Winter Sports Anaylsis
What is the key issues facing the Philippines tourism industry? - Winter Sports Anaylsis introduction?? How has it affected tourism arrivals to the country compared to similar countries in the region? In this essay I will be discussing in detail about the key issues facing the Philippines tourism industry through my research. My essay will begin with how important tourism is in general. I then will point out the main issues that some countries face involving the tourism industry. The core of my essay will begin with facts and figures about the Philippines and their tourism. I will then identify the key issues that the Philippines face?
How it has affected the country and most importantly, how it has affected their tourism and their arrivals? To show my understanding, I will choose another country within the region to compare the Philippines with. Once I have researched, identified, described and investigated the main issues, I will summarise and conclude my essay showing my understanding. What is tourism? According to the UNWTO, their definition of Tourism is “Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
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” (UNWTO, 2009). They believe that tourism is completely different from Travel, people travel and the tourism happens with displacement outside the usual environment. Tourism will always be defined differently as the first definition was made by Guyer Feuler in 1905. Macintosh and Goeldner’s definition of tourism is “Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries which deliver a travel experience comprising transportation, accommodation, eating and drinking establishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groups travelling away from home”(Ugurlu .
T. (2010) – Macintosh and Goeldner). This definition is different from UNWTO definition as they believe tourism is a collection which involves everything put together to carry out a travel experience. Whether there are different definitions, travel will always be part of tourism and that’s what creates the Travel and Tourism Industry. The travel and tourism industry has played a massive part in today’s living as more and more people are travelling for several reasons. This could be for business reasons, visiting families and friends, educational reasons or vacation reasons.
Shown below is a diagram which shows a typical breakdown of segments which shows the type of tourist that travel for a purpose. Types of tourist by purpose of travel Tourists and excursionists Business purposes Recreational purposes Holiday ‘Company’ business Religion, VFR & Study Health and sport Incentives Trips ‘Sunlust’Wanderlust’ Conventions Sales trips etc. Bull. A. (1995) Adrian Bull ‘The Economics of travel and tourism 2nd edition’ The travel and tourism industry continues to grow.
In 2005 (WTTC) also known as the World Travel And Tourism Council, “Estimated that travel and tourism as economic activities generated US$6201 billions which is expected to grow to US$10678. 5 billion by 2015”. This is a positive effect because it increases the economies of most countries. Travel and tourism is important as mention before because of its positive affect which has lead to many countries rely on their tourism. Not only does it benefit countries but also benefits travel and tourism organisations and their customers.
There are thousands of companies that work in the travel and tourism industry and they all have aims and objectives which involves making sure that they satisfy their customers and this is mostly achieve by working together. The diagram below shows the different types of sectors within the travel and tourism industry. Ancillary services Tour operators Transport Sector of the Travel and tourism Industry Accommodation Travel Agents Attractions Figure 1. 2 Sectors of the travel and tourism industry Page 13 ‘The Travel and Tourism Industry’ Companies within these sectors have their own roles.
Travel agents, tour operators promote destination whereas transport companies gets travellers to and from the destination and as for accommodations and ancillary services , They are generally takes place at the destination. Destinations begin to develop to attract and meet visitor’s needs. This is done by building more and more services and facilities. Regenerating and improving a destination can create positive impacts. These impacts include economic impacts, social impacts and environmental impacts. Tourism is a powerful force in the socio-economic development and its starts by infrastructure being done.
This includes building accommodations, attractions, services and transportations links. Jobs are created for locals through direct employment and indirect employment. Most of the employees are locals which spend their wages on goods and services within the area which then brings money back into the country. This enables more development to happen. It is stated that “760 million tourists spending US$800 billion annually because of tourism and tourism contributes approximately 15% to total global GDP and has created 250 million jobs worldwide” Lagman. O. (2008).
France and the United stated are considered to be the world’s largest tourist market. In contrast to countries such as: Spain, Hungary, Italy, Austria, Britain, Germany, and Switzerland which are considered significant tourist markets. As for the Caribbean nations, tourism accounts for more than 70% of jobs and income because of their development. Caribbean hasn’t got as much money as countries like France and United states to maintain there development. In the ASEAN region, it was stated that “visitor arrivals grew at an annual average of 7. 6% from 1991 to 1999” according to Philippine Tourism Industry (May 2008.
) Overall, the pacific region has stood out the most and has become the fastest growing region in the world for international tourism. Moreover, others that gains opportunities from tourism such as small business which is very important in rural communities and money that is generated from extra taxes are used to help schools, hospitals and housing. As for restaurants and shops which are also apart of the tourism development, meeting needs for not only tourist but the locals which therefore forms more and better amenities for the resorts. ‘The resort life cycle’ Butlers 1980 shown below shows the cycle of resorts development.
There are different stages that they go through which can lead them to Stagnate, Decline or Rejuvenate. [0nlineImage] http://www. arlt-lectures. com/2002ssGeoVIv03-08. htm Examples of destinations that follow this model would be China. They are a developing and tourist generating country located in Asia because of its culture and events held, to promote their country. Stable countries that continue to develop such as United States, tourist arrivals increase every year. In comparison, the Philippines struggle to develop because of the issues that occur within the country. The Philippines are still at ‘exploration’ relating to the Butler Model.
