The abilities and performance characteristics of effective leaders are appraised. In 1992 Sir Peter dela Billiere was quoted as Strenght of personality is always likely to be part of the DNA of top leaders. He based this around his research around military structure throughout history ,sir Peter was throughout his career an very well respected Military officer who has spoken at many Buiness conventions on leadership . (Hooper and Potter2000 ;Hodgson 2004) argue that the small percentage could be increased through appropriate development and more self awareness.
I John Adair book Fundamentals of Leadership 2005 he suggest that originations should focus on strategic aspects of leadership . He was able to define this to seven key elements . * Providing direction * Strategic planning * Making it happen * Getting the interrelated parts in an organisation properly balanced * Relationship between the strategic leadership and the outside world * Releasing the corporate energy * Identifying today’s and tomorrow leaders In amplification of this Adair (2005) believes that (Making it Happen) is the primary focuss.
In modern business Sir Terry Leahy is recognized with being with this attribute that has made Tesco the force it is today . In contrast Greg Dyke has been much critized by the press and others in light of the Gilligan –Kelly Incident. In Hodgson (2004) research into top leaders Journeys’ he identified similar traights which he refers to as (focus of attention). He also goes on to discuss spotting development potential, inspiration and energy . managing upwards and outwards.
Though Hodgson in somewhat mirrors Adair finding he also expands from this and speak with regards to creditability which he refers to as a currency. Leaders have a blank credit on which they can draw. For instance provided their professional reputation is good,their people will be accept some personal failings (such as Nelsons mistress,Churchil and drink),but if they overdraw their reputation will be affected . It is their followers who will decide this . It has been stated that for success at the strategic level are somewhat different from those at operational level.
It true that they are forged at the same anvil of development but are clearly different . This can also be a reverse application Lord Mountbatten did not shine as a ship’s captain ,but went on to be a great leader of men and diplomat . From this Adair (2005) states that the key is to indentify, develop and groom individuals for senior positions so that they become leaders with noble purpose. Companies within the private sector who have excelled at grooming individuals for tope jobs are BP and Barclays .
Matt Barratt who became CEO after a turbulent time with the Barclays bank in 1999 and this would seem to have been a part of the stability of Barclays in these austere times . Effective leadership can be traced back as far as Socrates who reflected that leaders both in business and military situations need to perform much the same functions. Select the right man for the job Pushing the bad rewarding the good Winning the goodwill of those under them Attracting allies and helpers Keeping what they have gained
Being strenuous and industrious in their own work Stogdill (1974) research would lead us to believe that there are some 160 definitions of leadership which modern managerial author (Adair 2005) have simplified to three operating levels ,Strategic or big picture, ambient or day to day and episodic or small group . Episodic leader ship is often covered within originations by the training or development exercises cascade to small groups. This concept has emerged from the studies of Forgas (1979) on social episoades.
This was seen under the concept of short –term goals with specific boundaries Hooper and Potter (1979) studies of episodic leader ship concluded that there specific competence extend to operational level. Creating an environment to allow episodes to take place effectively with the organisation plan . In contrast Stogdill (1974) presents that there are over 160 definitions of leadership,Adair (2005) conculede that this can be put into three selected levels . Strategic-Big picture Abient –Day to Day Espisodic-small or Group
The Concept of episodic front line leader ship has emerged from studies of Forgas (1979) social episodes. The start of the 20th centaury there has been the approach that the Great man theories,qualiteis approach that great leader are born despite more interest being set in psychological theories. Stogdill (1974) has enhanced the work of the university of Ohio and the University of Michigan. In essence that leader operate in tow sort of behaviour direct to towards achieving the task and developing and maintain the relationships.
This is the essence of the managerial grid defined by Blake and Mounton (1964)which sugest five key leadership styles . * High Task and Low Relationship Style * High Task and High Relationship Style * Low task and High Relationship Style * Low Task and high Relationship Style * Medium Task and Medium Relationship Style The summary was the leader should occupy the middle of the above which has been formed to a grid theory, thus that mangers should occupy a medium level on both task and relationship behaviour.
Thos approach has been linked to the laws cybernetics and expert systems ,namely Ashbys Law of Requisite Variety which states the highest number of options tends to control the system. A related approach to this was also created by Hersey and Blanchard (1969) Life style Grid Hersey and Blanchard characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of task behavior and relationship behavior that the leader provides to their followers.
They categorized all leadership styles into four behavior types, which they named S1 to S4: * S1: Telling – is characterized by one-way communication in which the leader defines the roles of the individual or group and provides the what, how, when, and where to do the task * S2: Selling – while the leader is still providing the direction, he or she is now using two-way communication and providing the socioemotional support that will allow the individual or group being influenced to buy into the rocess. * S3: Participating – this is now shared decision making about aspects of how the task is accomplished and the leader is providing less task behaviors while maintaining high relationship behavior. * S4: Delegating – the leader is still involved in decisions; however, the process and responsibility has been passed to the individual or group. The leader stays involved to monitor progress. Of these, no one style is considered optimal for all leaders to use all the time.
