Women in Politics - Part 2
This paper examines the present increasing role of women in politics in all the continents of the world - Women in Politics introduction. Their involvement in politics of decision making, social and economic development is of great concern. It focuses on the women political conditions, their participation at various levels in politics without underestimating the fields of women’s equal opportunities.
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The thesis statement of this paper is ‘Women are increasingly getting involved in the politics of decision making, social, economic and development Agendas’. It is very common nowadays to see women of all races and status occupying prominent top positions in many nations of the world. This move of women into active politics has had a very great impact on social change (Okome, 2005). The structure of Law and rules within the Institutions shape and modify the gender relations which eventually impact the women positively. The social construction of women citizenship makes them to adopt a gender sensitive analysis of rights and hence seek their recognition by the state (Okome, 2005).
Women and Politics in Africa
The tide of male dominance in politics in Africa has been turned in the 21st century. It is a century that has opened up the eye of the African women in Politics; this is quite evident by the election of Ms Sir leaf-Johnson who has stood on the threshold of becoming the first woman head of state in Africa. By acquiring such position she became the liberator of the Liberia’s war struck economy by acting as the source of peace. The Involvement of women in politics is an indicative of a perpetual blow against corruption, abuse of office and the many conflicts more so in the various sub-Saharan countries (Okome, 2005).
The women politicians in Africa are working so hard to ensure that diligence and doggedness are rewarded with success and recognition. They at their capacity want to be accepted as leaders and decision makers and at the same time taken seriously as contenders for the significant positions in the public offices. Given the example of the Liberia’s tortuous history it turns to be one of the heaviest responsibilities for a woman to handle. Lives were lost, property destroyed, people exiled and turned refugees. This has called for Ms Sir-leaf agency in attending to reconciliation, rehabilitation and reconstruction. She is at present presiding over political renewal and conciliatory relations, confronting the legacies of the country’s colonization by the America-Liberians. Her experience acts as a good proof of women’s strength, tenacity and diligence in leadership (Okome, 2005).
Women and politics in Asia and pacific
Women are increasingly getting involved in politics of decision making, social, economic and development agendas and this is evident in Asia and the Pacific since women are getting more involved in politics. This is because Asia and the Pacific have the largest number of elected women as Heads of Governments among all the regions of the world. This has been evident in the past three decades. Women have however not been part of the decision-making progress in politics. There has been a 70 % increase in the number of women in parliament in Asia and the Pacific. They constitute about more than 20% of the total seats in the countries of Asia and Pacific. In Asia and the Pacific areas, some countries such as Bangladesh reserve some seats for women in parliament so that they may ensure women’s participation in politics and this has brought about a positive result (Women’s International Network, 2001).
Since the meeting that was held in Beijing Platform for Action to Review Regional Implementation on the October 1999, women recommended that they should participate in politics and decision making. The Center for Asia-Pacific Women in Politics (CAPWIP) recently held a regional meeting known as the Asia-Pacific Women Parliamentarians Conference on Transformation Leadership for Good Governance in the 21st Century. In the meeting, the women talked about how they could make a difference in the decision making in politics so as to bring sustainable growth and peace in governance. By doing this they were ensuring that there is equity, transparency, equality, social justice and governance with people-oriented skills. It was stated in the Beijing Platform for Action that both women and men should participate in decision making since it will provide balance. This balance will accurately reflect on the composition of the society and will therefore strengthen democracy and promote proper functioning of politics (Women’s International Network, 2001).