[Online Image] http://elder-alexjohnson. blogspot. co. uk/2010/12/elder-alex-johnson. html The Philippines also known as the “the republic of the Philippines” is located in the southeast of Asia in the western pacific ocean. It is a tropical country consisted of 7107 island. Some of the islands have lots to offer to their tourists. It is an ideal destination for travellers that enjoy sun, sea and beaches and for those with adventurous interest. The Philippines are described as a populous island- nation which contains many ethnic groups and a landscape dominated by volcanic mountains. Manila is the capital of the Philippines.
This part of the Philippines is where the development is most likely to occur. It is stated to be the second most visited destination in the Philippines having a number of 2 million visitors per year. Karl Wilson quotes in her article that in 2009 “more than 3 million tourists visited the Philippines while Malaysia had 23. 6 million, Thailand 14 million, Indonesia 6. 4 million, Singapore 9. 6 million and Vietnam 4 million” taken from the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). (Wilson. K. 2010). The Philippines are therefore under achieving less than the other countries within the regions and are in need of development.
The tourists are mostly Korea and United States, there leading market. However, The Philippines still remains to gain small amount of tourist arrivals. Due to their poor economy, the Philippines find it hard to promote their destination internationally. This leads to the key issues that their tourism industry faces. There are a few key issues that face the Philippines tourism industry which makes negative impacts. One of the issues I have researched is their bad reputation. The Philippines reputation has been damaged as well as their image. The media such as BBC AND CNN have made negative headlines over the recent years.
In 2001 BBC News reported an incident about a kidnapping offence “Kidnappers holding an Australian man in the Philippines have demanded $2m (? 1. 3m) in ransom for his release” (BBC NEWS 2001). John Maclean in Manila reported that kidnapping for ransom is common in the Philippines and people often describes the Philippines “as the kidnapping capital of the world. ” Maclean. J . (BBC News 2001). This makes an impact on their inbound tourist as many people are afraid to visitors. Moreover, it makes it harder for them to build back their reputations with poor internet and international communications.
This affects the tourist arrivals because many people are turned away from visiting the Philippines despise it being an exotic destinations. Communicating to potential customers through marketing and promotion is a key success when developing a destination. Another example is sex tourism, which is a big issue in the Philippines. It is stated by Harry Thomas Jr claimed “that 40% of male foreign tourists to the country visited only for sex”. (Thomas. H. Dec 20, 2011). It is also considered that the number of sex tourists still remains to grow making up 65% of male being their tourist arrival.
Males make up over 65% of all tourist arrivals. (Dec 20, 2011). In comparison, Malaysia is more developed the Philippines, However they are located in same region. Malaysia gets higher number of tourist arrivals because they are able to promote their destination, receiving 24. 7million arrivals in 2011. [Online Image] accessed- 09 January 2012 http://elder-alexjohnson. blogspot. co. uk/2010/12/elder-alex-johnson. html In conclusions, the Philippines is a country which have potential in becoming as known tourists destination only if actions are taken to improve these issues, to help raise tourist awareness and tourist arrival numbers.
The Philippines are aware of the demands for improving their tourism such as ICT infrastructure to promote their destination, international communicating to attract countries worldwide and also taking actions on the crime offence building a better and stronger security giving off a positive reflection to people that it’s safe to visit. Overall, The Philippines continues to grow however, this process is done slowly due to these key issues that I have identified. References BBC News, Maclean. J. Reporter 2001 Available: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1354744. stm Bull. A.
(1995) ‘The Economics of travel and tourism 2nd edition’ page12. FH Stralsund Leisure and Tourism Management Page 8- [Online Image], Available: http://www. arlt-lectures. com/2002ssGeoVIv03-08. htm Figure 1. 2 Sectors of the travel and tourism industry Page 13 ‘The Travel and Tourism Industry’ Johnson. E. A. Blogger [Online Image] access- 09 January 2012 http://elder-alexjohnson. blogspot. co. uk/2010/12/elder-alex-johnson. html Lagman. O. (2008) ‘The Philippine Tourism Industry: Adjustments and Upgrading Series 2008-08 ’Page ‘The Philippine Tourism Industry: Adjustments and Upgrading Series 2008-08 ’Page 4 (May 2008) Thomas.
H. Dec 20, 2011, Sex: A growth industry in the Philippines. Available: trafficking. org. ph/v5/index. php? option=com_content&task=view&id=409Harry Thomas5&Itemid=56 Tourism Malaysia, Facts& Figures [Online Image] Available: http://corporate. tourism. gov. my/research. asp? page=facts_figures accessed- 09 Jan 2012 Ugurlu . T (2010), Macintosh and Goeldner [Online], Available: http://www. tugberkugurlu. com/archive/definintion-of-tourism-unwto-definition-of-tourism-what-is-tourism Published, March 2010 Ugurlu . T, (2009) UNWTO [Online], Available: