MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL 1. Meaning and Types of Finance: Finance – Finance is the Art & Science of Managing Money – Finance is the Art of passing currency from hand to hand until it finally disappears Types & Sources of Finance ____________________________________________________________ ________ Long Term Sources of Finance – Finance required to meet Capital Expenditure – Also, known as Fixed Capital Finance Short Term Sources of Finance Finance required to meet day-to-day Business requirements – Also, known as Working Capital Finance 2. Working Capital Management: Working Capital (WC) ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________ Basics regarding WC Meaning of WC Working Capital Concept Factors Affecting WC Meaning of WC Management Importance of WC Management Classification/Type of WC A On the Basis of Concept (i) (ii)
Gross Working Capital Net Working Capital (Positive & Negative Working Capital) Methods of estimating WC Conventional Method Operating Cycle Method Cash Cost Method Balance Sheet Method B On the Basis of Periodicity (i) (ii) Fixed / Permanent Working Capital (Regular & Reserve Margin/ Cushion WC) Variable Working Capital (Seasonal & Special Working Capital) Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com Meaning of Working Capital: Working Capital is the amount of Capital that a Business has available to meet the day-to-day cash requirements of its operations – Working Capital is the difference between resources in cash or readily convertible into cash (Current Assets) and organizational commitments for which cash will soon be required (Current Liabilities) – It refers to the amount of Current Assets that exceeds Current Liabilities (i. e. CA – CL) – Working Capital refers to that part of the firm’s Capital, which is required for Financing Short-Term or Current Assets such as Cash, Marketable Securities, Debtors and Inventories.
Working Capital is also known as Revolving or Circulating Capital or Short-Term Capital Working Capital Concepts: – Gross Concept: It means Current Assets. This is knows as Quantitative aspect of Working Capital (Focus is on (i) Optimum Investment in Current Assets and (ii) Financing of Current Assets) – Net Concept: It means difference between Currents Assets & Current Liabilities. This is knows as Qualitative aspect of Working Capital (Focus is on (i) Liquidity Position of the Firm and (ii) WC Amount that can be financed by Permanent sources of Funds)
Meaning of Operating Cycle/Working Capital Cycle: – Cash Raw-Materials Work-in-Process Finished Goods Cash Factors affecting Working Capital/ Determinants of Working Capital: Nature of Business/Industry; Size of Business/Scale of Operations; Growth prospects Business Cycle; Manufacturing Cycle; Operating Cycle & Rapidity of Turnover; Operating Efficiency; Profit Margin; Profit Appropriation Depreciation Policy; Taxation Policy; Dividend Policy and Government Regulations Approaches (Methods) of estimating Working Capital: – Conventional Method: Matching of Cash Inflows & Outflows.
This method ignores Time Value of Money – Operating Cycle Method: Debtors + Stock (RM/WIP/FG) – Creditors. This method takes into Account length of Time which is required to convert cash into resources, resources to final product, final product to Debtors and Debtors to Cash again. – Cash Cost Technique: Working Capital forecast is done on Cost Basis (i. e. taking P&L items into account) – Balance Sheet Method: Working Capital forecast is done on various Assets & Liabilities (i. e. taking B/S items into account) Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com Meaning of Working Capital Management: Working Capital Management is concerned with the problems that arise in attempting to manage the Current Assets, Current Liabilities and the interrelationship that exists between them – Working Capital Management means the deployment of current assets and current liabilities efficiently so as to maximize short-term liquidity – Working capital management entails short term decisions – generally, relating to the next one year period – which are “reversible” – Two Steps involved in the Working Capital Management: (i) Forecasting the Amount of Working Capital (ii) Determining the Sources of Working Capital
Importance of Working Capital Management: – Working Capital is the Life Blood of the Business – Fixed Assets (Long Term Assets) can be purchased on Lease/Hire Purchase but Current Assets cannot be – Liquidity V/s Profitability Objectives of Working Capital Management: – Deciding Optimum Level of Investment in various WC Assets – Decide Optimal Mix of Short Term and Long Term Capital – Decide Appropriate means of Short Term Financing Process/Steps Involved in Working Capital Management: – Forecasting the Amount of Working Capital – Determining the Sources of Working Capital
Different Aspects of Working Capital Management: Management of Inventory Management of Receivables/Debtors Management of Cash Management of Payables/Creditors Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com MANAGEMENT OF INVENTORY 1. Meaning of Inventory and Inventory Management: Inventory ____________________________________________________________ ________ Meaning of the Term Inventory Inventory means Tangible property which is held: – For Sale in the ordinary course of Business OR; – In the process of Production (i. e.
WIP) for Sale OR; For Consumption in the production of good & services which will be used for sale in the ordinary course of Business Inventory Includes Raw-Material, FG, WIP, Spares, Consumables etc. Meaning of the Term Inventory Magt. Inventory Management means: – An Optimum Investment in the Inventories – Striking balance between Adequate Stock & Investment Maintain Adequate Stock and that too by keeping Investment at Minimum Level. It is also known as Optimum Level of Inventory Maintaining Inventory at the Optimum Level is called Inventory Magt. Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 ww. CAalley. com 2. Various Aspects relating to Inventory Management: Various Aspects of Inventory Management ____________________________________________________________ __________ Objectives of Inventory Management __________________________________ Operating Objectives – Availability of Materials – Promotion of Manufacturing Efficiency – Minimizing the Wastage – Better Service to Customer – Control of Production Level Optimum Level of Inventories Financial Objectives – Economy in Purchasing – Optimum Investment & Efficient use of Capital – Reasonable Price – Minimizing Cost
Tools of Inventory Management Factors Determining Optimum Level of Inventory ______________________________________ General Factors – Nature of Business – Anticipated Volume of Sales – Operations Level – Price Level Variations – Availability of Funds – Attitude of the Management Specific Factors Seasonal Nature of Raw Materials and Demand for Finished Goods Length & Technical Nature of the Production process Style factor in the End Product Terms of Purchase Supply conditions Time Factor Price Level Variation Loan Facility Management Policies Other Factors – –
Tools Fixation of Levels of Inventory ABC Analysis Perpetual inventory System VED Analysis FSN Analysis Periodical Inventory Valuation Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Analysis HML Tool SDE Tool Meaning/Importance Maximum; Minimum, Re-order and Danger Level Small; Medium & High Number/Usage Restoration of the Stock Issued Vital, Essential and Desirable Fast Moving, Slow Moving & Non Moving Annual Stock Taking Ordering Cost & Carrying Cost High, Medium & Low (Unit Price) Scarce, Difficult & Easy (Procurement Difficulty) Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com 3. Important Formulas: a) Maximum Level: (Maximum Quantity of Stock to be held) Maximum Level = (Reorder Level + Reorder Quantity) – (Minimum Usage x Minimum Reorder Period) (b) Minimum Level: (Minimum Quantity of Stock to be held) Minimum Level = (Reorder Level) – (Normal Usage x Normal Reorder Period) (c) Reorder Level: (Demand in the Lead Time) Reorder Level = (Maximum Consumption x Maximum Reorder or Delivery Period) OR Reorder Level = (Minimum Level) + (Normal Consumption x Normal Delivery Period) (d) Danger Level: Danger Level = (Minimum Rate of Consumption x Emergency Delivery Time) OR Danger Level = (Average Consumption x Maximum Reorder period for Emergency Purchases) (e) Lead Time: Time Lag between the Indenting and Receipt of Materials OR Time normally required for obtaining fresh supply of Materials (f) Economic Order Quantity: EOQ = 2AB CS = 2 x Ordering Cost x Demand Holding Cost = Lowest of (Carrying Cost + Ordering Cost) Where, A = Annual Usage/Annual Consumption B = Buying Cost/Ordering Cost C = Cost Per Unit S = Storage Cost/Cost of Carrying Inventory Assumptions of EOQ Model: (i) Known and Constant Demand (iii) Instantaneous receipt of material (v) Only order (setup) Cost and holding cost (vii)Supply of the Goods is Satisfactory (ii) Known and Constant lead time (iv) No quantity discounts (vi) No stock-outs (viii)Prices of the goods are Stable
Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com MANAGEMENT OF RECEIVABLES 1. Meaning of Receivables and Receivables Management: Receivables ____________________________________________________________ ____ Meaning of the Receivables It is amount/Debt which is receivable for the goods or Services provided on Credit Also known as Trade, Debtors, Sundry Debtors, Trade Receivables, Book Debts – Meaning of the Term Receivables Magt. Maintain Receivables at a level at which there is a trade-off between Profitability & Cost This is called Optimum Level of Receivables Three Aspects of Managing Accounts Receivalbes _____________________________________________________
Characteristics It Involves an Element of Risk It is based on Economic Value Cash Payment will be made in Future Objectives Increase Sales Increase in Profit (Volume Increase & Margin Increase) Strategy to Face Competition Costs of Maintaining Cost of Financing Administrative Cost Collection Costs Defaulting Costs – ____________________________________________________________ ________________________ Establishing Collection Policy of Concern Determining Policy & Procedures to be followed for the collection of the Account Receivables Control of the Account Receivables It Means maintaining of the Account Receivables at the Minimum possible Level – –
Establishing Credit Policy Determining the Level of Credit Sales Determining of the Credit Standards Determining of the Credit Terms – – Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com 2. Factors Determining Size of Investment in Receivables: Factors ____________________________________________ General Factors ______________________________________________ Specific Factors _________________________________________ – Type & Nature of Business – Volume of Anticipated Sales – Volume of the Business – Price-Level Variations Availability of Funds Attitude of the Executives – Volume of Credit Sales – Credit Policies ________________________________________________________
