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Logical Framework Approach Essays

A Guide for Project M&E Managing for Impact in Rural Development Annex B Annotated Example of a Project Logframe Matrix Table of Contents of Annex B B. 1 Reviewing an Existing Logical Framework Matrix B. 2 Reworked Logframe Matrix This Annex is useful for: • Managers – to help when revising the project design and its logical framework; • Consultants – to ensure that the proposed project design is based on good design practice; • IFAD and cooperating institution staff – to check that the proposed project design meets “good practice” standards. B -2 10 A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B This Annex provides an example of how to develop and improve the logframe matrix for an IFAD-supported project by giving a “before revision” and “after revision” comparison. The “before” logframe matrix is shown with comments on the problems and how these could be overcome. The “after” logframe matrix shows the partial reworking of the original logframe matrix. The example is based on several IFAD-supported projects and so represents a fictitious project. There is no such thing as a perfect logframe matrix.
The best results come from considerable discussion among key stakeholders, guided by facilitators who have a good understanding of the project context and logframe planning. If the project strategy is put to use by stakeholders after the discussions, then the logframe matrix is simply a support and a reminder. The intention of this Annex is to provide ideas and tips about the types of issues that require attention and discussion when developing a good logframe matrix. The reworked example is not intended to be perfect or complete.
Different people, including those very experienced with logframes, will often have different ideas and opinions about how to structure a project. Therefore, to develop a good logframe requires several rounds of discussion and revision. The logical framework approach and matrix are discussed in detail in Section 3. B. 1 Reviewing an Existing Logical Framework Matrix Table B-1 gives an example of a logical framework matrix that has several weaknesses and could be improved. When you review a logframe matrix or develop one from the start it is helpful to keep in mind its following three uses: 1.
Providing a general overview of the project; 2. Providing the basis for project implementation, including the development of annual work plans and budgets; 3. Providing an overview of how project performance will be monitored and evaluated. The art of developing a useful logframe matrix is to make it specific and clear but not too long. Remember that the detail needed for implementation will be more than what is required to provide an overview for those appraising a project for funding. The lack of adequate detail is why project staff often do not use a logframe matrix to guide project implementation.
When you begin to review or develop a new logframe matrix, it is a good idea first to develop a visual overview of the project’s objective hierarchy. Figure B-1 shows this for the original matrix and Figure B-2 for the reworked example. Such a visual overview makes it easier to understand how the different parts of the project fit together. When working with a group of stakeholders to develop the project objective hierarchy and matrix, visualise the objective hierarchy on a large wall by using separate cards for each element. The cards can then be moved around as people discuss the best way to structure the project.
See the logic testing questions in Table 3-4 in Section 3. 4, that can be used to guide this process of refining the structure. B-3 ANNEX B A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E Table B-1 shows the original logframe matrix, with numbers to indicate weak areas. Table B-2 analyses these key weaknesses. In summary, they are: 1. The whole matrix is not detailed and specific enough to provide an adequate overview of the project. 2. There are no activities specified. 3. Inputs are shown for the whole project rather than being specified for particular activities. 4.
