In our days migration is becoming uncontrolled problem which has unpleasantconsequences, especially to the economy and social structure of thecountry. In spite of the fact that countries are doing their best to solvethe problem of migration, but it still remains one of the key problem towhich there is no easy solution. Migration slows down the economy andcauses terrible effects such as increased pollution and unemployment.
What is migration? “Migration is the movement of people, especially ofwhole groups, from one place, region, or country to another, particularlywith the intention of making permanent settlement in a new location”(Encarta encyclopedia / 2004). And there are a number of reasons why peoplemigrate. The main reasons causing migration is the followings: peopleliving in the countries regard large cities as a more desirable place tolive (especially in undeveloped and developing countries), the supply ofsocial services such as education and health service are not the sameeverywhere, low income in rural locations, poverty and others. Thesereasons would “push”(“push factor”) people from rural or poor countries tomoredevelopedregionsorcountries.
Thereisalso”pullfactor”(opportunities for education, marriage or job opportunities) whichattracts labour towards large cities or countries. An instancefor”pull”ing workforce can be Japan, where local people do not want to workfor low salaries (In Japan low wage may be considerably higher for peoplemigrated from less developed counties) or in very dangerous jobs. That iswhy such countries prefer to hire employees from other countries ratherthan local labour.
As it was stated above, a lot of people move to a particular area withvarious reasons. And this is as you know migration which has terribleconsequences. First of all, it affects on the increase of pollution insmall towns. The accumulation of people in one place makes them (towns) toexpand; on the other hand these small towns become large cities. And thus,the pollution increases since researches have shown that if in one area thepopulation becomes more than fifty thousand people this place is consideredto be highly polluted. An example for this can be any developing countrywhere population and productivity have rapid increase.
Second of all, people who migrate from rural places to large cities inorder to get a job with higher earnings can cause unemployment. Thepopulation rises in urban regions. “The rapidly expanding urban areas arecharacterized by many writers as “parasitic” development in so far as theyabsorb a large volume of resources, financial, physical and human but makeonly a limited contribution to the development effort (their “generative”capacity)” (Colman D., Nixon F. / 1986). And certainly the jobs foreveryone are not enough. According to Lewis (1954) if there is differentialin salary between the rural and urban areas the migration will continueuntil this gap disappears (Colman D., Nixon F. / 1986). Typical evidencefor the case of unemployment can be the cities of India (Bombay, Calcutta,Madras and etc.) to where people moved from the rural areas and Pakistan inhope of getting a job with higher salary but only increased poverty andunemployment rate in these cities.
Thirdly, not only developed, but developing countries can suffer frommigration. All the developing countries might experience negative impacts,because of “brain drain” – the loss of trained and educated people. Almostin all less developed countries the government pays very little amount ofmoney for educated individuals. Consequently, these people will loseinterest to their job and try to migrate to those countries where there aregood conditions in jobs and excellent income. And majority of them aredoing so. For example, according to the International Organization forMigration (IOM) presently in the United States there are more Africanengineers and scientists than in Africa itself. There is an interestingfact that “brain drain” has cost Zambia approximately nine billion dollarsin potential growth. Besides, in India it is estimated that about onehundred thousand qualified technology employees are going to migrate to theother countries in the nearest future years. (Center for Strategic &International Studies / 2002).
Finally, there is a negative effect of migration on labour supply. Oftenuncontrolled migration leads to an excess of labour supply in the citieswhich causes poverty and forces people to do an informal kind of workactivities (low-productivity activities) which is really asortofundesirable type of labour. For instance, selling things in the streets,children watching cars and asking for money from their owners when theycome back and others. Such things occur almost in every country evensometimes in the developed ones. Besides there is a big possibility oflabour scarcity in the areas where migrants came from which may alsoharmfully affect on agriculture.
To conclude from all above, one thing can be derived: there is more lossthan profit when people migrate. Certainly some people may not be agreewith this statement saying that migrants have also positive effects on thecountries’ economy and social structure. But usually, in my opinion,migration has negative impact on the countries in view of the fact that itcauses unemployment, pollution, redundancy in a particular area and lack oflabour supply in another area, brain drain and etc. And thus, to avoidthese consequences the government should follow some policies such asmotivating people to stay in their place by increasing wages (especiallyfor educated and well qualified workforce), improving the supply of socialservices (particularly in the field of education and health) in the ruralareas since people feel that these services are better in the city areas,giving extra financial assistance to agriculture to stimulate interest forwork in farmers and others. I propose, that the problem of migration couldbe reduced by implementing such useful and effective policies.
Bibliography:1. Begg D., (2003), Economics, 17th edition, New York, McGraw-HillEducation Limited, pp 511-12.
2. Colman D. and Nixson F., (1986), Economics of Change in Less DevelopedCountries, 2nd edition, London, Philip Allan Publishers Limited, pp 118-19.
3. Gillis M., Perkins D., Roemer M., Snodgrass D., (1996), Economics ofdevelopment, 4th edition, New York, W. W. Norton ; Company Inc.
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5. Center for Strategic ; International Studies, (2002), Economic Effectsof Migration, Internet, Available from:, Accessed21/04/20046. MSN Encarta encyclopedia, (2004), Migration, Internet, Available from:,Accessed 16/04/20047. Population Reference Bureau, (2004), Effect of Migration on PopulationGrowth, Internet, Available from: , Accessed 16/04/20048. World Overpopulation Awareness, (2003), Urbanization and Conflict,Internet, Available from: ,Accessed 14/12/2003
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