Who Made Rizal Our Foremost National Hero. and Why?BY: ESTEBAN A. DE OCAMPODr. Jose Rizal Mercado y Alonso. or merely Jose Rizal ( 1861-1896 ) . is unimpeachably the greatest hero & A ; sufferer of our state. The twenty-four hours of his birth & A ; the twenty-four hours of his executing are appropriately commemorated by all categories of our people throughout the length & A ; comprehensiveness of this state & A ; even by Filipinos & A ; their friends abroad. His name is a proverb in every Filipino place while his image adorns the postage cast & A ; paper money of widest circulation.
No other Filipino hero can excel Rizal in the figure of towns. barrios. & A ; streets named after him ; in the figure of educational establishments. societies. & A ; trade names that bear his name ; in the figure of individuals. both Filipinos & A ; aliens. who were named “Rizal” or “Rizalina” because of their parents’ esteem for the Great Malayan ; & A ; in the figure of Torahs. Executive Orders & A ; Announcements of the Chief Executive.
& A ; bulletins. memorandum. & A ; handbills of both the agency of public & A ; private schools. Who is the Filipino author & A ; mind whose instructions & A ; baronial ideas have been often invoked & A ; quoted by writers & A ; public talkers on about all occasions? None but Rizal. And why is this so? Because as biographer Rafael Palma ( 1 ) said. “The philosophies of Rizal are non for one era but for all eras.
They are as valid today as they were yesterday. It can non be said that because the political ideals of Rizal have been achieved. because of the alteration in the establishments. the wisdom of his advocates or the value of his philosophies have ceased to be opportune. They have non. ” Unfortunately. nevertheless. there are still some Filipinos who entertain the belief that Rizal is a “made-to-order” national hero. & A ; that the shaper or maker in this instance were the Americans. peculiarly Civil Governor William Howard Taft. This was done allegedly. in the undermentioned mode: “And now. gentlemen. you must hold a national hero” . These were supposed to be the words addressed by Gov. Taft to Mssrs. Pardo de Tavera. Legarda & A ; Luzurriaga. Filipino members of the Filipino Commission. of which Taft was the president. It was further reported that “in the subsequent treatment in which the rival virtues of the radical heroes ( M. H. del Pilar. Graciano Lopez Jaena. Gen. Antonio Luna. Emilio Jacinto. & A ; Andres Bonifacio—O. ) were considered. the concluding choice—now universally acclaimed a wise one—was Rizal. And so history was made. ” ( 2 ) This article will try to reply two inquiries: 1 ) Who made Rizal the first national hero & A ; 2 ) Why is Rizal our greatest national hero? Before continuing to reply these questions. it will be better if we foremost know the significance of the term hero. Harmonizing to Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language. a hero is “a outstanding or cardinal personage taking admirable portion in any singular action or event” . Besides. “a individual of distinguished heroism or endeavor in danger” . And eventually. he is a adult male “honored after decease by public worship. because of exceeding service to mankind” . Why is Rizal a hero. nay. our first national hero? He is our greatest hero because as a eminent figure in the Propaganda Campaign. he took an “admirable part” in that motion w/c approximately covered the period from 1882-1896. If we were asked to pick out a individual work by a Filipino author during this period. more than any author authorship. contributed enormously to the formation of Filipino nationality. we shall hold no vacillation Sn taking Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere ( Berlin. 1887 ) .
It is true that Pedro Paterno published his novel. Ninay. in Madrid in 1885 ; M. H. del Pilar his La Soberania Monacal in Barcelona in 1889. Graciano Lopez Jaena. his Discursos Y Articulos Varios. besides in Barcelona in 1891 ; & A ; Antonio Luna. his Impresiones in Madrid in 1893. but none of these books had evoked such favourable & A ; unfavourable remarks from friends & A ; enemies likewise as did Rizal’s Noli. Typical of the eulogies that the hero received for his novel were those received from Antonio Ma. Regidor & A ; Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt. Regidor. a Filipino expatriate of 1872 in London. said that “the book was superior” & A ; that if “don Quixote has made its writer immortal because he exposed to the universe the agonies of Spain. your Noli Me Tangere will convey you equal glory…” ( 3 ) Blumentritt. after reading Rizal’s Noli. wrote & A ; congratulated its writer. stating among other things: “Your work. as we Germans say. has been written w/ the blood of the heart… Your work has exceeded my hopes & A ; I consider myself happy to hold been honored by your friendly relationship. Not merely I. but besides your state. may experience happy for holding in you a loyal & A ; loyal boy. If you continue so. you will be to your people one of those great work forces who will exert a deciding influence over the advancement of their religious life. ” ( 4 ) If Rizal’s friends & A ; supporters praised w/ justifiable pride the Noli & A ; its writer. his enemies were every bit loud & A ; bitter in assailing & A ; reprobating the same.
Possibly no other work has. up to this twenty-four hours. aroused as much bitter argument non merely among our people but besides among reactionist aliens as the Noli of Rizal. In the Philippines the hero’s novel was attacked & amp ; condemned by a module commission of a Manila university ( UST ) & A ; by the lasting censoring committee in 1887. the commission said that it found the book “heretical. impious. & A ; disgraceful to the spiritual order. & A ; disloyal & A ; insurgent to the public order. calumniatory to the govt. of Spain & A ; to its political policies in these islands” . while the committee recommended that “the importing. reproduction. & A ; circulation of this baneful book in the islands be perfectly prohibited. ” ( 5 ) Coming down to our clip. during the congressional treatments & A ; hearings on the Rizal ( Noili-Fili ) in 1956. the advocates & A ; oppositions of the measure besides engaged themselves in a acrimonious & A ; long extended argument the eventually resulted in the passage of a via media step. now known as RA 1425. The onslaughts on Rizal’s 1st novel were non merely confined in the Philippines but were besides staged in the Spanish capital. There. Sen. Vida. Deputy ( & A ; ex-general ) Luis de Pando & A ; Premier Praxedes Mateo Sagasta were among those who unjustly lambasted & A ; criticized Rizal & A ; his Noli in the 2 Chamberss of the Spanish Cortes in 1888 & A ; 1889. ( 6 ) it is soothing to larn nevertheless. that about 13 old ages subsequently. Cong. Henry Allen Cooper of Wisconsin delivered an eulogium of Rizal & A ; even recited the martyr’s Ultimo Pensamiento on the floor of the U. S. House of Representatives in order to turn out the capacity of the Filipinos for self- authorities. He said in portion: “It has been said that. if American establishments had done nil else to supply to the universe the character of George Washington. that entirely would entitle them to the regard of world. So Sir. I say to all those who denounces the Filipinos randomly as savages & A ; barbarians. w/o possibility of a civilised hereafter. that this detested race proved itself entitled to their regard & A ; to the regard of world when it furnished to the universe the character of Jose Rizal. ” ( 7 ) The consequence of this entreaty was the blessing of what is popularly known as the Philippine Bill of 1902. The predating paragraphs have shown that by the Noli entirely Rizal. among his coevalss. had become the most prominent/ the cardinal figure of the Propaganda Movement. Again. we ask the inquiry: why did Rizal. go the greatest Filipino hero?
Because in this writer’s low sentiment. no Filipino has yet been born who could be or excel Rizal as a “person of distinguished valor/enterprise in danger. fortitude in enduring. ” Of these traits of our hero. allow us see what a Filipino & A ; an American biographer said: “What is most admirable in Rizal. ” wrote Rafael Palma. is his complete self-denial. his complete forsaking of his personal involvements to believe merely of those of his state. He could hold been whatever he wished to be. sing his natural endowmwnts ; he could hold earned considerable amounts of money from his profession ; he could hold lived comparatively rich. happy. comfortable. had he non dedicated himself to public affairs. But in him. the voice of the species was stronger than the voice of personal advancement or of private luck. & A ; he preferred to populate far from his household & A ; to give his personal fondnesss for an ideal he had dreamed of. He heeded non his brother. non even his parents. existences whom he respected & A ; venerated so much. in order to follow the route his scruples had traced for him. He did non hold great agencies at his disposal to transport out his run. but that did non discouraged him ; he contented himself w/ what he had. He suffered the asperities of the cold winter of Europe. he suffered hungriness. want. & A ; wretchedness ; but when he raised his eyes to heaven & amp ; saw his ideal. his hope was reborn.
