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XOR, OR and NOR Logic Gates Based on SO

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XOR, OR and NOR Logic Gates Based on SOA-MZI of Two Input Binary Data Signals for Different Number of Bits

Abstracta”ˆIn this paper,assorted logic Gatess are implemented as it has many maps in optical web. All Gatess are simulated on the footing of different types of nonlinearities based on semiconducting material optical amplifiers ( SOAs ) due to its really attractive non additive elements for the realisation of different optical logic maps, since they can supply a strong alteration of the refractile index together with high addition.

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SOA-MZIconstruction is used to imitate and execute the logic gates XOR, OR and NOR operations between two binary input informations signals with different figure of spots( 4-bit, 6-bit and 8-bit ) at 10 Gbit/s with low input power. Besides we investigate the consequence of altering the figure of spots of the two binary input informations signals of each logic gate on the standard power, minimal spot error rate and maximal Q-factor.

Index Termsa”ˆ Semiconductor Optical Amplifier ( SOA ) , Mach-Zehnder Interferometer ( MZI ) , Non-linearity, Optical logic Gatess.

1.INTRODUCTION

In the epoch of increasing demand for calculating and treating velocities all optical computing machines have a surfaced as dependable and promising solution. Several high velocity optical and photonics devices have been invented which can supply velocities far above the orders of GHZ scope which was conventional to that of electronic systems. A batch of those devices are dedicated to execute logical and arithmetic operations. Future super-speed WDM based optical communicating webs would demand high-velocity optical Gatess that can either be controlled optically or

electrically [ 1 ] . Optical logic gates become cardinal elements in the realisation of node functionalities, as add bead multiplexing, package synchronism, clock recovery, reference acknowledgment, and signal processing. Semiconductor optical amplifiers ( SOAs ) are really attractive nonlinear elements for the realisation of assorted logic maps, since they can exhibit a robust alteration of the refractile index together with high addition. Furthermore, different from fiber devices SOAs license photonic integrating [ 2 ] .

The nonlinear behaviour that is a drawback for the SOA as a additive amplifier makes it a good pick for an optically controlled optical gate and by puting SOAs in the interferometric constellations Gatess with higher public presentation are achieved. In these Gatess, the optical input signal controls the stage difference between the interferometer weaponries through the relation between the bearer denseness and the refractile index in the SOA by agencies of XPM. These interferometric SOA-based constellations are compact, required low energy, has high velocity operation, and offer stableness. Additionally, signal regeneration is an intrinsic and really attractive characteristic of such devices. Mach-Zehnder interferometers ( MZI ) [ 3 ] have been widely used to implement optical logic Gatess [ 4 ] .

In this work, SOA-MZI are used to obtain different optical logic Gatess XOR, OR and NOR with assorted figure of spots for the binary input informations signals at 10 Gbit/s with low input power.

This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 is for the theory and mold, followed by logic Gatess simulation apparatus in Section 3. Section 4 is devoted for the consequences and treatment. Finally, the decision of the paper is provided in Section 5.

2.Theory AND Mold

The nonlinear effects makes the SOA a really interesting device for applications in optical webs [ 5 ] , from these nonlinear effects cross addition transition ( XGM ) and transverse stage transition ( XPM ) . The XGM effects consist on the fluctuation of the SOA addition in map of the input power. where, the addition of the input signal power causes in the SOA a depletion of the bearer denseness, and therefore, the elaboration addition is reduced. The kineticss processes that go on within the bearer denseness of the SOA are highly fast of the order of picoseconds, so it is possible to utilize this fluctuation on the addition with spot to seize with teeth fluctuation of the input signal power.

XPM is the fluctuation on the bearer denseness which induces a alteration on the refractive-index, and so the stage of the uninterrupted moving ridge is modulated [ 6 ] . This stage experienced by the moving ridge during extension in the SOA is given by [ 7 ] :

]

where?is the wavelength of the input informations signal passing through the SOA,Literis the length of the active part of the SOA,?is the SOA line-width sweetening factor,Gramis the concentrated addition, andGram0 is the additive device addition. This equation is obtained from analytical theoretical accounts of wavelength convertors under certain conditions, like the instant response of the

SOA and besides the adiabatic estimate.