Effective leaders need to be flexible, and must adapt themselves according to the situation. The basic theory was to identify four theory’s of leadership style in order obtain a task focused relationship to strategies within an axes created by a two by two ,four cell matrix . Harvard business review by Tannenbaum and Schumidt (1973) How to Adopt Leadership Patterns. Related leadership style to communication and decision making patterns adopted by a leader at one extreme they describe a leader who tell the followers what to do .
The middle of the road scale with leader listening to all the input from others whilst retaining authority. The third style would be a more subordinate center approach being more group focused . The article argued that key factors of situation individuals and timing would require all of these style to be adopted in order to enhance the overall aim . The purpose and role of leadership and executive coaching practice are critically review There has been much study around the need for adapting and continual professional development within the modern business environment .
Within leader ship the direction and delivery of strategic planning is vitual for organization to survive within these austere times. In some ways the use of remote working and e-mail has hampered effective communication. In a recent conference in New York a quote from Larry Kihlstadius, Senior Vice President of Client Solutions, Vistage International, speaks on the success of HCI events. Developing and indentifying leaders with critical business skills, technical knowledge and the global diversity needed for success no longer happens in the traditional talent pipeline.
Executive development and the learning process have taken a new form, a clear direction, and have become even more critical to the success of your organization. Exciting new advances in workforce collaboration and cutting-edge leadership models now achieve even greater alignment to business needs, engage employees as they drive the business forward, and generate substantial increases in organizational performance. In 2004, the chartered Institute of professional and personal development in their annual report outlined the clarity of what is deemed to be professional development.
According to the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD should: * be continuous – professionals should always be looking for ways to improve performance * be the responsibility of the individual learner to own and manage * be driven by the learning needs and development of the individual * be evaluative rather than descriptive of what has taken place * be an essential component of professional and personal life, never an optional extra
According to a study Rensselar Polytechnic Insttitue and GFK Custom Research (2005) communication between employees and managers internally work or virtually contained produce fewer contextual indicators which hamper accurate interpretations and we need to misunderstandings. The research also goes on to say that 71% of workers believe that an increased number of people will be working from home by 2036. At present, 54% of the current workers who were interviewed that they will never meet members of the team. And 39% of employees interviewed say that they are unlikely to meet their bosses before starting the works projects.
So how can this and other issues be addressed primarily for leader ship and management? “unlocking a persons potential to maximize their own performance . it is self helpingthem to learn rather than teaching them (Whitmore,2009) The use of Coaching can identify the individual needs, that of team which the coachee manages and the structure and plan within the organizational structure and requirements. This can be also created around a relationship based on confidentiality, trust and remote from the corporate or direct structure of the Coachee.
This terms of this can be discussed and agreed with all the individuals prior to the event and are based around a concept of professional ethics. It can be argued that Training and developing skills will increase performance, the use of physcrometric testing and SWOT anaylisis can be used within the frame work of management training to map weakness in order to flag up training needs. Albert Humprey led a convention at the University Stanford in the 1960s, using data from the top American 500 companies at the time, created a test based around the performance and development of organisations.
This test as being developed and owned adapted by others. The primary objectives are: Setting the objective should be done after the SWOT analysis has been performed. This would allow achievable goals or objectives to be set for the organization. * Strengths: characteristics of the business, or project team that give it an advantage over others * Weaknesses (or Limitations): are characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to others * Opportunities: external chances to improve performance (e. g. ake greater profits) in the environment * Threats: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project The use of psychometric testing has been recognised as a method of clarifying intelligence. There have been numerous researchers in this field. If we look primarily within the corporate field , David Weschler was quoted: The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment At the beginning of the 21st century.
If Charles Spearman carried out informal methods of testing. These were known as factor analysis of correlation between tests and tasks. Spearman named this test. The general intelligence factor. The research, which he carried out is still relevant to considerable number of the tests today. Profiling activity testing can be used in order to also flag up weak areas for improvement. But none of these will address the overall required mapped to a single individual need.
The use of feedback can be imperative in order to enhance reflection at management level, the feedback from peer’s senior manager and employees who you managed can help you to develop and move forward both the organisational needs and the requirements of the individual who wishes to developed and grow(360 feedback ) In order for this to be successful the feedback has to be anomalous and perhaps independently obtained . This can be easily and confidentially obtain with the use of technologies such as survey monkey and may remain private to the individual who has set the online survey .
Research suggests the feedback in order to enhance performance has been gathered from numerous years with the earliest recollections of this was during the Second World War with which the German Army extensively used feedback in order to evaluate performance. In the 1950s Esso research establishment in America extensively used employer feedback in order to increase productivity and momentum. (Atkins & Wood, 2002). Today, studies suggest that over one-third of U. S. companies use some type of multi-source feedback (Bracken, Timmereck, & Church, 2001a).
Others claim that this estimate is closer to 90% of all Fortune 500 firms (Edwards & Ewen, 1996). Some organisations would argue that the use of research within specific management areas or shadowing of a similar level manager may well be a better way of improving and developing individuals. Carnelian Lawton Smith, of Oxford Brookes University, wrote an article in the summer of 2007 entitled is coaching just a new name for training. Within the article. She looked at the levels of which training develops and the similarities between training and coaching.