Women and politics in Latin
Women are increasingly getting involved in politics of decision making, social, economic and development agendas and this has had some impact on national politics institutions, this has proven by some studies which were carried out examining how the structure and rules shape and modify gender relations, hence either affecting women’s citizenship positively or negatively (Rousseau, 2006),though women benefit by making important gains in their access to the political sphere and significant legislative reforms, the trade-offs that are caused by the desire to operate in a competitive authoritarian Rousseau, 2006), framework. Leads to disillusionment and several divisions that are found in women’s movement. There were advances that were made both in civil and political rights. A disaggregated analysis of the Peruvian women’s citizenship progress in the 1990, reveals that a highly un equal record for women of lower classes, of which poverty was a daily source of violation of their citizenship rights which did not provide any sustainable solution (Rousseau, 2006),
There was a lady who was the only head of state who attended the 1995 Beijing World Conference on Women, where she made a vibrant speech in favor of modern family-planning services. And hence lead to the creation of the Fujimori regime so that it could response to problems that were there in relation to political system that had rendered its political institutions vulnerable, this is because there were years of insurgent and counterinsurgent violence and therefore a new policy on reproductive health and family planning was produced. However it was said that due to the regime’s disrespect and frequent violations of numerous international human treaties. The state retracted its recognition of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights jurisdiction (Rousseau, 2006).
Women in Politics in Northern America
All the single moves of introducing women into higher office in politics, has had a greater impact on social change and in the political life. It has now turned to be an ordinary thing to see women of all status and pursuits take over the famous positions and even allude to running for the presidency of the country. The high informative and historical approach to the presence of women in politics in America serves as a valuable introduction for any individual in America who has an interest in getting knowledge about both the surrender and beauty of being in the public office. In the past the North American women received their votes through the state suffrage laws since women could not vote in all the states and in all types of elections. This was due to lack of amendment of the Federal Suffrage of 1920 which later endorsed universal women female suffrage. During the period, much history on politics gave examinations to parties, presidents, and politicians. Therefore, women were believed not to fit into the framework which was used in the study of political history and political affairs. (McGerr & Michael, 1990).
There has been an attempt by women in GA/PE to enter into the political world after they found out that their personal politics which they tried to make was not achievable due to their negligence of the structure and political institution. Women in Northern America have been increasingly bringing into being tasks which place the gender and race social categories at the center of giving explanation to the experiences of women in politics, their ideas and their possibilities but all done within the structural and institutional elements of political life. The possibilities of race and gender shaped African- American women, brought out a big contribution to the shaping of the American political institutions (McGerr & Michael, 1990).
There are new directions for exploring politics and women together with the political and cultural or social. Nowadays, women make their own choices of politics; they also make attempts to exercise the political powers. After suffrage, the women have powers to have politics of their own choice since there were significances which were there during the exclusion of the suffrage. The development of Women politics in the late 19th and 20th century in North America was saved by their voluntary organizations which also shaped their future in politics (McGerr & Michael, 1990).
European Women in Politics: The European Union and Hungary
In the year 2005, after Hungary had become a member of the European Union, attention shifted to the way in which she was going to handle the issue of gender equality. What is implied here is that the influence if the EU regarding equal employment opportunity for the women can be analyzed forms several perspectives. Such perspectives include human rights, the situation of the labor market as well as legal harmonization. The other view-point is of course the political and the decision-making perspectives (Ilosnszki, 2006). It however needs to be noted that there is still little attention given to the women when it comes to politics. Because of this very reason women are seriously starting to get involved in the politics of decision making, social, economic as well as development agenda.
It is still a challenge to many women more so in Europe where politics is very much dominated by many parties as well as personal disagreements. At the same time, politics in Europe and Hungary is equally not only issue based but also involves a lot of principles for the general good of the people. Perhaps it can be argued that with these factors could discourage women from participating in politics. However, it is against this backdrop of seemingly ‘unfavorable’ of-factors of insecurity and absence of transparency as well as frequent conflicts that women are starting to get actively involved in politics (Ilosnszki, 2006).
Women seemingly got more empowerment with the conclusion of the Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women conference of 1995. This conference particularly focused on the participation of women in power as well as decision-making which is a very vital issue in the agenda of the EU (Ilosnszki, 2006). It is however important to note that these inequality problems cannot be solved on the economic and social fronts in isolation from world politics. The implication is that the EU plays a very significant role towards encouraging the participation of women in politics and decision making. For instance, the recommendation number 1996/694 of the Council stipulates a requirement and anticipation of positive action aimed at equality and decision making. With all these factors combined, the women have been enabled to start getting involved in the politics of decision making, social, economic as well as development agenda (Ilosnszki, 2006).
In conclusion, it is so evident that women are increasingly getting involved in politics of decision making, social, economic and development agendas. This has had some impact on national politics institutions (Rousseau, 2006). You can see that the women politicians in Africa are working so hard to ensure that diligence and doggedness are rewarded with success and recognition. Asia and the Pacific have the largest number of elected women as Heads of Governments among all the regions of the world. All the single moves of introducing women into higher office in politics, has had a greater impact on social change and in the political life. It is also still a challenge to many women more so in Europe where politics is very much dominated by many parties. At the same time, politics in Europe and Hungary is equally not only issue based but also involves a lot of principles for the general good of the people (Ilosnszki, 2006).
Ilosnszki, G (2006). Women in politics: The European Union and Hungary. In
Ildiko N (Eds) changing Roles: Report on the Situation of Women and Men in Hungary 2005.Budapest: TAKRI Social Research Institute pp.56-58.
The author of this book is Ilosnszki Gabriella. The book title is Women in politics: The European Union and Hungary. In Ildiko N (Eds) changing Roles: Report on the Situation of Women and Men in Hungary. The book looks into the extent of the contributions of women in politics. The findings of this book indicated that the EU is making spirited attempts at ensuring that the women get all the women get equal opportunities in the political, social economic as well as development fronts. At the same time, the findings of this book equally indicate that unlike in the EU, Hungary is still not making enough efforts aimed achieving the same. For instance However in Hungary, the government’s establishment of the ministries of youth, family, social affairs as well as equal opportunities but have not included the political, power or even decision-making aspects within their structures.
McGerr, Michael. (1990) “Political Style and Women’s Power, 1830- 1930,” Journal of
American History: 864-85
McGerr Michael is the author of the ‘Political Style and Women’s Power’ A study was conducted in order to know more about the political style and the power of women. The study found out that women can be very challenging to men politically. The study helps to bring out gender equality in politics and gives equal chances to both genders.
Rousseau, S. (2006). Women’s Citizenship and Neopopulism: Peru under the Fujimori Regime Latin American Politics and Society.
Rousseau, Stephanie in the book Women’s Citizenship and Neopopulism: Peru Under the Fujimori Regime Latin American Politics and Society talks about the gender relations and about how women benefit by making important gains in their access to the political sphere and significant legislative reforms, the trade-offs that are caused by the desire to operate in a competitive authoritarian Rousseau. It also says about the Fujimori regime so that it could response to problems that were there in relation to political system that had rendered its political institutions vulnerable, this is because there were years of insurgent and counterinsurgent violence.
Okome, M. O. (2005). “Ellen Sir leaf-Johnson: A Tribute,” JENDA: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies Africa Resource Center, Inc.
Mojúbàolú Olúfúnké Okome read numerous commentaries on Ellen Johnson-Sir leaf’s victory in Liberian Presidency. He found that Ms Sir-leaf is a woman of Substance in that she is capable of accomplishing much in the political arena. He found that Ms Sir Leaf has garnered a lot of respect and wisdom over the years which she has used to turn the tide of male dominance in African politics. She garnered most of the votes in the Liberian run-off election for president, which acted as a watershed moment in the war torn country of Liberia.
Women’s International Network. (2001). Asia and Pacific: Decision Makers – Women in Politics – Brief Article – Statistical Data Included. Gale Group. Retrieved October 28th, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2872/is_1_27/ai_71563388
The author Women’s International Network has done a research on the Women in Politics from the Asia and Pacific region dealing with their decision making in politics. The author did a research using statistical data. The author found out that there is an increase in the number of women in politics within the Asia and the Pacific region. The women in politics within the Asia and the Pacific region have been involved in the decision making in the politics. They have also ensured that there is equity, transparency, equality, social justice and governance with people-oriented skills.