He complained of his countrymen. he complained of some of those who had promosed him assist & amp ; did non assist him. until at times. deeply disillusioned. he wanted to abdicate his run everlastingly. giving up everything. But such minutes are evanescent. he shortly felt comforted & amp ; resumed the undertaking of bearing the cross of his agony. ” ( 8 ) Dr. Frank C. Laubach. an American biographer of Rizal. radius of the hero’s coueage in the undermentioned words: His devouring life intent was the secret of his moral bravery. Physical bravery. it is true. was one of his familial traits. But that high bravery to decease loving his liquidators. w/c he at last achieved–that can non be inherited. It must be forged out in the fires of enduring & A ; enticement. As we read through his life. we can see how the moral tendon & A ; fibre grew twelvemonth by twelvemonth as he faced new hazards & A ; was forced to do fearful determinations. It required bravery to compose his 2 great novels stating nil that no otherman has ventured to state before. standing about entirely against the powerful involvements in the state & A ; in Spain. & A ; cognizing full well that absolutism would strike back. He had reached another loftier tableland of gallantry when he wrote those letters to Hong Kong. “To be opened after my death” . & A ; sailed to the “trap” in Manila w/o any semblances.
Then in his Dapitan expatriate when he was tempted to get away. & A ; said “No” . non one time but 100s of times for 4 long old ages. & A ; when. on the manner to Cuba. Pedro Roxas pleaded w/ him to step off the boat of Singapore upon British district & A ; salvage his life. what an interior battle it must hold caused him to reply over & As ; over once more. “No. no. no! ” When the sentence of decease & A ; the fatal forenoon of his executing brought the concluding trial. 30 Dec 1896. he walked w/ perfect composure to the firing line as though by his ain pick. the lone heroic figure in that seamy scene. ” ( 9 ) To the bigoted Spaniards in Spain & A ; in the Philippines. Rizal was the most intelligent. most brave. & A ; most unsafe enemy of the ultraconservatives & A ; the autocrats ; hence he should be changeable publically to function as an illustration & A ; a warning to those of his sort. This was the ground why Rizal. after a brief mock test. was sentenced to decease & A ; made to confront the fire squad at Bagumbayan Field. now Luneta. in the early forenoon of 30 Dec 1896. And for the 3rd & A ; the last clip. we repeat the inquiry: Why is Rizal the greatest Filipino hero that of all time lived? Because “he is a adult male honored after decease by public worship. because of exceeding service to mankind” .
We can state that even before his executing. Rizal was the already acclaimed by both Filipinos & A ; aliens as the first leader of his people” . Writing from Barcelona to the Great Malayan on 10 Mar 1889. M. H. del Pilar said: “Rizal no tiene aun derecho a morir: su nombre constituye La mas pura e immaculada bandera de aspirationes y Plaridel los suyos no boy otra causa mom que immaculada unos voluntarios que militan bajo esa bandera. ” ( 10 ) Fernando Acevedo. who called Rizal his distinguido amigo. companero Y paisano” . wrote the missive from Zaragoza. Spain. on 25 Oct 1889: “I see in you the theoretical account Filipino ; your application to analyze & amp ; you endowments have placed on a height w/c I revere & amp ; admire. ” ( 11 ) The Bicolano Dr. Tomas Arejola wrote Rizal in Madrid. 9 Feb 1891. stating: “Your moral influence over us is incontestable. ” ( 12 ) And Guillermo Puatu of Bulacan wrote this testimonial to Rizal. stating: “Vd. a quien Se lupus erythematosus puede ( llamar ) con razon. cabeza custodial de los Filipinos. aunque la comparacion parezca algo ridicula. porque posee la virtud la atraer consigo enconadas voluntades. zanjar La discordias y enemistades renorosasnreuniren fiestas a guies que no querian poetry Ni en la calle… ( 12a ) Among the aliens who recognized Rizal as the taking Filipino of his clip were Blumentritt. Napoleon M. Kheil. Dr. Rheinhold Rost. & A ; Vicente Barrantes. Prof. Blumentritt told Dr.