Credit Standards Credit Terms Credit Rating ___________________________ Credit Period Discount Terms Trade Discount Cash Discount Quantity Discount 5 C’s Character Capacity Capital Collateral Conditions – – – Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com MANAGEMENT OF CASH 1. Meaning & Importance of Cash & Cash Management: Cash & Cash Management – Cash means Liquid Assets that a Business Owns. It includes Cheques, Money Orders & Bank Drafts Cash Management means efficient Collection & Disbursement of cash and any Temporary Investment of Cash (Maintaining Optimum Level of Cash in an Organization is called Cash Management) ____________________________________________________________ _____________________ Objectives of Cash Management To meet Cash Disbursement as per Payment Schedule To meet Cash Collection as per Repayment Schedule To minimize funds locked up as Cash Balance by maintaining Optimum Cash Balance – – Motives of Holding Cash Transaction Motive Speculative Motive Precautionary Motive – Importance of Cash Management Most Significant & Least Productive Asset Difficult to predict Cash Flows (Inflows & Outflows) Smallest Portion of Total Current Assets Cash Planning Cash Forecasting: (a) Receipt & Disbursement Method (b) Adjusted Net Income Method Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com 2. Meaning of Cash Flows: Cash Flows Cash Flows means Cash Inflows and Cash Outflows – If Cash Inflows are more than Cash Outflows, it is Positive Cash Flow and vice-versa _____________________________________________________ Methods of Accelerating Cash Inflows Prompt Payment by Customers Quick conversion of payment into Cash Decentralized Collection Lock Box System Method of Decelerating Cash Outflows Paying on Last Date Payable through Draft Adjusting Payroll Funds Centralization of Payments Inter-Bank Transfer Making use of Float Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com 3. Meaning & Importance of Cash Budget: Cash Budget – Cash Budget means estimation of Cash Receipt and Cash Disbursement during a future period of Time – Cash Budget is a forecast of future Cash Receipts and Cash Disbursement over various intervals of Time ____________________________________________________________ ______________________ Functions/Importance of Cash Budget
Helpful in Planning Forecasting the Future Needs of Funds Maintenance of Ample Cash Balance Controlling Cash Expenditure Evaluation of Performance Testing the Influence of Proposed Expansion Sound Dividend Policy Basis of Long Term Planning & Co-ordination – Methods of Preparing Cash Budget Receipts & Payment Method Adjusted Profit & Loss Account Method Balance Sheet Method – Investment of Surplus Cash Treasury Bills Negotiable Certificate of deposits Unit 1964 Scheme Ready Forwards Badla Financing Inter-Corporate Deposits Three Months Deposits Bill Discount Investment in Market Securities Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com SOURCES OF WORKING CAPITAL FINANCE 1. Various Sources of securing Working Capital Finance: Sources of Finance ____________________________________________________________ _________ Long Term Sources (Regular Working Capital) _______________________ Internal Sources External Sources Other Sources Short Term Sources (Seasonal Working Capital) ____________________ Internal Sources External Sources – Retained Earnings – Issue of Equity Shares (Profit & Loss A/c) – Issue of Preference Shares – Sale of FA’s – Issue of Debentures – Loans from FI’s – Security from Employees – Security from Customers – Commercial Papers – Zero Coupon Bonds – Factoring (Recourse & Non Recourse) – Accrual Accounts – Trade Credit (Provision for Tax) (Open Acct/Acceptance) – Depreciation Funds – Public Deposit – Customer Advances – Credit Papers – Indigenous Bankers (Private Individuals) – Govt. Assistance – Bank Credit (Loans/OD/CC/BD) – Business Finance Co’s Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com 2.
Approaches for Determining Financing Mix: Financing Mix ____________________________________________________________ __________________________ Hedging Approach – Permanent WC (Financed from Long Term Funds) – Temporary WC (Financed from Short Term Funds) Conservative Approach – All requirements from Long Term Funds – Short Term Funds to be used in case of Emergency Aggressive Approach – All requirements from Short Term Funds – Only Part use of Long Term Funds Trade-off Approach – Avg. of Maximum and Minimum WC requirement – Avg. to be funded by Long Term Funds – Balance to be funded by Short Term Funds Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com 3.
Maximum Permissible Bank Finance (Tandon Committee Recommendation): MPBF Methods/Workings/Calculations ____________________________________________________________ ______________________ Method I Total Current Assets – Total Current Liabilities# = Working Capital Gap – 25% from Long Term Sources = MPBF x x xx x xx Method II Total Current Assets 25% from Long Term Sources Net Current Assets Total Current Liabilities# MPBF x x xx x xx Method III Total Current Assets Core Current Assets Net WC Current Assets 25% from Long Term Sources Net Currents Assets Total Current Liabilities# MPBF x x xx x xx x xx = = = = = # Note: Total Current Liabilities means Liabilities excluding Bank Borrowings to be taken into account for Calculation Parag Nalin Doshi 1/12/2009 www. CAalley. com
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