingmeetings as part of your endeavors. They will help you set the ground rules,help you avoid some of the mine-fields, and start you off on a workingrelationship with groups that can be either wonderful allies or formidablecombatants, and hopefully help keep you on track as you work towards a finishedproduct. 6.2.1 Your initial meeting with your own department I feel it isimperative for any relationship you and your delivering agency (Department ofExtension, Continuing Education or “University of the World”) to startwith a good relationship with your own department. In this meeting you may needto get the approval of the supervisors of your department to be able to deliverin something other than the traditional face to face, on campus mode. Those inauthority may have to guarantee the academic support for some period after thefirst start of delivery of the course (at UNB, the period is three years). Atthe University of New Brunswick, instructors delivering courses through theDepartment of Extension are recommended by the faculties. This is something youmight also wish to discuss with your own department at this time. It is oftenassumed that the person(s) developing a course will be the one(s) that wish toteach the course and the one(s) that the faculty will appoint to teach thecourse. This is not always the case. You should also discuss possible sources ofhelp for the development of your course. There are times when stipend relief maybe available from various sources. There may also be funds available from otheragencies. 6.2.2 Your first meeting with your delivering agency Having gained theapproval of your faculty, you should next meet with your delivering agency. Inthis meeting, you should discuss the ways that they can help you in thedevelopment of your course. They may also share with you what they know aboutpossible funding sources. As Web-based learning is different from regularface-to-face lecture learning, they will want you to make use of goodinstructional design methodologies. This is often an area where they can help.
Here are some items you may wish to discuss at that meeting: a. possible methodsof web-based delivery for your course, b. method of payment to the instructor,c. ancillary support materials and their delivery to the students, d. how thematerials, assignments, marks and communications flow between parties e.
liaisons with the libraries f. liaisons with Computer Services g. on-goingcheckpoint meetings with your delivering agency. At regularly scheduledintervals, you should meet with your delivering agency as they will wish tomonitor the development of the course. Your delivering agency should be checkingwith you to: * keep abreast of your time lines. They need this to be able tobest market your course and to see that it receives the coverage it deserves, *ensure the consistency of an Academia “look and feel” * ensure theconsistency of any standards for web-based courseware development (for anexample, please see http://www.unb.ca/home/webinfo/guide.html) * keep abreast ofyour needs and successes. These meetings are intended to insure the standardsand formats consistent with the delivery of your institute’s courses, and shouldin no way be an attempt to interfere with your teaching.
7.0 NOW YOU MAY START YOUR COMPUTER There is an ongoing debate as to whetherone should do all or some of the web work oneself, or if the work should bejobbed out. I enjoy working with the web, I have instructional design trainingand have been involved in courseware development for quite a few years and so,as long as I have more time than financial resources, I will do the work myself.
There are many very good professional agencies that can be contracted to producecourseware for you. These agencies can be contracted to do a wide range of thejobs necessary to complete any type of web-based application. There are probablyagencies within your institution who specialize in instructional design andcourseware development. These units should be consulted. For certain areas ofthe development that you do yourself, you will need some specific skills. 7.1Skills and Talents 7.1.1 Essential Skills (Talents) You will need to be veryfamiliar with these or will need access to people who are and can do theseaspects of the job for you. 22.214.171.124 HyperText Markup Language – HTML Stands forHyperText Markup Language, and on a scale of one to ten, learning the basics ofHTML is about a three. The web is a great resource (see the Resource listbelow), and there are a plethora of good books on the subject. I keep the mostcurrent version of Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML in a Week by LauraLemay near my computer. As with all aspects of the WWW, the print support ischanging constantly, but the most recent edition is usually the best. 126.96.36.199Instructional Design Again, there a large number of excellent resources and myfavorite is Jerry Kemp’s The Instructional Design Process (New York: Harper& Row, 1985). It is however, out of print, and this is one case where I dothink the next edition was not as good as the first. Another good choice is,Robert Branch’s Common Instructional Design Practices Employed by SecondarySchool Teachers, Educational Technology, 34, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: EducationalTechnology Publications, 1995). 7.1.2 Optional Skills (Talents) 188.8.131.52.1 MoreHTML The more familiar you become with HTML, the more you will be able toenhance your course’s web site. This can be a good thing, and it can also be notso good. Adding components and extra “bells and whistles” to your website should be done as a conscious choice to support your educational objectivesand not just because the “bells and whistles” are there. 