Maximo Viola in May 1887 that “Rizal was the greatest merchandise of the Philippines & A ; that his coming to the universe was like the visual aspect of a rare comet. whose rare glare appears merely every other century. ” ( 13 ) Napoleon Kheil of Prague. Austria. wrote to Rizal & A ; said: “admiro en Vd. a un baronial representante de la Espana colonial. ” ( 13a ) Dr. Rost. distinguished Malayologist & A ; bibliothec of the India office of London. called Rizal “una perla hombre” ( 14 ) . while don Vicente Barrantes had to acknowledge that Rizal was ‘the foremost among the Filipinos” ( 14 ) Even before the eruption of the revolution against Spain in 1896. many cases can be cited to turn out that his state here & amp ; abroad recognized Rizal’s leading. In the early portion of 1899 he was nem con elected by the Filipinos in Barcelona & A ; Madrid as honorary pres. of la Solidaridad. ( 17 )
Some months subsequently in Paris. he organized & A ; became head of the Indios Bravos. In Jan 1891. Rizal was once more nem con chosen Responsable ( head ) of the Spanish-Filipino Association. ( 18 ) He was besides the laminitis & A ; traveling spirit in the initiation of La Liga Filipina on Manila in 3 Jul 1892. History tells us intertwine the radical society known as Katipunan similarly acknowledged Rizal’s leading & A ; illustriousness by doing him its honorary President & A ; by utilizing his household name Rizal as the watchword for the 3rd-degree members. ( 19 ) A twelvemonth after Rizal’s executing. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo & A ; the other radical heads exiled to Hong Kong held a commemorating plan at that place on 29 Dec 1897 on the juncture of the first day of remembrance of the hero’s executing & A ; martyrdom. ( 20 ) Of extreme significance in the public’s grasp for Rizal’s loyal labours in behalf of his people were the testimonials paid by the radical authorities to his memory. In his gap reference at the Congress assembled at Malolos. Bulacan on 15 Sep 1898. Pres. Aguinaldo invoked the liquors of the bygone heroes of the homeland. therefore: Celebrated liquors of RIZAL. Lopez Jaena. of Marcelo del Pilar! August sunglassess of Burgos. Pelaez & A ; Panganiban!
Militant masterminds of Aguinaldo! ( Crispulo—O. ) . & A ; Tirona. of Natividad & A ; Evangelista! Originate a minute from your unknown Gravess! ( 21 ) Then on 20 Dec 1898 at the radical capital of Malolos. Pres. Aguinaldo issued the 1st official announcement doing 30 Dec of that twelvemonth as “Rizal Day” . The same announcement ordered the lifting the Filipino flags at half-mast “from 12:00 midday on 30 Dec 1898” and the shutting of “all offices of the government” during the whole twenty-four hours of 30 Dec. really. the impressive Rizal Day plan. sponsored by the Club Filipino. was held in Manila on 30 Dec 1898. ( 22a ) It should be farther noted that both the La Independencia. edited by Gen. Antonio Luna. & A ; the El Heraldo de la Revolucion. official organ of the radical authorities. issued a particular addendum in award of Rizal in one of their December issues in 1898. Two of the greatest of Filipino poets in the Spanish linguistic communication paid glowing testimonials to the sufferer of Bagumbayan in recognition of the hero’s labours & A ; forfeits for his people. Fernando Ma. Guerrero wrote on 25 Sep 1898. therefore: “No has muerto. no. La Gloria es tu destino ; tu corona los Fuego de la aurora. y tu inviolable communion table nuestra conciencia. ” ( 23 ) And Cecilio Apostol. on 30 Dec of the same twelvemonth. wrote these lines: “ ! Duerme en paz Las sombras de la nada.