Gates with better public presentation are achieved by puting SOAs in interferometric constellations as shown in Fig. 1 [ 8 ] .

Fig.1 Mach-Zehnder interferometer with one SOA in each arm

In these Gatess [ 9 ] , the optical input signal controls the stage difference between the interferometer weaponries through the relation between the bearer denseness and the refractile index in the SOAs and therefore, a CW visible radiation or a pulse train can be gated [ 10 ] or control pulsations can be used to gate the input signal. By decently puting the optical powers and the prejudice currents or by planing the SOA parametric quantities, the control signal from the two SOAs will interfere either constructively or destructively at the end product of the interferometer [ 11,12 ] . This straight performs the logic gate operation of the two input informations signals.

3. OPTICAL XOR GATE SIMULATION SETUP

The XOR gate can be considered as the chief edifice block for assortment of maps, because of its compact and stable construction. XOR Boolean map gives a logic “1” if the combination of two input signals are different ( A=1, B=0 ) and ( A=0, B=1 ) . While, if the combination of the two input signals are the same ( A=0, B=0 ) and ( A=1, B=1 ) it gives a logic “0” .

Fig.2 Block Diagram of optical XOR logic gate apparatus based on SOA-MZI

Fig. 2 represents the Block Diagram of XOR gate apparatus based on SOA-MZI to execute operation between two input informations signals which are generated at 1556 nm wavelength with 0.3 mW input power utilizing optical Gaussian pulsation generator with the aid of a uninterrupted moving ridge optical maser of 1550 nm wavelength and 0.15 mW power. These signals are applied to the system with different figure of spots ( 4-bit, 6-bit and 8-bit ) .

The two Input informations signals of 4-bit, A ( 0100 ) and B ( 0101 ) shown in Fig. 3 ( a ) and 3 ( B ) severally, are applied to the ports of the interferometer and coupled so multiplexed. Where, the multiplexed signals base on ballss through the SOAs with bias current 0.25 Angstrom and coupled once more so filtered with a Gaussian optical filter with 20 GHz bandwidth to obtain the XOR gate end product signal ( 0001 ) shown in Fig. 3 ( degree Celsius ) and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 3 ( vitamin D ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopXOR input data signalsImage XOR inp 0100.bmp( a ) Input data signal Angstrom 0100

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopXOR input data signalsImage XOR inp 0101.bmp

( B ) Input data signal B 0101

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperXORXOR 4 out (0.3,0.15).bmp

( degree Celsius ) XOR gate end product signal 0001

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperXORXOR 4- 0.3, 0.15 waveform.bmp

( vitamin D ) XOR end product wave form

Fig.3 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the XOR operation between 4-bit ( a ) input binary informations signal A and ( B ) input binary informations signal B ( degree Celsius ) XOR gate end product signal ( vitamin D ) XOR end product wave form demoing signal Peak power.

XOR gate operation performed between two 6-bit input binary information signals A ( 011010 ) and B ( 010001 ) are shown in Fig. 4 ( a ) and 4 ( B ) severally. Hence, XOR gate end product signal ( 001011 ) shown in Fig.4 ( degree Celsius ) is obtained and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 4 ( vitamin D ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopXOR input data signalsImage XOR inp 011010.bmp

( a ) Input data signal A 011010

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopXOR input data signalsImage XOR inp 010001.bmp

( B ) Input data signal B 010001

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopImage out power 001011.bmp

( degree Celsius ) XOR gate end product signal 001011

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperXORXOR 6- waveform 0.3,0.15.bmp

( vitamin D ) XOR end product wave form

Fig.4 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the XOR operation between 6-bit ( a ) input binary informations signal A and ( B ) input binary informations signal B ( degree Celsius ) XOR gate end product signal ( vitamin D ) XOR end product wave form demoing signal Peak power.