She argued that that the aims of training as they digressed to let higher-level become less effective. The role of coaching was ethicized to be very effective of improving development . Primarily at a level III on the continuum of training needs, delegates would have existing knowledge and skills, behaviours and concepts and theoretical positions which would require homing and developing within the context and structure of the organisation. The techniques which would be used in order to improve this would be questioning listening giving feedback.
Within the senior management and executives. There is a strong culture that they do not require training or perceive value. However, the relationship within coaching has been deemed to be more successful and enhancing and improving skill basis. In a recent survey of some 1000 project managers conducted by Project smart Uk ,the group were asked if they felt that roles and responsibilities ,and levels of authority are clear in projects. Fifty one percent disagreed and less than three percent strongly agreed. There could be some cultural ties to training as a whole .
Rogers (2004,) goes on to identify key aspects of training primarily a trainer has set curriculum, within the set standards involving accreditation or assessment and thirdly, the participants have normally been enrolled on some form of formal training. If we look however, a coaching coaching may not have any formal accreditation for the individual in this enhances and improves existing development. Within an experienced coach. There is no boundaries and therefore is a continual continue the may well be enhancing developed around the individualistic needs with the use of selective questioning and reflection.
The coach will continue to develop the individual and therefore is no formal guide. But this will still not be taylor specifically to the individual needs or the needs of this specific area or style of the individual who is hoping to improve and delevelope. Meeting with like minded people within trade specific areas such as conference can enhance development, but some originations are reluctant to disclose all their secrets to their competitors. Especially in these very competitive times.
A prime example of this would be the association of college who regularly hold conferences and works shops in order to cascade information and ideas across the college spectrum. Direct quote from their web site . Association of Colleges (AoC) exists to represent and promote the interests of Colleges and provide members with professional support services. As such, we aim to be the authoritative voice of Colleges – based on credible analysis, research, advocacy and consultation with Colleges – and the first choice destination for guidance and advice for members.
Within conferences and seminars. It can produce a high knowledge of funding, government policies and the ever-changing market fields. These strategies can help but they will not be fully developed unless the individual is able to recognise self reflection of their individually tailor needs. In 1993. The educational training and developer Phil Race put forward a radical model for further learning from which we can take the basis of continual development. These, then, are the four basic elements that, in Race’s opinion, constitute successful learning: Needing/Wanting – motivation
Doing – practice; trial and error Feedback – seeing the results; other people’s reactions Digesting – making sense of it; gaining ownership. At a individual level coaching can improve self awareness and reflection . It can increase the individual performance ,higher motivation and commitment ,better leader ship skills ,personal growth and performance . Research by (Penna,2005) indicating that employers who create an environment that promotes a greater sense of self community and challenge that is more than just a job will help to increase motivation ,loyalty and staff productivity .
A large proportion of career development and training can tend to be singularly in affective, and fail to provide follow up. Effective coaching need to be more than show and tell. As students of learning we remember 20% of what we read, 30% of what we hear, 40% of what we see and 50% of what we say . This can equate to around 60% of our knowledge. But if we see hear, say and do this equates to 90% effectiveness. Benjamin Bloom was the founder of educational theorists within the modern 20th-century statistics above equate to his studies.
Bloom studied for some 50 years at the University of Chicago, where he developed a theory of taxonomy of educational objectives. The question that may well spring to mind within the company structure is why can this not be managed through training and the structure of the manager or CPD and appraisal system. The key to understanding and mapping the needs to the organisation can be critical to the development of key staff within an organization. The transition to senior management with originations can be a isolated path, with a structure of lacking in key areas as a weakness.
In order for us all to develop we need to be reflective in all areas from are professional and personal life, this can be very deep and emotional. The use of external coaches can help build up a relationship that the Coachee may not feel comfortable having with his or her line manager. Within more senior management the need for reflection and development can be more, coaching can provide specific support within specific areas. Im sure that a prime example of this is the Film the Kings speech,King George turn to and Australian actor to not help him write the speeches or the contact but purley the delivery of the content of the speech .
King George VI and Lionel Lougue ,an Australian speech therapist relationship was built on trust and confidentiality, away from the royal court . In fact Lougue insisted this order to create the wright environment for the relationship in order to grow and develop. (the future king of England meeting a voice coach within and rather run down house in the east end of London . Lougue could after the seound world war used this relationship for financial gain and become very famous with telling the story of the relationship but he was bound by a moral code of professional ethics.
Lougue had no desire to become a future king or a politician his coaching skills remained in one key area, speaking and working with people who have speech problems. This is would show a very high standard of professional ethics. We could still argue that coaching is just training in another format, it would be good at this stage to reflect on the fundamental differences and thus change the concept of coaching . Senior executive rarely are seen as requiring training but within circle it is seen that having a coach is someone what a badge of honour . There is a case for rebranding in order to create a self worth to the individual.