Redentor de una Patria esclavizada!! No llores de la tumba en el misterioDel espanol EL triunfo momentaneo:Que Si Una bala destrozo tu craneo.Tambien tu thought destrozo un emperio! ( 24 )The Filipinos were non entirely in sorrowing the ill-timed decease of their hero & A ; graven image. for the rational & A ; scientific circles of the universe felt keenly the loss of Rizal. who was their honored co-worker & A ; friend. Dr. Camilo Osias & A ; Wenceslao E. Retana both radius of the cosmopolitan court accorded to Rizal instantly after his decease. Dr. Osias wrote therefore: Expressions of deep understanding came from Blumentritt & A ; many others such as Dr. Renward Braustetter of Lucerne. a bookman on things Malay ; Dr. Feodor Jagor. a German writer of Philippine Travels ; Dr. Friedrich Ratzel. an emeinent German geographer & A ; ethnographer ; Senor Ricardo Palma. a distinguished adult male of letters from Peru ; Prof. M Buchner. manager of the Ethnographic Museum of Munich & A ; a celebrated Malayologist ; Monsieur Edmont Planchut. a Gallic Orientalist. writer of assorted plants & A ; author on Philippine topics ;
Dr. W. Joest. high German geographer & A ; professor at the University of Berlin ; Dr. H. Kern. professor of Sanskrit in the University of Leiden & A ; celebrated authorization on Malay personal businesss ; Dr. J. Montano. a distinguished Gallic linguist & A ; anthropologist & A ; writer of a Memoria on the Philippines ; Dr. F. Mueller. professor of the University of Vienna & A ; a great philologue ; a celebrated Dutch literary adult female who signed H. D. Teenk Willink. writer of a touching & A ; painstaking life of Rizal ; Herr Manfred Wittich. author of Leipzig ; Dr. Betances. Cuban political leader ; Dr. Boettger. a celebrated German naturalist & A ; writer of plants on the zoology of the Philippines ; Dr. A. B. Meyer. manager of the Museum of Ethnography at Dresden & A ; high Filipinologist ; M. Odekerchen of Leige. manager of l’Express. a newspaper where Rizal wrote articles ; Dr. Ed Seler. transcriber in German of Rizal’s My Last Farewell ; Mr. H. W. Bray. a distinguished English author ; Mr. John Foreman. writer of plants on the Philippines & A ; Rizal ; Herr C. m. Heller. a German naturalist ; Dr. H. Stolpe. a Swedish initiate who spoke & A ; published on the Philippines & A ; Rizal ; Mr. Armand Lelinsky. Austrian applied scientist & A ; author ; Dr. J. M. Podhovsky. a noteworthy Czech write. writer of assorted plants on the Philippines & A ; Dr. Rizal. ( 25 )
Among the scientific necrological services held particularly to honour Rizal. the one sponsored by the Anthropological Society of Berlin in 20 Nov 1897 at the enterprise of Dr. Rudolph Virchow. its president. was the most of import & A ; important. Dr. Ed Seler recited the German interlingual rendition of Rizal’s “My Last Farewell” on that juncture. ( 26 ) The newspapers. magazines. & A ; other periodicals throughout the civilised universe – in Germany. Austria. France. Holland. London. the US. Japan. Hong Kong & A ; Macao. Singapore. Switzerland. & A ; in Latin American countries—published histories of Rizal’s martyrdom in order to render court to his illustriousness. ( 27 ) Did the Americans. particularly Gov. W. H. Taft. truly choose Rizal out of several Filipino nationalists as the No. 1 hero of his people? Nothing could be further from the truth. In the preceding pages. we have shown beyond the shadow of a uncertainty that the Great Malayan. by his ain attempts & A ; forfeits for his laden countrymen. had projected himself as the first leader of the Philippines until the minute of his immolation. & A ; this fact was spontaneously acknowledged non merely by his ain people but besides the elite of other lands who closely knew his loyal labours. We have similarly shown that instantly after his executing. his ain people had rightly acclaimed him as their foremost hero & A ; sufferer. The rational & A ; scientific universe. as we have besides demonstrated. was non slow in harmonizing him signal awards as a hero of humanity & A ; as an apostle of freedom. Mr. Taft. as president of the 2nd Filipino Commission. arrived in the Philippines in June 1900. This committee began its legislative maps on 1st September of the same twelvemonth.