The outputs are really project components and hence are at too high a level and are too general to be considered outputs. 5. Targets are only partially developed. 6. The risks and assumptions are overly simplified. Figure B-1. Visual overview of the original project objective hierarchy Improve the livelihood of 35,000 families Goal Purpose Outputs (Components) Inputs B -4 Small farms enabled to intensify and diversify crop production Agricultural Development Community Development Landless families increase livestock, fish and incomegenerating activities as well as homestead gardening Rural Credit Community
Infrastructure Project coordinator, PMU, research, extension, training, transport, construction, etc. Target Community development 13 Agricultural development 18 16 15 17 14 Increase in landless families’ livestock, fish and income-generating activities as well as homestead gardening Surveys and monitoring of target families and control families Surveys and monitoring of target farmers’ group members and control farmers Monitoring Baseline and evaluation surveys Monitoring 4 • Specific government departments support project activities. • NGOs/Department of agriculture extension work together effectively. Department of agriculture agricultural extension staff are motivated. • Credit, markets and infrastructure are available. Assumptions • Free market policies exist. • Economic and political suitability exists. Assumptions 5 Contract/Collaboration with department of agriculture extension is problematic. Specific government department staff is unable to meet requests from groups. • NGO monitoring • Department of agriculture’s engineering records • PMU credit monitoring • NGO monitoring and PMU identification • NGO monitoring and PMU identification • Credit monitoring • NGO monitoring • 80 groups involved in marketing 30 embankment/drainage schemes completed • STWs purchased by target farmers’ groups using project credit • 3,000 target families (some already established) managed by NGOs • District NGOs credit delivery doubled • Livestock, fish and homestead technology, marketing and other income-generating activities adopted by group members 3,000 permanent target farmers’ groups established by NGOs Target farmers’ groups cannot manage joint investment. • Baseline survey/technical assistance records and monitoring by PMU • New crops adopted by 30,000 farmers • Technology is not available. • Baseline survey records and monitoring by PMU New HYV adopted by 30,000 farmers Not enough suitable schemes exist. Marketing groups do not work. Department of agriculture is unable to deliver technology. (same risk as above) Risks Means of Verification Targets • Off-farm income doubled • Homestead garden output doubled • Fish catch increased 45% • Poultry/Duck numbers doubled • Yields increased 25% • Non-rice crops area increased 10% • Intensity of cropping increased 15% Small farmers enabled to intensify and diversify crop production 7 Goal 8 Family income increased by 40% in real terms 9 Improve the livelihood of 35,000 families 3 Target 2 Goal 6 12 (Component) Outputs Table B-1. Example of the original logframe for an agricultural development project (see Table B-2 for comments corresponding to numbers) A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B B-5 B-6 Department agriculture’s engineering records PMU monitoring National credit bank/NGO records Within one month of loan effectiveness 3 long-term for PMU Department engineering project director’s office and account set up Technical assistance contract agreed and personnel appointed 25 research contracts 20 workshops Numbers: • 5,000 • 1,000 • 350 • 150 Research Adaptive trials Extension inputs: • Demonstration plots • Farm visits/Field day Video shows • Agricultural fairs 2 long-term for department 11 contracts NGO contracts agreed and activated Routine reporting PMU monitoring Block supervisor/technical assistance records Project implementation reports PMU Routine reporting Routine reporting Routine reporting Routine reporting At loan effectiveness At loan effectiveness PMU By loan signature Targets • 20 training facilities • 15 landing stages MOV • Sealing 25 km road • 35 markets PMU monitoring • Upgrading of 150 km road • USD 0. 7 million risk fund established • USD 4. 0 million credit line disbursed by national credit banks/NGOs for target armers’ groups by NGOs for target family groups 19 • USD 1. 5 million revolving fund disbursed PMU/MU office established and staffed Qualified project coordinator appointed and special account set up 20 Inputs Community infrastructure Rural credit Problems occur in the fund flow from PMU to district. Qualified research contractors are not available. Delay occurs due to contractual procedures. – Contract delays occur. Suitably qualified and committed person is not available. Risks Problems with operation and maintenance exist. Primary stakeholder participation is lacking. National credit banks do not disburse credit to
NGOs or groups. District NGOs fail to meet targets. A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B Numbers of: Refer to Appendix 7 [Note: this is an appendix in the original project appraisal report] As per specifications • Extension Construction materials • USD 150/50/25 per group • 1,200 kits • Transport • USD 1. 2 million (disbursed to NGOs) • USD 4. 0 million (disbursed to national credit banks) • NGO service fees • Revolving funds • Credit Financial inputs: • 25 vehicles/150 motorcycles Physical inputs: • Women homestead gardeners/farmers • Group leaders (trained by NGOs) • Project management committee agricultural extension district, community and block staff • District and local extension programming committee members • agricultural extension management staff Training of: Project management reports Project management reports PMU monitoring Routine reporting Use own funds totally. National credit bank contribution is not provided. Procurement delays occur. Qualified trainers are not available. A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B B-7 ANNEX B A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E Table B-2. Critical comments on the original logframe matrix (numbers refer to the numbers in Table B-1) Issue Solution 1 General structure of the matrix
No activities are specified and the outputs are, in reality, project components. Inputs are given for the entire project and not for specific activities. Structure the matrix as in the revised example (see Figure B-2), with a purpose for each component and each component having outputs and each output having activities. 2 Generality and the fragmented nature of the matrix content The matrix provides only a very general overview of the project. In this form, the matrix provides insufficient detail to be a useful guide for project implementation. It is also not clear what is to be achieved under each of the components (outputs).