XOR gate operation performed between two 8-bit input binary information signals A ( 01000011 ) and B ( 01011100 ) are shown in Fig. 5 ( a ) and 5 ( B ) severally. Hence, XOR gate end product signal ( 00011111 ) shown in Fig.5 ( degree Celsius ) is obtained and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 5 ( vitamin D ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopXOR input data signalsImage XOR inp 01000011.bmp

( a ) Input data signal A 01000011

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopXOR input data signalsImage XOR inp 01011100.bmp

( B ) Input data signal B 01011100

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperXORxor 8-bit out.bmp

( degree Celsius ) XOR gate end product signal 00011111

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperXORxor 8- waveform.bmp

( vitamin D ) XOR end product wave form

Fig. 5 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the XOR operation between 8-bit ( a ) input binary informations signal A and ( B ) input binary informations signal B ( degree Celsius ) XOR gate end product signal ( vitamin D ) XOR end product wave form demoing signal peak power.

4. OPTICAL OR GATE SIMULATION SETUP

OR Boolean map gives a logic “1” if any of the two input signals is “1” ( A=0, B=1 ) , ( A=1, B=0 ) and ( A=1, B=1 ) . While, in instance of ( A=0, B=0 ) it gives a logic “0” .

Fig. 6 Block Diagram of optical OR logic gate apparatus based on SOA-MZI

Fig. 6 represents the Block Diagram of OR gate apparatus based on SOA-MZI to execute operation between two input informations signals which are generated at 1556 nm wavelength with 0.3 mW input power utilizing optical Gaussian pulsation generator. These signals are applied to the system with different figure of spots ( 4-bit, 6-bit and 8-bit ) .

The two Input informations signals of 4-bit, A ( 0100 ) and B ( 0101 ) are applied to the ports of the interferometer and coupled together so multiplexed. Where, the multiplexed signals base on ballss through the SOA with bias current 0.25 A so filtered with a Gaussian optical filter with 20 GHz bandwidth to obtain the OR gate end product signal ( 0101 ) shown in Fig. 7 ( a ) and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 7 ( B ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperOROR 4-bit out.bmp

( a ) OR gate end product signal 0101

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperORor 4-bit waveform.bmp

( B ) OR end product wave form

Fig. 7 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the OR operation between 4-bit input binary information signals ( a ) OR gate end product signal ( B ) OR end product wave form demoing signal extremum power

OR gate operation performed between two 6-bit input binary information signals A ( 011010 ) and B ( 010001 ) . Hence, OR gate end product signal ( 011011 ) shown in Fig. 8 ( a ) is obtained and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 8 ( B ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperOROR 6-bit out.bmp( a ) OR gate end product signal 011011

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperORor 6-bit waveform.bmp( B ) OR end product wave form

Fig. 8 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the OR operation between 6-bit input binary information signals ( a ) OR gate end product signal ( B ) OR end product wave form demoing signal extremum power

OR gate operation performed between two 8-bit input binary information signals A ( 01000011 ) and B ( 01011100 ) . Hence, OR gate end product signal ( 01011111 ) shown in Fig. 9 ( a ) is obtained and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 9 ( B ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperORor 8-bit out.bmp( a ) OR gate end product signal 01011111

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperORor 8-bit waveform.bmp( B ) OR end product wave form

Fig. 9 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the OR operation between 8-bit input binary information signals ( a ) OR gate end product signal ( B ) OR end product wave form demoing signal extremum power

5. OPTICAL NOR GATE SIMULATION SETUP

NOR Boolean map gives a logic “0” if any of the two input signals is “1” ( A=0, B=1 ) , ( A=1, B=0 ) and ( A=1, B=1 ) . While, in instance of ( A=0, B=0 ) it gives a logic “1” .

Fig. 10 Block Diagram of optical NOR logic gate apparatus based on SOA-MZI

Fig. 10 represents the Block Diagram of NOR gate apparatus based on SOA-MZI to execute operation between two input informations signals which are generated at 1556 nm wavelength with 0.3 mW input power utilizing optical Gaussian pulsation generator with the aid of a uninterrupted moving ridge optical maser of 1550 nm wavelength and 0.15 mW power. These signals are applied to the system with different figure of spots ( 4-bit, 6-bit and 8-bit ) .