On June 11 of the resulting twelvemonth the Philippine committee approved Act no. 137. w/c organized the “politico-military territory of Morong” into the “Province of Rizal” . This was the 1st official measure taken by the Taft committee to honour our greatest hero & A ; sufferer. It should be borne in head that 6 yearss before the transition of Act no. 137. the Taft committee held a meeting at the town of Pasig for the intent of forming the state. In that meeting attended by the taking citizens of both Manila & A ; Morong. a program was presented to unite the 2 territories into one. but this proposal met w/ determined & As ; vigorous expostulations from the leaders of Morong. “At this point” . reads the ‘Minutes of Proceedings’ of the Taft committee. “Dr. Tavera. of the Federal Party. who accompanied the committee. asked that he might do a suggestion w/ mention to the proposed brotherhood of Manila & A ; Morong states. It was his sentiment that in instance of brotherhood neither the name of Morong nor Manila ought to be retained. He so stated the usage w/c prevailed in Thursday US & A ; other states of calling of import localities/districts in memory of some celebrated citizen of the state. In line w/ this he suggested that the united states be named ‘Rizal’ in memory & A ; award of the most celebrated Filipino & A ; the most celebrated Tagalog the islands had of all time known.
The president ( Taft—O. ) stated that the committee. non less than the Filipinos. felt proud to make honour to the name of Rizal. & A ; if. after consideration. it decided to unify the 2 states. it would hold the pleasance. if such action met the desires of the people. in giving the new state the name of Rizal” . ( 28 ) It is obvious so that the thought of calling the territory of Morong after Rizal came from Dr. Pardo de Tavera. a Filipino. & A ; non from Judge Taft. an American. It is interesting to cognize that 2 countrymen of Mr. Taft—Justice George A. Malcolm & A ; Dr. Frank C. Laubach—who both resided in the Philippines for many old ages & A ; who were really familiar w/ the history & A ; lives of great Filipinos—do non subscribe to the position that Jose Rizal is an American-made hero. Justice Malcolm has this to state: In those early yearss ( of the American occupation—O. ) . it was bruited about that the Americans had ‘made’ Rizal a hero to function their intents. That was so a sinister reading of voluntary American action designed to pay testimonial to a great adult male. ( 29 ) Dr. Laubach’s position about the inquiry is as follows:
The tradition that every American hears when he reaches the Filipino Islands is that W. H. Taft. feeling that the Filipinos needed a hero. made one out of Rizal. We trust this book ( Rizal: Man & A ; Martyr—O. ) will function to demo how empty that statement is. it speaks good for Taft that he was sufficiently free from racial bias to appreciate in some step the stature of a great Filipino. It was a Spaniard who did more than any other to salvage Rizal for posterity—Retana whose work ( Vida Escritos del Dr. Jose Rizal. Madrid. 1907 ) . is by far the most complete & A ; scholarly than we have ( in1936—O. ) . like Rizal. he lost all his money in the cause of the Filipinos. & A ; died a hapless adult male. ( 30 ) Allowing for the interest of statement that the Taft committee chose Rizal out of several great Filipinos as the No. 1 hero of his people. still we can state that what the committee did was simply to corroborate a kind of fait accompli. & A ; that was that Jose Rizal had already been acclaimed by his countrymen & A ; the scientific universe as the foremost hero & A ; sufferer of the land of his birth. Nay. we can travel even farther & A ; concur w/ Prof. Blumentritt. who said in 1897: Not merely is Rizal THE MOST PROMINENT MAN OF HIS OWN PEOPLE but THE GREATEST MAN THE MALAYAN RACE HAS PRODUCED. His memor ywill ne’er die in his homeland. & A ; future coevalss of Spaniards will yet toutter his name w/ regard & A ; fear. ( 31 ) ( capitalisation supplied ) Possibly the undermentioned citation from the late William Cameron Forbes. an fervent supporter of Rizal & A ; the governor-general of the Philippines during the building of the Rizal Mausoleum on the Luneta. is appropriate at this point. He said: It is eminently proper that Rizal should hold become the acknowledged national hero of the Filipino people.