So is this training rebranded? Rogers (2004) identify three key areas with the perception of training. A trainer has a set curriculum and is an expert within that field with product knowledge Yet they may not have been involved within management at that level . That there may be an agreed set of standards involving accreditation or assessment. Mostly the employee may well have been enrolled on this course or training at the request of others and not a specific singular based need . Trainers do use probing questioning but this is normally to obtain a set objective or need within the training feed back.
Within a higher frame work of reflection and training continuum the aim is to expose the trainee to reflect on existing knowledge in order to enhance skills and behaviour concepts based of theoretical positions in order for the delegate to chose how to apply within the given context. The understanding of self relation and the encourage meant of this through questioning can encourage ownership of new perspectives. Selective and probing questioning evolving can help to influence the adoption of new perspectives. This must be very much mapped to the requirements with structure of the organizational context .
What can you offer the organisation, as a leadership mentor or executive coach? The skills which are required for an executive coach are varied I beleave that I have these skills and Iam continuing to developed them through my coaching career. I have also been employed with Gloucestershire College for a number of years in a variety of roles and areas ,I have worked in technology and engineering as well as computing. I have within these role mentor staff through a variety of He courses as well as staff who have left the organization .
I have continued to develop my own skills through formal and informal training. My skills have been increase through Certed and Mentoring qualifications, I worked exstaensivly in the field of mobile learning. Within the field of informal learning I works as a Tutor so have deliverd courses with contact hours of some 35 per week. My present role as a personal tutor to student has brought me with more closer contact with managers in order to see the overall picture. The approved method of supporting students as a personal tutor within our organisation is the Grow model.
This model was developed by Alexander and Renishaw in the 1980s and has become an industry recognised method of questioning in supporting individuals. The model is based around goal, reality, options and Wrap-up of a within this model, the course skill of questioning listening summarising and offering feedback is paramount. This model fixes easily within an educational establishment. The role has brought me closer to understanding the strategic plan of the origination, the relationship between good teaching and performance and retention of students and the learner journey.
I have within this role worked with both supporting managers and staff through there progression into the orgazation. This I believe has lead me to have a good knowledge of business and professional understanding. The embedding of corporate values, the challenging of ideals that may well not bee coherent with the requirements of good teaching, managerial practice. A prime example of this would be to work on cultural changes and people’s perception, which I have done extensively over the last year with a group of students who have been involved in a racial incident.
The students had been involved in a rather verbal confrontation between another student and a member of staff, which transpired into a rather racial orientated confrontation. A group of four students were suspended for a period of one week while we gathered all the information. The incident was clearly a serious breach within the discipline code within the College. Myself a head of school and a senior student manager met to discuss what outcome was to be recommended. The director centre. As this was a breach of gross misconduct, we could have asked the students to leave the College. After considerable discussion.
We discussed the idea of changing the culture within these young people? It was decided that we would run students who have been involved in the incident in a racial awareness and equality and diversit course. I therefore created a course for some 12 weeks based around my existing knowledge of the subject, the students were given the option to either attend the course or to be asked to leave the College. Fortunately the latter occurred and this became very successful. Mythology behind this was. I did in fact myself attend the driving awareness course, due to being 4 mph per hour over a driving limit.
The course was run by the road safety awareness and Avon Constabulary . Statistically, according to the ministry of statistics circular 2003, a individual that attends a safety awareness course for driving is 75% less likely to reoffend again. I beleave that I have a good self awareness and the managing of my own behaviours and the use of empathy when required. I also believe that I have good behaviour awareness towards others and the abilty to reflect on others behaviour. In order for me to develop skills. I continually professionally reflect I have a regular basis undertake psychometric testing.
I’ve also undertaken aptitude tests covering personality a cultural intelligence, as well as undertaking regular meetings and reflections with a more senior student leader and manager. I feel this has supported me and helps me to continue to professionally developed. I believe that I have a open mind when it comes to listening whilst demon staring interest,encouraging the flow of communication . I also believe that I visually observe whilst looking at the verbal and non verbal signs ,this has enabled me to analyze whilst refelecting on what has been said . David Stachowiuk of innovative learning. om who is a renowned coach within United States has developed numerous models and anachronisms for supporting coaching. He has developed a listing model to help reflect and assess your listening techniques. I believe that Iam able to mirror whilst enabling a flow of communication whilst preventing inadequate responses or slowing of the delivery. These skills I have homed by projecting and crasfting of words linked closely to the OSCAR questioning techniques. Within the sessions I believe that Iam able to clarify the dialogues whilst aligning a understanding of the information through both sides of communications both verbal and non verbal.
In Hogan, K. , Stubbs, R. (2003). Can’t get Through 8 Barriers to Communication research and publication, Stubbs observed that two thirds of communication can be observed through body language. He concluded that communication can be both verbal and non-verbal by the use of correct body language. Demarais,A. , White, V. (2004). Book First Impressions goes further to add that: When the other person or group is absorbing the message they are focused on the entire environment around them, meaning, the other person uses all five senses in the interaction. Sight makes up 83% of the impact on the brain of information from the senses during a visual presentation. Taste makes up 1%, Hearing makes up 11%, smell 3% and touch 2%. I will also bring to the session a set of professional ethics based around professional integrtae. Economist Milton Friedman writes: that corporate executives’ “responsibility… generally will be to make as much money as possible while conforming to their basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom Friedman also said, “the only entities who can have responsibilities are individuals …
A business cannot have responsibilities. This was supported further by a multi-country 2011 survey found support for this view among the “informed public” ranging from 30-80%. The contribution of leadership mentoring and executive coaching in deloping leadership performance. Business coaching is a type of personal or human resource development. It provides positive support, feedback and advice to an individual or group basis to improve their personal effectiveness in the business setting. Business coaching includes executive coaching, corporate coaching and leadership coaching.