184.108.40.206.2 CGIStands for Common Gateway Interface and is the coding that allows theinformation collected from forms on webs sites to be manipulated. This can be assimple as allowing students to send specific assignments to you, or can be aselaborate as on-line registration. 7.2 Components of the Web Course EveryWeb-delivered course will have a number of components. These will vary dependingupon your needs, your style and the degree of interactivity in the course. Thereare some components that should be part of your site, in order to make thecourse appealing to your customer. I feel that some components of a web-basedcourse are essential and others are optional. 7.2.1 Essential Components Thesecan be divided into static and dynamic. 220.127.116.11 Static Components Thesecomponents change very little. They can be put on your web site and only updatedas needed. 18.104.22.168.1 The Course Description This will often come directly fromyour University calendar. 22.214.171.124.2 The Professor This can be as informal or asformal as you like. What kind of first impression do you wish to make? How muchdo you wish to add? Do you wish to link to your own personal Web site (if youhave one)? 126.96.36.199.3 Prerequisites Again, this can often come from youruniversity calendar. It is always a good point to specify any particularcomputing hardware, software or skills that will be required for students to beable to take your course. 188.8.131.52.4 The Text Here is a nice place to put ascanned cover of the text – along with the ISBN, the publisher and all of theinformation needed for your potential students to acquire this text. Here is agood place to put a link to your institute’s bookstore – assuming it has a website. 184.108.40.206.5 Communications This is where you put as much information as youcan about how students can reach you. Will you have office hours? Virtual officehours? Can they reach you via Email? How do they reach each other? Is there alistserv, a secure server? 220.127.116.11.6 Grading Students all seem to want to knowwhat they have to do to get a mark. This is a good place to tell them aboutassignments, quizzes, mid-terms and finals, and any other expectations you haveof them. 18.104.22.168 Dynamic Components These components may change often. Theymight be updated, or supplemented once a week or every few days. 22.214.171.124.1Bulletin Board This gets used much more in the first part of the class. As theclass gets “into it” this seems to be used less frequently. 126.96.36.199.2Assignments These can be placed on the web site before the class begins for allassignments, or can become readable at given times or as new assignments aregiven. 188.8.131.52.3 Communications Options These are the actual components of theweb site that allow interactivity in the course. The real power of the WWW isglobal communication. And this is what makes web-based courses so exciting. Yourcourse’s communications may include any number of the following: 184.108.40.206.4Closed Listservs These use standard Email to allow all members of the class tosend and receive messages from any other member of the class, including theinstructor. Messages are automatically sent to all of the individual’s personalEmail addresses. 220.127.116.11.5 Web Forums These are places where people caninteract. Student-to-student, student-to-teacher and teacher-to-student orteacher to the entire class. These are sections on the web that students go toand are able to read messages and participate in on-line, asynchronous’conversations.’ 18.104.22.168.6 Interactive ‘real time’ two-way audio or video Thereare numerous pieces of software available now that allow desktop two-way videoand audio. These tend to require very high bandwidth, and because they are’real-time’ they require the participating parties to all be on the web at thesame time. 22.214.171.124.7 Marks This is a place where your marking scheme can belisted. It is also a place where you can post marks or assignments in (if youhave a secure server that only your class can access). 126.96.36.199.8 Class Notes Aseach week progresses, or just prior to each week’s work, students may need tohave the equivalent of lecture notes to supplement what is covered in the textbook, or what has been assigned on the web. Some web software will allow you toput the all the notes on the web site – and as certain dates arrive, studentsthen have access to the notes. 7.2.2 Optional Components These may be essential,depending upon your requirements. 188.8.131.52 Audio clips These may be as soundfiles (.WAV or .AU), audio streaming (Real Audio, Soundstream, Shockwave) orMIDI files. 184.108.40.206 Animations These may be as animated .GIFs, QuickTime,Shockwave or Java applications. 220.127.116.11 Quizzes, especially”self-correcting” quizzes These may be as part of a web educationalsoftware (WebCT) or can be developed by yourself or your institution. 18.104.22.168Case studies These may be as included as text pages or may be referenced toother sites. This is one area where copyright can really come into play. Thecost of clearing copyright on a set of Harvard business case studies can be outof the question. 22.214.171.124 Video clips These may be as QuickTime video or may bedone with the new Real Video that allows real-time video streaming. 126.96.36.199 WebDatabase Sites These will allow you to maintain and provide access to databasesover the web. 188.8.131.52 Web Tutoring Sessions These may be as simple asstep-by-step instructions for any topic with branching provided to additionalsites. They can also be we intelligent tutorials with on-line interactivetesting. 7.3 Points to Ponder 7.3.1 Open Server An “open server” willallow anyone, anywhere on the web to access your information. 7.3.2 SecureServer A “secure server” will only allow persons with some type ofauthorization code to access your information.