The American disposal has lent every aid to this acknowledgment. puting aside the day of remembrance of his decease to be a twenty-four hours of his observation. puting his image on the postage stamp most normally used in the Islands. & A ; on the currency. collaborating w/ the Filipinos in doing the site of his school in Dapitan a national park. & A ; promoting the hard-on by public subscription of a memorial in his award on the Luneta in Manila near the topographic point where he met his decease. One of the longest & A ; most of import street in Manila has been named in his memory—Rizal Avenue. The Filipinos in many metropoliss & A ; towns have erected memorials to his name. & A ; throughout the Islands the populace schools teach the immature Filipinos to idolize his memory as the greatest of Filipino nationalists. ( 32 ) Now and so we come across some Filipinos who venture the sentiment that Andres Bonifacio. & A ; non Jose Rizal. deserves to be acknowledged & amp ; canonized as our first national hero. They maintain that Rizal ne’er held a gun. a rifle. or a blade in contending for the autonomy & A ; independency of our state in the battleground.
They further assert that while the first national heroes of other states are soldier-generals. like George Washington of US. Napoleon I & A ; Joan of Arc of France. simon Bolivar of Venezuela. Jose de San Martin of Argentina. Bernardo O’Higgins of Chile. Jimmu Tenno of Japan. etc. . our greatest hero was a pacificist & A ; a civilian whose arm was his quill. However. our people in exerting their good sense. independent judgement. & A ; unusual understanding. have non followed the illustrations of other states in choosing & A ; admiting a military leader for their greatest hero. Rafael Palma has really good stated the instance of Rizal versus Bonifacio in these words: It should be a beginning of pride & A ; satisfaction to the Filipinos to hold among their national heroes one of such first-class qualities & A ; virtues w/c may be equaled but non surpassed by any other adult male. Whereas by and large the heroes of Hesperian states are warriors & A ; generals who serve their cause w/ the blade. condensing blood & A ; cryings. the hero of the Filipinos served his cause w/ the pen. showing that the pen is every bit mighty as the blade to deliver a people from their political bondage. It is true that in our instance the blade of Bonifacio was after all needed to agitate off the yoke of a foreign power ; but the revolution prepared by Bonifacio was merely the consequence. the effect of the religious salvation wrought by the pen of Rizal. Hence non merely in the chronological order but besides in the point of importancethe old plants of Rizal seems to us superior to that of Bonicacio. because although that of Bonifacio was of immediate consequences. that of Rizal will hold more lasting & A ; lasting effects. ( 33 ) And allow us observe further what other great work forces said about the pen being mightier & A ; more powerful than the blade. Napoleon I himself. who was a great vanquisher & A ; swayer. said: “There are merely two powers in the universe ; the blade & A ; the pen ; and in the terminal the former is ever conquered by the latter” . ( 34 ) The undermentioned statement of Sir Thomas Browne is more applicable to the function played by Rizal in our libertarian battle: “Scholars are work forces of peace ; they bear no weaponries ; but their linguas are sharper than the blade ; their pens carry farther & A ; give a louder study than boom. I had instead stand in the daze of a basilisk than in the rage of a merciless pen” . ( 35 )
And eventually. allow us cite from Bulwer: “take away the blade ; provinces can be saved w/o it ; conveying the pen! For those who may still doubt & amp ; inquiry the fact that Rizal is greater. far greater than Bonifacio. or any other Filipino hero. the undermentioned observation by Retana will be sufficient: Todos los paises tienen su idolo mom ninguno tiene un city manager idolo ; que Filipinas. Antes desaparecera de los Estados Unidos— ! Y ya decir! —la memoria de Washington. que de Filipinas la memoria de RIZAL. No fue rizal. como medical student. un Mariani. ni como dibujante un Gustavo Dore. ni como antropologo un Virchow. ni como poeta un Goethe. ni como filipinista un Blumentritt. ni como historiador un Macaulay. ni como pensador un Hervas. ni como malayologo un Kern. ni como filiosofo un Descartes. ni como novelista un Zola. ni como literato un Menendez Y Pelayon in como escultor un Querol. ni como geografo un Reclus. ni como tirador un Pini…Distinguiose nut muchas disciplinas ; pero en ninguna de ellas alcanzo ese grado supremo que asegura La inmortalidad. Fue patriota ; fue martir del amor a su pais.