More detail needs to be included by using a purpose for each component, and outputs and activities for each purpose (see Figure B-2). This will make the matrix longer. However, a summary of the project in terms of the goal and purpose levels can be used on its own. 3 Contents of the second column of the matrix – targets The targets do not adequately cover the different aspects of the project. They focus too much on quantitative outputs and inputs and not enough on outcomes and qualitative information. The targets do not fully cover the scope of the project for each component, so it is difficult to understand the project fully.
Use key performance questions and key target indicators as shown in the reworked example. Comparing the reworked matrix to the original version, you can see how having outputs for each component purpose makes it much clearer what interventions the project intends to make. 4 Contents of the third column – monitoring/ means of verification The monitoring mechanisms are very general and so provide little guidance for setting up the M&E system. Include more about the information-collection methods. Additional information about M&E needs to be developed in a separate M&E matrix (see Annex D). 5 Contents of the fourth column – ssumptions/ risks At the goal and purpose levels, assumptions are used. At the output level, risks are used. There is no rationale for this, as “assumptions” can be used at all levels. A risk is an assumption that may not hold true. For example, there is a risk that the assumption about having a market for increased horticultural production may turn out to be incorrect. The revised matrix example includes only risky assumptions, and not killer assumptions or highly likely assumptions. 6 Gender and other equity differences There is no indication from the matrix that gender and other equity differences have been specifically onsidered. Ensure that, where necessary, there are specific outputs or activities that address equity issues. Include targets/indicators related to equity, for example, female-headed households benefiting equally from the project. Ensure that information is disaggregated according to gender and equity differences. 7 Generality of the goal The goal “Improving livelihoods” is an extremely broad goal. Yet the project does not intend to directly tackle, for example, the health and education aspects of improving livelihoods. So the project implicitly has a narrower focus than the full livelihood goal.
Try to make the goal more specific and more representative of the different purposes. It may be necessary to give a more detailed explanation of the scope of the project’s contribution in accompanying documentation. 8 Targets for the goal level Increased income is a poor indicator of the overall project goal. Income itself does not necessarily contribute to improved livelihoods. It depends how the increased income is used and how household expenses and work patterns have changed. See the performance questions and target indicators for the goal in the reworked example (see Annex C). 9 B-8 Explanation Assumptions for the goal evel The assumptions are so general that they would apply to virtually any project anywhere in the world. So they are not very useful for guiding thinking about the long-term sustainability of the project. The assumptions should indicate what to look for to see if the project is likely to be sustainable in the longer term. The reworked matrix gives a set of more specific assumptions for the goal. A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B 10 Purpose level In the original example, there is little difference between the two purposes or between them and the agricultural development output. There are different ways to structure a logframe atrix. However, for IFAD-supported projects, it is suggested that a separate purpose for each component be used. It is also important to think carefully about whether a project is primarily to achieve a physical change, such as increased agricultural production, or whether it is to focus on institutional and community capacity and the process of development. A good project will achieve both. However, it is important to ensure that capacitybuilding and institutional development processes are made explicit in the logframe matrix. 11 Purpose-level targets The purpose-level targets are essentially targets for pecific aspects of agricultural development. They do not address the issue of increased capacity for selfreliant agricultural, economic and social development. At the goal and purpose levels, it is important to ask broader questions about institutional change and how achieving specific production targets are actually contributing to improved livelihoods. See the performance questions for the goal and purpose levels in the reworked example. 12 Outputs As mentioned above, what are called outputs in the original example are really the project components. If you look at the outputs as given, it is very difficult to et an overview of what the project aims to achieve. The outputs are written only as a title/heading and not as a result or objective. Outputs should refer to a relatively specific achievement of the project. They should also be used to give a clear picture of the scope of each of the project components/purposes. 13 Agricultural development output It is not clear what will be achieved under this component. The targets are unclear. The reworked example shows clear outputs for the project under this purpose. 14 Agricultural development targets “New crops adopted by 30,000 farmers” is a poor indicator.