8.0 RESOURCES (This list does not constitute an endorsement on anyone’s part.
These resources are a jumping off points to help you get your course on theweb.) Please do not overlook the many resources on your own campus. 8.1 Myresources page This site has links to courses, resources, helper sites that aidyou in choosing which type and format of media to use, sites that check yourHTML for errors or idiosyncrasies, and much more. http://www.unb.ca/web/wwwdev/resources.html8.2 Conferences, on-line or face-to-face NAWeb ’98 – The Virtual Campus (October3-6, 1998). This international conference is in its fourth year. It is intendedsolely for those developing courseware for delivery on the WWW or for thosedelivering courseware over the WWW. http://www.unb.ca/web/wwwdev/naweb98/ 8.3Books, listservs and associations Badrul Khan’s Web-Based Instruction (EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1997) is quite good. I host theWWWDEV listserv. This listserv hosts the NAWeb conferences, and has 1400 membersfrom around the world – developing for delivery over the WWW or actuallydelivering courseware over the WWW. http://www.unb.ca/web/wwwdev/ The DEOSNEWSlistserv is involved in all aspects of distance education. You can join that oneby sending this message SUBSCRIBE DEOSNEWS your name to emailprotectedThis is who and what they are: DEOS-L is a service provided to the DistanceEducation community by The American Center for the Study of Distance Education,The Pennsylvania State University. Opinions expressed are those of DEOS-Lsubscribers, and do not constitute endorsement of any opinion, product, orservice by ACSDE or Penn State. The Canadian Association for Distance Education(CADE) can often help http://www.cade-aced.ca/ The Association for Media andTechnology in Education – Canada (AMTEC) is another favorite of mine. http://www.camosun.bc.ca/amtec/Use every and any resource you can. Join groups for support, and support othersin similar projects. This is a rapidly emerging field, and it is evolving andgrowing just as fast as it is emerging. 8.4 Other Here is where you add ideasyou pick up at the conference.
BibliographyThis site has links to courses, resources, helper sites that aid you inchoosing which type and format of media to use, sites that check your HTML forerrors or idiosyncrasies, and much more. http://www.unb.ca/web/wwwdev/resources.html8.2 Conferences, on-line or face-to-face NAWeb ’98 – The Virtual Campus (October3-6, 1998). This international conference is in its fourth year. It is intendedsolely for those developing courseware for delivery on the WWW or for thosedelivering courseware over the WWW. http://www.unb.ca/web/wwwdev/naweb98/ 8.3Books, listservs and associations Badrul Khan’s Web-Based Instruction (EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, 1997) is quite good. I host theWWWDEV listserv. This listserv hosts the NAWeb conferences, and has 1400 membersfrom around the world – developing for delivery over the WWW or actuallydelivering courseware over the WWW. http://www.unb.ca/web/wwwdev/ The DEOSNEWSlistserv is involved in all aspects of distance education. You can join that oneby sending this message SUBSCRIBE DEOSNEWS your name to emailprotectedThis is who and what they are: DEOS-L is a service provided to the DistanceEducation community by The American Center for the Study of Distance Education,The Pennsylvania State University. Opinions expressed are those of DEOS-Lsubscribers, and do not constitute endorsement of any opinion, product, orservice by ACSDE or Penn State. The Canadian Association for Distance Education(CADE) can often help http://www.cade-aced.ca/ The Association for Media andTechnology in Education – Canada (AMTEC) is another favorite of mine. http://www.camosun.bc.ca/amtec/Use every and any resource you can. Join groups for support, and support othersin similar projects. This is a rapidly emerging field, and it is evolving andgrowing just as fast as it is emerging. 8.4 Other Here is where you add ideasyou pick up at the conference.
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How to Go From Class-Room to Web-Room as Painlessly as Possible. (2019, Apr 05). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/web-class-room/