The International Coach Federation, the International Coaching Council and the Worldwide Association of Business Coaches provide a membership-based association for business coaching professionals. These and other organizations train professionals to offer business coaching to business owners. According to A MarketData Report in 2007, an estimated 40,000 people in the U. S. , work as business or life coaches, and the $2. 4 billion industry is growing at rate of 18% per year There are numerous contributions that can be made from mentioning executive coaching, primarily we will look at performance and leadership.
There is a vast difference between training and coaching and one of the benefits of coaching is the modelling of the package to suit the individual and the organisation. If we look at the organisation to begin with. Each organisation is different outcomes values and vision of the future. The vision and drive of an organisation in order to be successful would need to be cascaded within the ranks of the organisation. Company values and vision or Pacific to an organisation and also maybe Pacific to the individual, which is being managed.
Within most organisations leadership any level is deemed to be a rather singular path and sometimes lonely . The use of executive coach is primary to producing a good working relationship, the individual who is the coach would work under a strict code of ethics and confidentiality. This can also be impartiality. So the individual who is being coached may not feel threatened by this person. This can be very important within the structure of today’s aggressive corporate world. The developing of a relationship between the coach and the person being coached is paramount.
It can therefore develop into a close relationship based on professional ethics and trust stop the use of well experienced coach can also help for the individual to recognise areas in which self development and improvement can be paramount. The abilities and performance characteristics of effective leaders are appraised. In the 1950s, the CIA spent a considerable amount of money and research in defining the characteristics of management and leadership. Their conclusions are below. There are nine strategies for perception management. These include: 1. Preparation — Having clear goals and knowing the ideal position you want people to hold. . Credibility — Make sure all of your information is consistent, often using prejudices or expectations to increase credibility. 3. Multichannel support — Have multiple arguments and fabricated facts to reinforce your information. 4. Centralized control — Employing entities such as propaganda ministries or bureaus. 5. Security — The nature of the deception campaign is known by few. 6. Flexibility — The deception campaign adapts and changes over time as needs change. 7. Coordination — The organization or propaganda ministry is organized in a hierarchical pattern in order to maintain consistent and synchronized distribution of information. . Concealment — Contradicting information is destroyed. 9. Untruthful statements — Fabricate the truth There are many great leaders that we can study in order to define what has made them successful ,vision drive creativity and the abilty to inspire offers . But one area is clear that they would not have been able to have become as rich and famous as they are without one clear aspect? The abilty to structure the origination that they have created. My first case is Sir Allan Sugar ,a man who has made millions of pounds in the IT and property business.
Sir Allan has a global empire ,he has been describe as a man who is outspoken blunt ,and is not always popular –but always honest . Alan Michael Sugar, Baron Sugar, (born 24 March 1947) is a British entrepreneur, peer, media personality star and political advisor. From humble origins in the East End of London, Sugar now has an estimated fortune of ?770m In resent Guardian article Sir Allen was quoted as saying I’ll run my – the – company the way I want to,” he said. “Not the way some twat in the City wants me to. ” Then we have Sir Richard Branson again a man who has created a brand that is global ,his outloock is business must be fun.
Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is an English business magnate, best known for his Virgin Group of more than 400 companies. His first business venture was a magazine called Student at the age of 16. In 1970, he set up an audio record mail-order business. In 1972, he opened a chain of record stores, Virgin Records, later known as Virgin Megastores. Branson’s Virgin brand grew rapidly during the 1980s, as he set up Virgin Atlantic Airways and expanded the Virgin Records music label. Branson is the 4th richest citizen of the United Kingdom, according to the Forbes 2011
Two very different people two global names ,one from a upper class back ground and one from a very poor East end family . Both of these man are driven both by different needs ,but interesting neither of these individuals are driven solely by money . But attribute that they both have that is in common with all great leader is the abilities to let others work to their strengths. Neither of these individual are or have very high standards of academic qualifications . But they are both visionaries ,the rest they leave to others and the structure they create around them .
