The world has ushered in an era of rapid growth of economies and on-going process of global integration. It implies a growing degree of interdependence among economies and societies through cross country flows of capital, information, products, services, culture, technologies and labour (Panayotou 2000). There is no doubt that the globalization brings a lot of advantages. The global commercial market becomes so flexible due to the advent of globalization that transactions of international companies that are not restricted to geographical borders of the countries.
It enhances free international trade among countries across the world, enables the flow of capital to the invested on the untapped resources of the developing countries, and also reduces cultural blockages and differences among nations by encouraging fellow-feeling and mutual compassion (Advantages of Globalization 2009). However rapid economic growth has been accompanied by severe environmental degradation, because economic development results in more raw materials are required to meet the need of industries and markets.
People were dazzled by the immediate benefits, but serious environmental problems are neglected which actually caused by repaid economic development.
Land resources are shrinking because of the industrial development and the expansion of cities. Deserts are spreading because of over grazing, tree cutting and strip mining. The air and water supplies are being polluted by poisonous gasses and waste products (Panayotou 2000). Both developed and developing countries have had similar experiences. People have to face to those problems in their real life and seeking the solutions to relieve and protect the environment.
Understanding the linkage between globalization and environment is the most basic part for people to realize that not only does globalization impact the environment, but the environment impacts the pace, direction and quality of globalization. The purpose of this paper is to identify the key links between globalization and environment and enhance a deeply understanding of these dynamic interact. 2. Two way relationship 2. 1 Globalization affects the environment Early 18th century industrial revolution greatly promoted the level of capacity in human society that mankind has entered the industrial age of mass production.
Until the 70s of last century, the capitalist countries have experienced tremendous amount of development in their science, technology and the commodity economy. 200 years of industrial development rapidly have changed human society more than the past thousand years of development under agricultural phase. (Hooker 1999). Some capitalist countries such as United States, Britain, Germany, and Japan are all gained rapid economic development with foster integration into the global economy. Humans have conquered the oceans, exploited mineral and oil resources in large scale, reclaimed grassland and deforestation.
Globalization increases more opportunities for some enterprises to expand the business scope and sales area, and it has also increased human activities. People were not being confined to their hometown or mother country. More and more people are willing to live in another city, study abroad or doing business overseas. The increase of population flow intensified the burden on the environment, extra office item needs to be manufactured, more land would be used to build houses and even more groundwater need to be extracted.
Great economic momentum has improved the employment rate, people devoted themselves to the work with a respectable income. Just like a chain reaction, people started to search for a high quality of life when they have spare money. Tourism industry has been greatly expanded, it makes a number of undeveloped regions develops to increase the local revenue but destroy the ecological balance there. Billion-dollar islands being built off the coast of Dubai for a group of wealthy tourists, but environmentalists said that the futuristic island developments have taken a heavy toll on the present ecosystem.
The coral reef off the shores of Dubai was destroyed during the dredging work, turtle nesting sites have been destroyed, natural currents rerouted and silt has muddied what were crystal-clear waters. (Hammond 2005) The demand of vehicles increased, that result in more carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions into the air. Since the industrial revolution, annual carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion dramatically increased from near zero to 29 Gt in 2007 (Panayotou 2000). A large number of animals are on the verge of extinction because humans want to eat them or need their fur to produce fashion products.
New investment is created to please the office workers, thus plastic bags and plastic foam emerged as times required. Although those products facilitated human life, it is very harmful as a non-biodegradable product. When burnt plastic bags pungent smell due to release of toxic gases which pollute the air arising breathing problems. These bags when buried in the ground pollute the soil thereby affecting the plant growth. More than just such bad influence,there were some positive influence is also promoting the sustainable development and environmental protection. Income increases, creating more resources for environmental protection. (Halle, Najam, and Runnalls) * Techniques change as technologies are able to extract more from nature but can also keep the nature sustainable. Australia and China built an environment development partnership (ACEDP) in July 2007, the ACEDP is a 5years, $25m Australian government, Australian Agency for International Development initiative commenced with the objective of supporting and improving policy development in China in the area of environmental protection and natural resources management (ACEDP Program Brief 2010).