Taken literally it gives no information about what crops have been adopted, to what extent or how successfully. It is necessary to make clear that information must be collected about what particular crops have been adopted and to what extent. 15 Agricultural development assumptions The risks relate to achieving the component (output) and not to the contribution of the component to the purpose and goal. “Department of agriculture is unable to deliver technology” is an assumption relating to the achievement of the component. “Technology is not available” is potentially a “killer assumption”. In general, assumptions should relate to how an ctivity contributes to an output and how an output contributes to a purpose and so forth. For example, in this project, it is being assumed that extra production will, at least in part, be sold to increase household financial resources. The contribution of the increased agricultural production is based on an assumption about sufficient market demand and prices for the production. Clearly identifying assumptions is often a difficult part of the project planning process. Either the project should be changed to ensure that technology is available as a result of project efforts or the purpose and goal need adjusting to be less ambitious. 6 Community development output It is not just the community where capacity development is required. For the project to be successful, the department of agriculture and private sector also need to build their capacity. This output becomes an institutional development component at the purpose level of the matrix. 17 Community development targets Most of the targets provided are activity or low-level output targets and do not answer the “so what” question. Make sure there are performance questions that will provide information about, for example, how successful farmers’ groups are in supporting their embers to adopt new farming practices. 18 Community development targets “NGO and PMU monitoring” says nothing about what methods or even the general approach that will be used. The MOVs given are so simplified that they provide virtually no information to guide M&E. Try to be as specific as possible about what monitoring mechanisms and sources of information will be used. B-9 A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B 19 Rural credit targets These targets are all input targets and will not provide information about the outcomes or impact of the rural credit scheme. Establish performance questions and indicators that ill provide information about repayment and for what the credit is being used. 20 Inputs Inputs should relate to activities and not the whole project. The original example does not have an activity level. The use of the second and third columns in the matrix change at the activity level. The second column is used for inputs and the third column for budget information. Monitoring activities is necessary, but it is easy to track what activities have been completed through basic project records. Consequently it is not necessary to provide details about indicators and monitoring mechanisms at the activity level. B. 2 Reworked Logframe Matrix
The following points cover some key issues in developing a good matrix and are discussed in reference to the example. 1. 2. Structuring the matrix. The difficulty of dealing with large projects using a simple fourlevel matrix is discussed in Section 3. This problem is very clear from the original example. In the reworked example, you can see how having a number of purposes – each with outputs and activities – shows more clearly and exactly what a project will be trying to achieve. 3. Process- or product-driven. In the past, rural development tended to focus on products – irrigation schemes, yield increases, infrastructure, etc.
More recent approaches are increasingly concerned with building the capacity of people and institutions to guide their own development process. It is much more difficult to be specific about capacity development than, for example, 50 kilometres of road constructed. In the reworked example, under Component Purpose 3, you will find some ideas about how to express capacity development objectives and how to monitor them. The original example falls into the trap of only including those things than can be easily measured and hence focuses on products at the expense of capacity-development processes. . The sideways logic. It is important to remember that outputs from one part of the project will often be necessary inputs or conditions for another part of the project. The reworked example shows that the rural infrastructure component is an important contribution to the other purposes (components) to be achieved. For example, roads are critical for marketing and enabling access to villages for extension activities. 5. B-10 How to detail it. To outline a large project fully in a logframe matrix does require a considerable amount of detail and quite a few pages.