In Deborah Blagg and Susan Young Book what makes a great leader. They ask Is it the ability to navigate in the choppy waters of change? Do leaders see the hidden opportunity in every setback? Is there really any such thing as a “born leader”? Five HBS faculty and some prominent alumni offer their perspectives on an increasingly essential quality for managers at the dawn of the 21st century. HBS professor John P. Kotter — a distinguished authority on leadership — sees this phenomenon as a sign of the times. “The transition from the industrial age to the information age is a huge shift,” he notes. In all of human history, there have only been two other socioeconomic revolutions of this magnitude: the move from hunting and gathering to agriculture and from agriculture to industry. We know that leadership is very much related to change. As the pace of change accelerates, there is naturally a greater need for effective leadership. ”
“Times of upheaval require not just more leadership but more leaders,” says HBS professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter, a renowned expert on change. “People at all organizational levels, whether anointed or self-appointed, must be empowered to share leadership responsibilities. Leadership has been central to the mission of Harvard Business School since its inception almost a hundred years ago. “Our primary purpose has always been to educate leaders,” notes Dean Kim B. Clark. “Our students learn to be managers here, but they also learn that it is important to make a difference in the world — to bring commitment, integrity, and a sense of values to their work. ” While the leadership theme has long resonated across the MBA and Executive Education curriculum, in 1999 Dean Clark launched the HBS Global Leadership Initiative in order to broaden the School’s outreach in this area.
Headed by Kotter and Director Alan Price, the initiative uses traditional and nontraditional teaching methods to bring the latest developments in leadership to HBS alumni and other executives all over the world. What Change Demands of Us, a new Executive Education course developed by the initiative, will be offered later this year. The initiative draws on the accumulated wisdom of HBS faculty members whose groundbreaking research in leadership has helped to define the field. Five of these experts — Joseph L. Badaracco, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, John Kotter, Nitin Nohria, and David A.
Thomas — agreed to help the Bulletin answer perhaps the most basic question asked about leadership: What are the qualities that make a good leader? So we could ask are great leader born or are they created ? The question has had much debate over many years and the answer can be yes or No ,some what an dilemma . The answer is that without dive we would be unable to move forward, the role of the coach is to draw what the individual has within for them to recognise what is required to move themselves and the individuals forward.
The purpose and the role of leadership mentoring and executive coaches are critically reviewed. In order for the coach and the coache can begin their relationship there needs to be some key points which need to be addressed in or for the relationship to flourish. The Coach needs to understand what the stake holder is looking for from the coach ,the business,time scale and environment which they will be working within . The coach will need to define what gaps are in the coachee development ,is there training required prior to run concisely with the session or prior .
Is the environment right for both the coach and the coachee ,for example the venue and the time allowance . It is no good trying to coach sat on a bus on the way nto work in the morning. Executive coaching becomes strategic in the preparation that precedes the actual coaching process. Before the process begins, the coach meets with the client’s executive leadership to define the strategic context. This involves addressing a number of critical questions: * What are the key business challenges facing the organization? * What business goals are you trying to achieve? What core values best define a common framework for how business results are achieved in your organization? * What leadership skills, knowledge, and abilities have been critical for success in your organization in the past? What is required in the future? * How does your organization determine whether you have the leadership bench strength to compete effectively in the future? * What is your organization’s strategy for developing future leaders? How do you evaluate the success of your approach? * Does your organization have proven methods to attract, develop, and retain required talent?
Once the strategic context has been mapped out, the actual executive coaching process can begin. From the point of view of the executives being coached, this is the personal component of the coaching process, where their own particular strengths and development needs are benchmarked against the leadership attributes needed to achieve the strategic goals of the business. The coaching process can be broken down into five steps. The exact determination of the dividing lines between the individual steps is less important than the approach that is taken to address the issues that arise during the process as a whole.
It takes skill to create a trusting environment in which open dialogue can occur and underlying issues can be brought to light. A great deal of honest communication and feedback will set the parameters of the coaching process. A contracting meeting for the purposes of defining expectations should take place before the individual coaching begins. Those attending should typically include a senior level human resources representative, the executive coach, and the executive receiving the coaching.
The objectives of the contracting dialogue include: * Identification of success factors for a specific executive or team’s current and potential role * Agreement regarding confidentiality boundaries * Identification of specific results expected * Confirmation that the chemistry is right * Clarity regarding roles and responsibilities * Agreement regarding milestones and timelines * Agreement regarding financial terms Addressing these issues will help to define the organizational and individual expectations and support the business objectives. . Comprehensive Assessment The second step in the executive coaching process is the assessment of each individual executive. There are many types of assessments available (e. g. , 360 feedback). My experience has been that face-to-face interviews are one of the best approaches to understanding the challenges facing the executive being coached. Another excellent approach is “shadowing” the executive (i. e. , spending a day or two with the executive in her/his daily life on the job).
The main advantage of these approaches is that they enable the coach to probe, see things first hand, and thus provide both quantitative and qualitative feedback that is real-time, powerful, and linked to business events. The ultimate value of the assessment process is that the results clearly illustrate areas of strength as well as those requiring attention. This paints a clear picture for the executive and thus focuses and informs the coaching process. 3. Feedback and Action Planning The first order of business in an effective feedback session is to revisit the agreed-upon objectives and to review the ground rules.
Properly preparing executives for feedback is key to ensuring their willingness to listen, accept, open up, and move into action planning. Sessions should occur outside the normal office environment to ensure a more relaxed experience, free of interruptions or ready escape routes. The coach must facilitate the feedback flow process, help the executive understand the data, and moderate any negative reactions to it. During the feedback dialogue session, the coach will continue to refer to the business requirements, leader attributes, and expected business results, and compare them to current performance.