Pero en caso de Rizal hay otros Filipinos ; y? en que consiste que rizal esta a stat mis de cudos sobre todos ellos? Sencillamente. en la finura exquisita de su espiritu. en la nobleza quijotesca de su corazon. en su psicologia Toda. romantica. sonadora. buena. endearing. psicologia que sintelizo todos los sentimientos Y aspiraciones de un Pueblo que sufria viendose victima de un regimen oprobioso…El espiritu de la Revolucion tagala se juzga por este solo hecho ; Fue. como es sabido. el brazo armado de aquel movimiento Andres Bonifacio ; he ahi el guy que dio EL primer grito contra tirania EL que acaudillo Las primeras huestes el que murio en la brecha…Y a ese guy apenas se le recuerda ; no Se la eregido ningun monumento ; los vates populares no lupus erythematosus Han cantado…Mientras que a RIZAL. enemigo de le Revolucion. que califico de salvaje y deshonrosa. lupus erythematosus glorifica el Pueblo deificarle… ? No Se ve en esto un Pueblo eminentamente espiritual. que tuvo en RIZAL un resumen viviente? Todo Filipino lleva dentro de si algo del demagogo Bonifacio. La inmortalidad de RIZAL esta asegurada de cien maneras. Pero como mom asegurada esta Es poque los millones de Filipinos de hoy. de manana y de siempre beben y beberan espiritu de RIZAL ; no se nutren de otra cosa. ( 37 ) In the preceding pages we have tried to demo that Rizal was non merely a great hero. but the greatest among the Filipinos.
As a affair of fact. the Austrian initiate Prof. Blumentritt judged him as “the most outstanding adult male of his ain people” and “the greatest adult male the Malayan race has produced” . We have besides shown during his life-time. Rizal was already acclaimed by both Filipinos & A ; aliens as the first leader of his people & A ; that this esteem for him has increased w/ the passing of clip since his dramatic decease on the Luneta that fatal forenoon of 30 December 1896. Likewise. we attempted to confute the claim made by some quarters that Rizal is an American-made hero. & A ; we besides tried to explicate why Rizal is greater than any other Filipino hero. including Andres Bonifacio. Who made Rizal the foremost hero of the Philippines? The reply is: no individual individual or groups of individuals were responsible for doing the Greatest Malayan the No. 1 Hero of his people. Rizal himself. his ain people. & A ; the aliens all together contributed to do him the greatest hero & A ; sufferer of his people. No sum of adulation & A ; canonisation by both Filipinos & A ; aliens could change over Rizal into a great hero if he did non possess in himself what Palma calls “excellent qualities & A ; merits” or what Retana calls “la finura exquisite de su espiritu. …la nobleza quijotesca de su corazon. … su psicologia Toda. romantica. sonadora. buena. endearing. psicologia que sintetizo todos los entimientos Y aspiraciones de un Pueblo que sufria. viendose victima de su regimen oprobioso… . ”
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