Globalization facilitates the involvement of a growing diversity of participants and their coalitions in addressing environmental threats. And some reasonable global regulation can enforce an agreement between counties for environmental protection and build upon their synergies to improve environmental performance (Halle, Najam, and Runnalls). * Meanwhile, the appearance of a global village with the development of the modes of transportation and the emergence of the electronic media resulted in more rapid transmission of information. As the ability to utually influence one another become greater in the world, the distances between people and between nations are becoming shorter. Some countries and enterprises would abandon or reconsider the behavior of damage to the environment in order to avoid negative news was revealed as a result of exposure to international public opinion. Despite the worldwide moratorium on commercial whaling, Japanese fisherman kill over 500 whales and 30,000 dolphins and porpoises per year and sells them for profit in their fish markets. (Stop japanese whaling 2000).
As a staunch anti-whaling nation, Australia would prefer to use diplomatic to persuade Japan to end its hunt. And Japan have to through negotiation for aviod to go the International Court of Justice. (Australia tells Japan: Stop whaling or face court 2010) 3. 2 Environment affects globalization Just as environmental protection efforts will be shaped by the path of globalization, environmental choice may affect the course of globalization, particularly efforts to liberalize trade and investment flows. Here are some examples of influence list blow about how does environment affect globalization. Natural resource scarcity or abundance is the driver of globalization, as they incite supply and demand forces in global markets. And sometimes, the quantity and quality of those resources directly influence the market price and profit earning. Companies in specific area has to consider those facts when they do business, for example the global trade of wood, oil and agricultural products. * The need of environmental amelioration can impose costs on the economy and get resources shifted away from development goals. In the Netherlands, awareness of the environment plays a major role in Dutch life.
In 1988, the Netherlands spent 1. 34% of its GNP on environmental protection. In June 1990, a supplement to the environmental plan named “Nmp-Plus” was submitted, including plans for a leveling off and eventual reduction in CO2 emissions by 2000. To finance this program, a CO2 levy has been introduced, which is expected to generate $75 million in 1990. This will be spent about $ 20 million on anti-acidification measures, $30 million on energy conservation, and $25 million on promotion of public transport (Background notes: Netherlands 1991) Environmental stress also triggers alternative technological paths. Alternative energy like solar energy has been developed. Countries actively introduce and promote the application of such technologies as solar energy power generating, solar energy heating. Some cities harness the power of wind to make electricity.
Scientists also use the heat from breaking the nucleus of atoms in place of burning oil or coal as non-renewable resources. Energy industry began to enter the international arena to fit the increasing economic demand with energy shortage. The nature of environmental challenge makes most firms to consider decreasing the damage to environment, for example fully decomposition of pollutants and then send them out, improve the utilization of raw materials. To some extent, it was probably raise the price because complicated production process. Environmental standards also influence the incorporation of environmental governance into trade and investment that firms have to show their behaviors of environment protection (Halle, Najam, and Runnalls). As a global business, The Body Shop strongly feels the need to be proactive in the battle against environment change.
They have made great strides in sourcing renewable energy wherever possible to run their offices, warehouses and stores around the world. And they also replaced all carrier bags with 100% recyclable paper bags (The Body Shop: protect-planet 2010). 3. The Environmental Kuznets Curve Several environmental and development economists have hypothesized the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve. The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesizes that the relation between income per capita and many types of environmental degradation has an inverted U-shape (What is EKS, 2000).
In this diagram, environmental degradation worsens as per capita income increases until we reach a turning point, after which the situation gets better. Which means at relatively low income levels, emissions increase with income, but after the “turning point”, emissions decrease with income. EKS has been used as an argument that economic growth and increased environmental quality go closely. This is not quite useful unless there is a turning point. However, it is very hard and expensive to touch that point.
4. Conclusion. In conclusion, environment and globalization are intrinsically linked, they are so deeply welded together that people simply cannot address the global environmental challenges unless they are able to understand and harness the dynamics of globalization its influence on both of them. By the same token, those who wish to capitalize on the potential of globalization will not be able to do so unless they are able to understand and address the great environmental challenges, which are part of the context within which globalization takes place.
Cite this What Relationship Is There Between Globalization and Global Environmental Change?
What Relationship Is There Between Globalization and Global Environmental Change?. (2017, Mar 12). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/what-relationship-is-there-between-globalization-and-global-environmental-change/