To be a useful guide for project implementation, such detail is necessary. For large projects, each purpose (component) could be considered a separate sub-project with its own logframe matrix. To provide a brief overview of the project, you can use only the goal and purpose levels as illustrated in the reworked example. Where to locate outputs and activities. Sometimes it is not always clear where an output or set of activities best belongs. In the reworked example, the output “irrigation and drainage scheme expanded and maintained” has a logical home with either the agricultural production or the infrastructure purpose.
Just choose one and develop the logic based on that choice. When dealing with activities like training, it is best to put training that relates to a specific output under that output. For example, training of farmers in post-harvest management should go under that output, not a general output related to training. The basic idea is to place all the activities necessary to achieve an output under A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B that output. If an activity relates to several outputs, then it is usually best to split it up into several specific activities. 6. Performance questions and target indicators.
You will notice in the reworked example that the second column has both performance questions and target indicators. The performance questions look broadly at what the project should be achieving and are particularly useful where this cannot be monitored using simple quantitative indicators. These questions are especially important at the purpose and goal level where it is often more difficult to have simple quantitative indicators. Diverse qualitative and quantitative information will often have to be gathered and analysed to answer these questions. The target indicators help specify precisely what the project should achieve. . Aggregation of outputs. What the project achieves at a purpose level is an aggregation of all the outputs that lie under that particular purpose. However, it will not always be possible to have sensible aggregate indicators. For example, at the purpose level for agricultural production there is no single indicator that can give a complete summary of increased agricultural production. Instead, it is necessary to talk about the increased area and yields of specific crops. This means that purpose-level indicators may be a compilation of the separate contributions (indicators) for each of the outputs. . Indicative targets. Increasingly, projects are implemented using a process approach that provides the opportunity for the outputs and activities to be determined with primary stakeholders during implementation. In the first draft of the logframe matrix it will then be necessary to use indicative outputs, activities and indicators. 9. Monitoring mechanisms. Monitoring mechanisms will often be the same for different purposes and outputs. For example, a household survey may provide information for many different indicators and performance questions. 10. Assumptions and risks.
Assumptions should not be only about external conditions but also about the internal logic of the project strategy. For example, when increasing agricultural production to increase income, the assumption is that there is a market for the produce. Remember that if an assumption is highly risky, then the project design should be adjusted to lower the risk. 11. Gender and other equity differences. It is important to check that gender and other equity differences have been adequately addressed in both the design and the monitoring and evaluation of the project.
Because equity is an issue that cross-cuts many project activities, outputs and components, it is often better that it be integrated rather than included as a separate element. However, this means it may be desirable also to have some crosscutting objectives and indicators for the project. B-11 B-12 Farm and home garden forestry developed Farm and home garden forestry developed Farm and home garden forestry developed – Construct new rice terraces. – Introduce new varieties. – Organise input supplies. Rice production increased – Undertake participatory research. – Provide extension support. – Organise input supplies.
Agricultural Production Increased and Diversified Agricultural Production Increased and Diversified Increased capacity for business planning Value-adding enterprises initiated Non-agricultural small businesses developed Post-harvest management improved – Research market opportunities. – Develop trading relationships. – Establish transport system. Marketing to local regions improved Income Generation Increased and Diversified Women’s enterprise development groups established and operating effectively Rural development NGOs strengthened and supporting rural development Farmer support established and operating effectively Conduct organisational assessment. – Train staff. – Introduce performance incentives. – Install facilities and equipment. Capacity of department of agriculture to support local development processes strengthened Rural Development Institutions Strengthened Central bank and revolving fund in place and operating effectively – Employ and train community facilitators. – Establish and train community groups. Community microfinance groups operating effectively Rural Credit Use Expanded Improved livelihoods for 35,000 poor families through incresead food security and beter income-generation opportunities Figure B-2.