The aim is to work within a framework that directs feedback toward the key objectives of the business. The feedback session typically follows these stages: * Reaffirm ground rules and establish rapport * Review coaching objectives and business context * Describe how to interpret results * Give the executive opportunity to review results * Discuss surprises or frustrations * Highlight strengths * Identify development needs * Agree on areas of improvement * Begin development-planning process The action plan must focus on behaviors that contribute to specific business outcomes.
A typical action plan includes: * Strengths, and why they are important in the executive’s current role * Development areas * Action steps required, or interventions needed in areas requiring improvement or further development * The type of coaching style that will best suite the development process * Suggestions for active learning or experiential development suggestions * Ways in which direct reports, boss, peers, and others can help * A process for following up with key stakeholder * Key milestones Once the action plan is complete, key stakeholders will be invited to endorse it.
These stakeholders typically comprise the same group of people involved in the initial assessment interviews. By sharing the action plan with those who were initially interviewed, the executive can be assured that the planned improvements are consistent with expectation. The other benefit of close-loop validation is that it involves those most likely to be influenced by the change in the executive’s behavior. As a result, this process fosters their commitment to help the executive develop.
Once the key stakeholders agree with the action plan, the coach guides and reinforces the development strategies, which can include techniques such as action learning, role play, case study, simulation, video feedback, shadowing, and journaling. | | | | | | | | With Executives being very busy people the primary meeting and agreement of a number of meeting and time scale should be agreed in order for the relation to flourish . After the first meeting does the coach feel that they can develop and create the right environment for the relationships to flourish,this would also be the case with the coachee but to some lesser extent .
There would need to be a agreement with both parties how the relationship can be terminated and how feed back on the sessions can be given . The development of the relationship is key for the for the coach as a level of trust needs to be installed ,this can sometimes be more challenging with senior managers. But the coach may need to challenge be leaves and help develop hopes and aspirations . Alternative strategies for developing leadership performance and the potential contribution of leadership mentoring and executive coaching to individual and organisation performance are evaluated.
There are many individuals who may argue that coaching is just another former training, though coaching can be partially to do with training. It is in no way the same, I hope to explain the next few paragraphs the differences. We obtain experience from a number of methods, it was very common prior to the use of the internets for senior managers to attend conferences. This was a very good way of picking up new innovations and new ideas and also networking with individuals from other organisations in a similar role .
The subscription to professional bodies and the reading of literature that has been provided over the years by these professional bodies is another good way of obtaining information regarding management structure and new methods of managing. We are all actively encouraged to continue our professional development under the guise of continuing to improve oneself. I myself subscribed numerous podcasts in order to increase my studies around mentoring. This can be done in many ways through appraisals self reflection and peer feedback.
Peer feedback is something that over the years has become slightly unfashionable. However, I feel that feedback could be paramount in order to professionally develop. Within the organisation of Gloucestershire College. We carry out numerous surveys and feedback from students. This process is known as learner voice, this is done by discussion paper based is Spock surveys and more recently using online surveys using survey monkey. The guidance of a more senior manager such as an active mentoring program can also be very successful, providing that the relationship is of ethical and professional value.
All these methods have been very successful. However they are not modelled specifically around the individual organisational needs. Is been found over the years but this can lead to difficult relationships with others, or individuals lacking in criteria and areas. You should explain what is required of an executive coach ,and characteristics of and conditions for effective leadership mentor or executive coach ,and the characteristics of and conditions for effective leadership mentoring and executive coaching practice and explain how well you are able to meet these requirements.
In order for effective coaching to exist within a organization all parties have to have a clear and precise view of what the organisation wants from its programme . This can be broken down into subsections of requirements in order to bring a satisfactory outcome to all parties . This starts with the Business story, what the organisation needs to develop in terms of long and short come plans . This is linked to the strategic plan or business plan ,this can be defined in time scaled of monthly yearly or longer say some five to ten years.
This is would be usually linked to delopement areas such as key business drivers ,hopes, ambitions and goals ,short and medium –term business outcomes ,organizational and leadership capabilities required to drive the business forward and other characteristics, values and attributes that will lead to success. The key to this relationship is the organizations link to performance and talent leader which allow people to perform to their best in order to drive the business forward. There needs to be some transparency with regards to challenges which the business faces and clarity of the current and business outcomes.
These can be broken down futher in long term short term and over reaching gaols(WAGS,widely acheavable goaols ). This is very much linked to the business environment which the key areas are working in ,the effect of external funding or growth or decline of key business objective subject areas. The coach and the stake holder will needs to have measurable goals ,and a view of the worth of the coaching . This would need to be measurable and very much achievable in order to produce a positive outcome in relation to the investment of time and money .
This is very much linked to the environment which the organisation finds oneself in and the correct environment is key to a successful outcome. This can also be broken down further into what are the leaders role and responsibilities within the coaching programme. Your commitment to leadership mentoring and /or executive coaching. I be leave that with continual professional development based around continual reflection and supervision will enable me to show a commitment to my continual executive coaching .