The two Input informations signals of 4-bit, A ( 0100 ) and B ( 0101 ) are applied to the ports of the interferometer and coupled together so multiplexed. Where, the multiplexed signals base on ballss through the SOA with bias current 0.25 Angstrom and so filtered with a Gaussian optical filter with 20 GHz bandwidth to obtain the NOR gate end product signal ( 1010 ) shown in Fig. 11 ( a ) and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 11 ( B ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperNORNOR 4-bit out.bmp( a ) NOR gate end product signal 1010

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperNORNOR 4-bit waveform.bmp( B ) NOR end product wave form

Fig. 11 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the NOR operation between 4-bit input binary information signals ( a ) NOR gate end product signal ( B ) NOR end product wave form demoing signal extremum power

NOR gate operation performed between two 6-bit input binary information signals A ( 011010 ) and B ( 010001 ) . Hence, NOR gate end product signal ( 100100 ) shown in Fig. 12 ( a ) is obtained and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 12 ( B ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperNORNOR 6-bit out.bmp( a ) NOR gate end product signal 100100

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperNORNOR 6-bit waveform.bmp( B ) NOR end product wave form

Fig. 12 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the NOR operation between 6-bit input binary information signals ( a ) NOR gate end product signal ( B ) NOR end product wave form demoing signal extremum power

NOR gate operation performed between two 6-bit input binary information signals A ( 01000011 ) and B ( 01011100 ) . Hence, NOR gate end product signal ( 10100000 ) shown in Fig. 13 ( a ) is obtained and its wave form which is shown in Fig. 13 ( B ) .

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperNORNOR 8-bit out.bmp( a ) NOR gate end product signal 10100000

C:UsersTOSHIBADesktopoutput results paperNORor 8-bit waveform.bmp

( B ) NOR end product wave form

Fig. 13 Simulation consequences at 10 Gbit/s of the NOR operation between 8-bit input binary information signals ( a ) NOR gate end product signal ( B ) NOR end product wave form demoing signal extremum power

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The Logic Gatess simulations apparatuss are simulated utilizing Optisystem package plan ( version 7.0 ) utilizing the parametric quantities shown below in Table1 for the SOA. [ 13 ]

Injection current

0.25 A

Length

500

Width

3

Height

80

Confinement factor

0.3

Differential addition

2.78?

Carrier denseness at transparence

1.4?

Initial bearer denseness

3?

Line width sweetening factor

5

Recombination coefficient

1.43?

Recombination coefficient

1.4?

Recombination coefficient

3?

Table 1: Parameters used for SOAs in simulation

The following tabular array shows the simulation apparatus consequences of XOR, OR and NOR Logic gates operations performed between two binary input informations signals of 4-bit, 6-bit, and 8-bit and compare them from the points of end product Peak power, maximal Q-factor, minimal spot error rate and entire power received as shown in Table 2.

Input informations signals

0100

0101

011010

010001

01000011 01011100

Output signal

Simulation apparatus consequences ofXORlogic gate

0001

001011

00011111

Output peak power ( mW )

46

48

50

Max.

Q-fac.

87.914

14.281

15.069

Min. BER.

0

1.43e-46

1.12e-51

Entire power received

( dBm )

9.577

12

13.822

Output signal

Simulation apparatus consequences ofORlogic gate

0101

011011

01011111

Output peak power ( mW )

160

152

160

Max.

Q-fac.

14.08

7.95

13.11

Min. BER.

1.79e-45

6.74 e-16

1.11e-39

Entire power received

( dBm )

17.34

18.13

18.77

Output signal

Simulation apparatus consequences ofNORlogic gate

1010

100100

10100000

Output peak power ( mW )

154

158

152

Max.

Q-fac.

5.60

6.28

6.92

Min. BER.

6.19e-9

1.26 e-10

2.03e-12

Entire power received

( dBm )

19.88

19.64

19.39

Table 2: Simulation apparatus consequences of XOR, OR and NOR optical logic Gatess

It is cleared that the simulation apparatus consequences of the logic gates shows a high public presentation in obtaining end product logic Gatess truth tabular arraies, every bit good as, having the end product signal with high extremum power due to the SOAs belongingss and by seting its prejudice current to obtain amplified signals and decreases the minimal spot error rate BER.

