What is the complete and correct citation for the article using APA style? - Psychology Essay Example

1 - What is the complete and correct citation for the article using APA style? introduction. What is the complete and correct citation for the article using APA style?

Cook, W.L. & Douglas, E.M. (1998). The looking-glass self in family context: A social relations analysis. Journal of family Psychology, 12(3), 299-309.


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2. Does this study explore macrotheory or microtheory? What is the social scientific paradigm that is emphasized in this article? Explain your answers.

This study tests the applicability of the symbolic interaction theory to the perceptions of children of their parent’s perception of them. The symbolic interaction theory is a microtheory in the sense that it focuses more on the interpersonal relationships and interactions of individuals. The concern of a microtheory is to explore the face-to-face contact of individuals and how it shapes their social realities. This study explores the accuracy of children’s perceptions of how their parents perceive them through a guided task. The symbolic interaction theory is a social science paradigm that emphasizes the use of social symbols and language in the formation of social realities. In this study, the aim is to find out whether there are any correlation between children’s perception and metaperception, family relationships are said to be enduring and more representative of social relations which influences the beliefs and behaviors of the individual.

3. What is the research question?

This study investigated the accuracy of young people’s perceptions of how they are viewed by their parents. The study attempted to test the following hypothesis:

H1. Self-perceptions and metaperceptions would be positively correlated.

H2. The metapercpetions of children in relation to their parents would be accurate.
4. Identify the independent and dependent variables, including how each is defined.

Independent Variables
a. Assertiveness is defined as “you are assertive when you ask someone in a clear, nonhostile way to do something or stop doing something because it would be best for you”.

b. Firmness is defined as “being firm is a kind of assertiveness that involves being able to say No when someone makes a request or demand of you”.

c. Cooperativeness is defined as “you are cooperative when you help or encourage another person to achieve their goals or goals that you have in common”.

Dependent Variables

Self-perception – how they behave toward the target
Other-perception – their view of how the target behaves toward them
Metaperception – how they think they are viewed by the target

5. Describe at least 2 findings from this study.

Based on the given results, the study found that college students were accurate in their perceptions of their father but only for perceived assertiveness. This would indicate that college student’s recognize that their fathers know when they are being assertive; it would seem that parents do not think that their children in college can be firm and cooperative. Moreover, college students also have earned a certain maturity and age that they can speak assertively with their parents compared to their adolescent siblings.  Another finding of the study is that adolescents demonstrated generalized accuracy in their metaperception of cooperation but not for assertiveness and firmness. This can be due to the fact that adolescents have frequent communication exchanges with their parents because they stay in the same house, whereas college students are away from the family, therefore diminishing the interaction they have with their parents. Parent-child interactions and communication may focus more on cooperation that is because they have to abide by the rules and regulations in the house and parents often emphasize the need to work as a family or as a team.

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