The skills and behaviours required for effective performance in the leadership mentoring and executive coaching role are critically reviewed. In order for an effective mentoring and coaching environment to occur. There has to be key areas that need to be discussed. The matching of the coach to the person who needs to be coached is paramount in order for the relationship to develop. There has to be a considerable amount of trust around the relationship, based around professional ethics confidentiality, mutual respect and are worth.
If the individual that is to be coached has had this forced upon them through a senior manager there can be some resentment and lack of buy in to the programme. The coach would need to work strongly in order to build up the relationship the key would be to develop the individual, so they are able to recognise their own areas for improvement and in some ways their own skills. The individual who is to be coached may well have all the skills they need they could just be a block around their self-worth their own abilities or questioning their skills.
A good coach will recognise these areas and work closely with the individual in order to draw out the best. It is worth pointing out at this stage that if the individual has suitable psychological or sociological problems that we are not in any shape or form qualified to counsel individuals. This should be avoided at all times, for risk of damage to both the coach and the individual. It is critical as well to reflect on the timescale both the time required and the lengthy which the programme will run.
It is no good involving the coach if the individual who needs to be coached is just too busy. This can be a common problem, this is where the individual needs to buy in and the organisation needs to secure time and value. Environment is very important. The conversations had between the individuals would need to be in private or at least unheard by others. The coach may feel for their own personal safety and the safety of others, but the conversations could be had within the public environment, possibly away the working area.
Ideally, an area set aside as an office with no disturbance receptor in applying may well be more beneficial. The characteristics of and conditions for effective leadership mentoring and executive coaching practice are critically reviewed. In order for coaching to be successful within the executive role a clear understanding of the role of the coach and the coachee need to be set out . The Coach will most likely supporting a manager of a more senior level to them self’s . This can lead to an interesting diversion of the balance of power for the senior manager.
The coach needs to set clear and price guide lines with regards to the relationship, the coach will most probly have to work hard for the first session bringing the relationship a flow of conversation both verbal and non verbal. The coachee needs to be assured that there is totall confidentiality based around the coaching codes of effics. Though as in all sessions this will be agreed at the begging it will need to be reinforced that the information disclosed remain within the session ,and that the relationship is based on mutal trust .
The recognition that the Coach is here to work on support the Coachee to move forward and formulate strategies to over come what is ever holding back there continual development, and not to deliver training as the skills at a senior level executive may well already be there . The coach as stated before needs to have clear a precise Buiness case as stated before with clear time line of outcome for the stake holder both short and longterm objectives . if we do not have measurable outcomes how will we judge success of the programme. The abilities and performance characteristics of effective leaders are appraised .
The question of what makes an effective leader has been argued for many years, and there are numerous types of literature and information regarding this. An effective leader would need to have emotional intelligence in the concept of being able to reflect on their own areas of weakness and their own areas of expertise. For example, there are a member of very successful businessman that have vision and our entrepreneurial in their designs in their ideas. Steve jobs of Apple was a great visionary thinker, but not necessarily a very good organiser and finisher.
Steve jobs would employee individuals who would good in various fields, effective leaders are passionate about the development of others and not necessarily just around their own self-worth or fame or fortune. Summary In Jonathan Passmore Book Excellence in Coaching (2001) he some rises the difference in Coaching, Counselling ,Psychotherapy and Mentoring through the metaphor of driving a car . * A therapist will explore what is stopping you driving your car. * Counsellor will listen to your anxieties about the car * A mentor will share tips from his or her own experiences of driving a car.. A consultant will advise you on how to drive the car. * A coach will encourage and support you in driving the car. There is no one size that fit all for coaching and this is the depth at which it can be to the advantage of all parties . Generation Y or Millennials (born after 1979) have higher expectations of their employers (Raines,2002). Research By (Penna,2005) has shown that employers who create a greater self will help to increase staff motivation . According to (CIPD,2004) studies with HR practitioners they key challenges facing buiniess. Integrating Coaching with the bigger picture * Opening closed doors * Meeting the needs of both the organization and the individual * Information flow and confidentiality * Scoping and controlling cost A well structure frame work for coaching with stake holder, coachee buyin with the right coach can create the right environment in order for this to grow and develop. Coaching is not about one method or one style as with mangers and CEO. Its about developing a culture for organisations to grow and individuals to develop and adapt to the ever changing world.
From a business case to life skills to balance,to personal development and growth . There has been many changes within technologies (shift happens, 2004),I would argue that it’s not just technologies that are moving fast its people and without the coaching and development of people we will not as a country make the most of the opertutnuites that are their . Continual professional development is not just about attending training it about developing a culture of adaption and maximising the potential of individuals ,well is that not what coaching can do ?
The abilities and performance characteristics of effective leaders are appraised. In 1992 Sir Peter dela Billiere was quoted as Strenght of personality is always likely to be part of the DNA of top leaders. He based this around his research around military structure throughout history ,sir Peter was throughout his career an very well respected Military officer who has spoken at many Buiness conventions on leadership . (Hooper and Potter2000 ;Hodgson 2004) argue that the small percentage could be increased through appropriate development and more self awareness.