7. Decision

Different optical logic Gatess XOR, OR and NOR are based on SOA-MZI due to its attractive characteristics of low energy demand, concentration, and high velocity of operation. These logic Gatess simulation apparatus are performed at 10 Gbit/s utilizing two input binary informations signals of different figure of spots ( 4-bit, 6-bit and 8-bit ) generated by utilizing optical Gaussian pulsation generator at 1556 nm wavelength with low input power of 0.3 mW in instance of XOR and NOR gates the signals coupled with the aid of a CW of 0.15 mW power with 1550 nm wavelength, so multiplexed and base on ballss through the SOA and filtered utilizing optical Gaussian filter with 20 GHz bandwidth to obtain the logic Gatess end product signal. Besides the consequence of altering the figure of spots of the two input binary information signals of each logic gate on the standard power, min. BER and soap. Q-factor are investigated.

8. Reference

  1. Mohit Agrawal, kaushalendra Trivedi “ALL Optical Frequency encoded AND Gate utilizing SOAs and Intensity Switch” ,978-1-4577-0911-1/12/ $ 31.00 ©2012 IEEE.
  2. Mr.Sachin kumar, “Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers ( SOA ) Performance Optimization in Optical Communication System” ,International Journal of Computer Science & A ; Engineering Technology ( IJCSET ) ISSN: 2229-3345 Vol. 3 No. 9 Sep 2012.
  3. X.Pan, J.M. Wiesenfeld, J.S. Perino, T.L. Koch, G. Raybon, U. Koren, M. Chien, M.Young, B.I. Miller, and C.A. Burrus, “Dynamic operation of a three-port, integrated Mach- Zehnder wavelength converter” ,IEEE photon. Technol. Lett. , vol. 7, no. 9, pp.995-997,1995.
  4. Joo-Youp Kim, Jeung-Mo Kang, Tae-Young Kim, and Sang-Kook Han,Member, IEEE“All-Optical Multiple Logic Gates With XOR, NOR, OR, and NAND Functions Using Parallel SOA-MZI Structures: Theory and Experiment” ,Diary OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 24, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2006.
  5. Ajay kumar, Santosh Kumar* , S.K. Raghuwanshi, “Implementation of All-Optical Logic Gate utilizing SOA-MZI Structures” ,TOEOC ( 2013 )13-21 © STM Journals 2013.
  6. Kristian E. Stubkjaer, “ Semiconductor Optical Amplifier-Based All-Optical Gates for High-Speed Optical Processing” ,IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 6, NO. 6, NOVEMBER/ DECEMBER 2000.
  7. Surinder singh and Lovkesh, “Ultrahigh Speed Optical Signal Processing Logic Based on an SOA-MZI” ,IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2012.
  8. Supreet Kumar Singh, Nidhish Tiwari, Uma Rajchandani, “Implementation of Optical Logic Gates ( Ex-OR AND and NOR ) Using SOA-MZI Structure” ,The International Journal Of Science & A ; Technoledge, Vol 2 Issue 7 July, 2014.
  9. Jae Hun Kim, Young Il Kim, Young Tae Byun, _ Young Min Jhon, Seok Lee, Sun Ho Kim and Deok Ha Woo, “All-Optical Logic Gates Using SemiconductorOptical-Amplifier-Based Devicess and Their Applications” ,Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 45, No. 5, November 2004.
  10. T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All optical wavelength transition by SOAs in a Mach–Zehnder constellation, ”IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. , vol. 6, pp. 53–55, Jan. 1994.
  11. Jose M. Martinez Canet, “Photonic logic-gates: hiking all-optical heading processing in future packet-switched networks” ,ValenciaNano-photonics Technology Center,December 2006.
  12. Sachin Kumar, Indu Bala Pauria, Anoop Singhal, “Optical Fiber Communication System Performance Using MZI Switching” ,International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering ( IJSCE ) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-3, July 2012.
  13. M. F. Chiang, Z. Ghassemlooy, Wai Pang Ng, and H. Le Minh, “Simulation of an All-Optical 1×2 SMZ switch with a High Contrast Ratio” ,PGNET2007.


Cite this XOR, OR and NOR Logic Gates Based on SO

XOR, OR and NOR Logic Gates Based on SO. (2016, Nov 29). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/xor-or-and-nor-logic-gates-based-on-so/

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