1.3 Implied Depth: Value and Space

The Belgian Surrealist artist ________ created The Treachery of Images, a work that calls our attention to the illusionary characteristics of painting.
Rene Magritte
The lightness or darkness of a surface is the element of art called ________.
Detective movies of the 1940s were filmed in such dark tones they were referred to as film noir. Filmmakers chose these dark values to enhance the ________ mood of the movies.
Artists can create a sense of ________ by using light and dark values.
Triangular planes make up the surface of a geodesic sphere. Planes that are closer to and facing toward the light source tend to be lighter than planes that are further from it and facing away.
This method of applying value to a two-dimensional artwork in order to create the illusion of a three-dimensional solid form is called ________.
The chiaroscuro method uses five defined values: cast shadow, reflected light, core shadow, light, and ________.
The French artist Pierre-Paul Prud’hon created chiaroscuro by using ________ chalk on paper.
black and white
The process of using a series of parallel lines set close to one another to differentiate planes of value in a work of art is called ________.
Hatching and cross-hatching use two-dimensional lines to communicate ________ depth.
In order to create value in his drawing Head of a Satyr, Michelangelo used both hatching and ________, a variation where the lines overlap, allowing for the depiction of darker tones.
cross hatching
When using a series of squares that are exactly the same shape, implied depth can be achieved by ________.
alternating value, relative size, relative position, overlapping
One method used to establish depth in Beda Stjernschantz’s Pastoral (Primavera) involves placing figures higher or lower in the composition. This process for creating depth is called ________.
relative position
Beda Stjernschantz was a member of the Symbolists, who were interested in the relationship between art and music. This was exemplified in a physiological condition known as ________, in which one of the body’s senses translates the experience into another sense.
The Chinese artist Fan Kuan created ________ in his work Travelers among Mountains and Streams by alternating bands of lighter and darker values.
In addition to alternating value, Fan Kuan’s Travelers among Mountains and Streams uses this process to give the viewer a sense that some areas are closer than others.
changing visual texture
An artist can use color to indicate depth. When a color is very pure and intense then it seems to be ________.
The painter Thomas Hart Benton varied the intensity of the color green in The Wreck of the Ole ’97 to help the viewer feel at a safe distance from the train wreck.
When objects are far away they lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because of the interference of air. Artists take advantage of this when they use the process called:
atmospheric perspective
An artist paints a scene with a large mountain, which lacks detail and is out of focus, and a tree, which is sharply defined and bright green. The viewer might assume that the mountain is ________ than the tree.
further away
Kindred Spirits by Asher Brown Durand uses the effects of ________ to give a sense of the vastness of the American landscape.
atmospheric perspective
This system, which derives its name from the Greek meaning “equal measure,” uses diagonal parallel lines to communicate depth.
isometric perspective
The video game Transistor uses ________ perspective.
This is the system for creating an illusion of depth using three basic components: horizon line, vanishing point, and convergence lines.
linear perspective
Renaissance artists used a camera obscura to help them understand the basic tenets of linear perspective. Camera obscura is a Latin phrase. What is the closest English translation?
dark room
A Summer Shower by the British artist Edith Hayllar employs linear perspective to create depth. The painting contains imaginary sightlines that converge toward a single vanishing point. These lines are also called ________.
One-point perspective does convey depth, but it has limited applications due to its reliance on a single ________.
vanishing point
Masaccio was one of the first artists to use one-point perspective. In his large fresco, Trinity, the ________ is centered in the middle of the horizon line, directly ahead of the viewer.
vanishing point
This type of perspective is used when an object is being viewed from an angle rather than from directly in front.
This Italian artist used two-point combined with one-point perspective in his painting The School of Athens.
This is the area that is visible when a viewer is staring at a fixed point in space.
cone of vision
If you are looking straight ahead, an object that is behind you is in your cone of vision.
The artist can more readily reflect the complexities of the real world by using more than one vanishing point. This is known as ________ perspective.
Ascending and Descending, by M. C. Escher, uses ________ perspective. a. atmospheric d. three-point
When the rules of perspective are applied in order to represent unusual points of view, we call this: ________.
This German artist illustrated how a figure can be drawn from an oblique angle for his own text on drawing.
Albrecht Durer
In the DC Comics image of Superman, the figure is portrayed at an extreme angle. This ________ view creates an unusual perspective and grabs the viewer’s attention.
If an artist were to draw a figure whose arm was pointing directly toward the viewer, what technique would the artist have to use when drawing the outstretched arm?

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