Visual overview of the objective hierarchy for the reworked logframe matrix River landing stages constructed and maintained Community training centres built and equipped Market centres built and upgraded – Design new scheme. – Implement physical works programme. – Establish and train water users’ associations. Irrigation and drainage schemes expanded – Establish contruction priorities. – Issue building contracts. – Establish maintenance. Roads extended and maintained Rural Infrastructure Built and Maintained Financial resources properly managed and accounted for Stakeholders actively involved in project decision making and planning Design M&E system. – Train stakeholders in M&E. – Conduct annual project review and work planning. Participatory planning and M&E systems operational – Establish roles and responsibilities. – Develop individual work plans. Project staff and partners working as a committed team Project Effectively Implemented A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B • Increased agricultural production and economic activity is not offset by the demands of population growth. • Field observations by project and implementing partner staff Performance questions: • How have the diversity, level of production and productivity of agriculture changed in he target area? 1) Agricultural production Agricultural production increased and diversified in a sustainable way • How have the environmental impacts of agriculture changed? • What innovations have been developed or recommended and to what level have they been adopted? Performance Questions & Target Indicators Component Purposes • Equal livelihood improvements for femaleand male-headed households • 30% increase in household expenditure on housing, education and health • 75% of families with food secure under average seasonal conditions Target indicators: • How equitably have different social and economic groups benefited from the roject’s interventions? • How have interventions affected the workloads, roles and well-being of different household members (women, men, young, old)? • How has the diversity and size of the local economy changed? • How have project interventions influenced meeting the needs for housing, education and health? • People and institutions have the capacity to adapt to continually changing circumstances. • Productive capacity of natural resources is not degraded by intensification. Assumptions • Benefits are not offset by disruption of traditional livelihood strategies. • Participatory monitoring systems established with farmers’ groups Increased diversity and intensity of production is financially profitable. • Sufficient market demand and adequate price for produce exist. • Land use and cropping pattern records kept by participating communities, farmers’ groups and agricultural department • Sample surveys of crop yields and grossmargin analysis undertaken by department of agriculture • The productive capacity of the area is sufficient to meet food needs and provide surplus for sale. Monitoring Mechanisms & Information Sources • Analysis of local economic activity (baseline, mid-term, end of project and three years after completion) Project monitoring reports • Agricultural production can be profitable in a context of declining terms of trade for agricultural commodities. • Project benefits are not offset by declining government services and social benefits. • Participatory impact monitoring to complement household surveys • How has the purchasing power of target households changed? • Analysis of relevant government statistics • Continued and sufficient market demand exists for locally produced commodities and other products. • Sample household surveys (baseline, midterm, end of project and three years after completion) Performance questions:
Improved livelihoods for 35,000 poor families in the Rutunga province through increased food security and enhanced income-generating opportunities • For whom has food security changed and in which ways? Assumptions Monitoring Mechanisms & Information Sources Performance Questions & Target Indicators Goal Table B-3. The reworked (fictitious) logframe matrix (Note: Only three of the original six purposes have been reworked for this example) A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B B-13 B-14 Performance questions: • In what ways has the performance of the agricultural research and extension system changed? Government, private sector and NGO sector nstitutions are able to support sustainable agricultural and economic development effectively • 100% increase in off-farm employment opportunities • 60% of households benefiting from at least a 20% increase in purchasing power Target indicators: • How have household roles changed? • How have the levels and diversity of household income generation changed? • In what ways and how successfully have markets for particular products been developed? • What changes have occurred in the movement of products from the local area? • What value-adding or post-harvest initiatives have been established and what have the economic consequences been? ) Institutional development Greater market access, chain management, value adding, rise in non-agricultural small enterprise development and more diverse means of household income 2) Income generation • (See also the indicators for each output. ) • Chemical load in Besha River reduced to target levels • 70% of farmers adopting at least one environmentally sustainable practice • Area of non-rice crops increased by at least 10% for small farmers • 60% of farmers achieving 70% of target yields in years with average seasonal conditions • Area of horticulture and vegetable production increased to 4,000 hectares
Target indicators: • Reporting by NGOs, farmers’ and women’s groups • Organisational assessment of the department of agriculture activity (baseline, midterm, end of project and three years after completion) • Field observations by project and implementing partner staff • Participatory impact monitoring to complement household surveys and economic study • Analysis of local economic activity (baseline, mid-term, end of project and three years after completion) • Monitoring by NGOs and women’s groups • Questions in household survey • Questions in household/farm surveys • Environmental impact assessment process put in place Increased business involvement will not exploit disadvantaged groups. • The department of agriculture has sufficient financial and human resources to support development. • Changes do not have a disproportionate negative impact on overall labour use at the household level. • Increased economic activity flow benefits poor households and not middlemen. • Project-induced changes in the local economy increase household income by more than costs increase. • Food and other livelihood necessities are available for purchase. • Level of increased income is sufficient to make a significant difference in household ability to purchase livelihood needs. Changes do not have a disproportionate negative impact on overall labour use at the household level. A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B Effective project management 6) Project management Establishment of rural infrastructure 5) Rural infrastructure Rural credit use expanded 4) Rural credit Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example.
Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. • The incentives for adopting new agricultural-production or income-generating activities are enough for people to be interested in the extension support offered by the farmers’ groups and department of agriculture. • Field observations by project and implementing partner staff • Monitoring of private sector activities • Farmers/Women are willing to participate in the support groups. • Participatory impact monitoring of NGOs nd farmers’ and women’s groups Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. • 300 women’s enterprise groups operating effectively • 20 NGO organisations effectively supporting development • 500 farmers’ groups operating effectively • New strategic plan and annual work plans for department of agriculture effectively implemented Target indicators: • In what ways are private sector businesses contributing to development? • How successful have the farmers’ and women’s groups and NGOs been in supporting agricultural development and new income-generating activities? A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B
B-15 B-16 Assumptions 1. 1. 1 – Through participatory research with farmers, identify optimal horticultural and vegetable crops and appropriate production systems. Activities for Output 1. 1 Costs • Environmental impact assessment process put in place • 25 person months of external research consultancy support • Training for 30 department of agriculture staff in latest production methods for potential crops • Training for 20 department of agriculture staff in participatory research methods • Resources for 20 field research sites • Research and development coordinator Include costs for activities here. Key Inputs 10,000 families benefiting from additional seasonal labour • 15,000 farmers participating in at least one form of horticultural or vegetable production • 3,000 hectares of mixed vegetable production developed • 2,000 hectares of orchards established and producing Key target indicators: • What are the environmental impacts of increased production and how are they being managed? • Production systems appropriate to the local conditions can be developed. Assumptions • Farmers are willing to adopt new cropping systems. • Sample surveys of crop yields and gross margin analysis undertaken by department of agriculture Who is benefiting from this increase and in what ways? • Participatory monitoring systems established with farmers’ groups • The human resources for successful intensive production can be developed. • Land use and cropping pattern records kept by participating communities, farmers’ groups and agricultural department Key performance questions: Output 1. 1 Horticultural and vegetable production increased • To what extent have horticultural and vegetable production increased? • Horticultural and vegetable crops are a financially, environmentally and socially sound way of increasing overall agricultural productivity.
Monitoring Mechanisms & Information Sources Performance Questions & Target Indicators Outputs and Activities Component 1. Agricultural Production – Outputs and Activities A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E ANNEX B Monitoring Mechanisms & Information Sources Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Costs Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Performance Questions & Target Indicators • Mobilisation support for farmer field schools • Training for 200 people in participatory extension and for the trainer
Include costs for activities here. Include costs for activities here. • Participatory extension coordinator/facilitator • Contracts for extension support given to private sector and NGO groups Monitoring Mechanisms & Information Sources Performance Questions & Target Indicators Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Key Inputs Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Outputs and Activities Output 1. 2 Increased rice production Activities for Output 1. 2 1. 2. 1 – Construct new rice terraces. . 2. 2 – Introduce new varieties. 1. 1. 3 – Organise input supplies. 1. 1. 2 – Establish and implement cooperative extension scheme between department of agriculture, private sector, farmers’ groups and NGOs. Outputs and Activities Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Assumptions Example of matrix structure – details not included in this example. Assumptions • Sufficient agricultural extension capacity is available to support farmers in adopting new cropping systems. Assumptions A G UIDE FOR PROJECT M&E

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