According to the case study on somatization, the main problem you want to focus on in treatment is:
According to the case presentation on depression the main factor involved in situational depression for women is
Just before debuting at Carnegie Hall, the pianist suffered paralysis of her left hand. Which of the following BEST describes her disorder?
Abnormalities that are thought to have both biological and psychological causes are:
Which of the following is TRUE about factitious disorders?
Those with factitious disorder are not trying to achieve some external gain by faking illness
Having a background in medicine, but also a grudge against the profession, puts a person at risk for:
a factitious disorder
A woman complains of an assortment of physiological ailments.
You think that she is intentionally producing the physical symptoms in order to appear sick, which fills some psychological need. You would diagnose:
If a chronically ill child was removed from home and placed in foster care, and then became quite healthy, one might suspect that the parent (usually the mother) was experiencing:
a factitious disorder
Munchausen syndrome by proxy is MOST likely to adversely affect the physical well-being of:
the child of the person experiencing it
Conversion disorders are more common in:
women than men
If a person complains of a wide variety of physical symptoms over a period of time in the absence of a physical basis for the symptoms, the diagnosis would likely be:
A person experiencing blindness, paralysis, or loss of feeling, may also be said to be displaying:
Which of the following would lead you to suspect someone has a conversion disorder rather than is exhibiting medical symptoms?
uniform and even numbness in the “damaged” hand
Somatic symptom disorders differ from conversion disorders in that:
conversion disorders usually last less time
A woman has experienced a wide range of vague but disturbing physical symptoms over a period of several years.
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Doctors cannot find a cause for the problems; medically, the woman appears normal. Based on this information, the BEST diagnosis would be:
somatic symptom disorder (somatization pattern)
A woman has close female relatives diagnosed with a somatization pattern of somatic symptom disorder. According to research, her probability of being diagnosed with the same disorder is about:
About what percentage of American men experience a somatic symptom disorder in a given year?
less than 1 percent
In the latter half of the nineteenth century, a person who today is diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder would MOST likely have been diagnosed with:
Which statement BEST reflects our understanding of hysterical disorders?
The cause of hysterical disorders are poorly understood, with no theory predominant in aiding understanding
According to the psychodynamic view, conversion disorder symptoms function to keep unacceptable thoughts and conflicts out of consciousness. This is called:
If was convenient when Rowena awoke blind. She had been terrified about testifying and now she did not have to. This is an example of:
If a man’s behavior elicited kindness and sympathy from his wife when he was mute, he would be receiving _______ gains from his behavior.
“It’s obvious that the patient observed friends who had symptoms of illness, then imitated those symptoms to get attention,” says the therapist. MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical perspective?
If you were a therapist with a behavioral view, which of the following questions would you be MOST likely to ask someone you suspected might have a somatic symptom disorder?
“Has any friend of yours had similar symptoms recently?”
That people with somatic disorders use their symptoms to express emotions they cannot easily express otherwise reflects the:
Residents of Japan are more likely than residents of the United States to show higher rates of somatic complaints, MOST likely reflecting:
a Western bias that sees somatization as an inferior as an inferior way to handle emotions
A therapist treating an individual with a conversion disorder works to reduce pleasurable outcomes associated with being sick, while increasing pleasurable outcomes associated with being well. This technique is called:
Based on evidence from case studies, the BEST advice you could give someone who is experiencing a conversion disorder about seeking treatment is:
“Approaches using suggestion, reinforcement, and confrontation are often used.”
Imagine someone gets hit in the nose by a batted ball. The latest research suggests that swearing will:
A therapist treating a client with illness anxiety disorder repeatedly shows the client how the client’s body is less than perfect, while not allowing the client to seek medical attention. MOST likely, the therapist’s viewpoint is:
behavioral, and the therapy is called exposure and response prevention
When I took abnormal psychology as an undergraduate, I was convinced I had symptoms of many of the earlier disorders we covered. As soon as we moved to new disorders, though, I was convinced I had some of their symptoms, as well. My experiences were similar to those of some people with a form of illness anxiety disorder sometimes called:
“medical student’s disease”
Imagine that you have a body dysmorphic disorder centered around your feet. Your therapist keeps reminding you of your ugly feet and makes you wear sandals. What sort of treatment is your therapist MOST likely using?
exposure and response prevention
A person diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder receives treatment based upon exposure and response prevention. The person could reasonably expect to experience:
less concern about physical defects, and less avoidance of social interactions
A person experiencing multiple personalities would MOST accurately be diagnosed with dissociative:
involve major changes in memory
An individual has been diagnosed with a dissociative disorder. However, the individual has very good recall of previous life events, and has a strong sense of self. The MOST likely diagnosis for this individual is:
People who are unable to recall important information about themselves, especially of an upsetting nature, are MOST likely experiencing:
After a major earthquake, television coverage showed survivors shuffling confusedly through the ruined buildings. If such victims later could not remember the days immediately after the earthquake, the victims would be suffering from what type of amnesia?
Gwendolyn is held up at knifepoint and her young son is kidnapped. Eventually, her son is found and returned. However, she is unable to recall events that occurred since the attack, although she remembers some new experiences; worse still, she finds that she is forgetting events that occurred even before the attack. This is a classic example of:
Ever since the auto accident, during which she was miraculously unhurt, Pat has not been the same. She forgets appointments, friends’ names, and even things done in the last few days. Pat’s amnesia is termed:
A person, years after committing a serious crime, is found living under a false identity over 1,000 miles from where the person used to live. The person’s memory of the crime, and of other earlier events, is intact. Most likely this is a case of:
no mental disorder
Dissociative fugues usually:
follow a stressful event
Which of the following is not an example of memory recovery techniques used by therapists?
imagining the event
Of the following disorders, the one for which an individual would least likely need therapy to avoid a recurrence and to recover lost memories is:
A person with dissociative identity disorder has just experienced “switching.” Which of the following MOST likely has happened?
The person has changed from one subpersonality to another
Alexis has multiple personality disorder. When one of her personalities, Jodi, is asked about another one, Tom, she claims ignorance. Tom has never heard of Jodi either. This would be called a:
mutually amnesic relationship
Raymond has multiple personality disorder. All of his subpersonalities talk about and tattle on each other. This is called a:
mutually cognizant pattern
Juanita has multiple personality disorder. Big Tony and Smart Alice are two personalities who are aware of all the others. None of her other personalities are aware of each other. This would be called a:
one-way amnesic relationship
Modern studies suggest that the average number of subpersonalities in cases of multiple personality in women is about:
15, and is lower for men
The best example of the subpersonalities in dissociative identity disorder differing in their vital statistics occurs when:
one personality is a woman and another is a man
One very interesting study investigated the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder, and the physiological responses of the “subpersonalities” of those instructed to fake dissociative identity disorder. The study showed that the physiological responses of subpersonalities of those with dissociative identity disorder:
differed from one another, but the subpersonalities of those faking dissociative identity disorder did not
In the United States, the number of diagnosed cases per year of dissociative identity disorder:
In the past, dissociative identity disorder was most likely “misdiagnosed” as:
Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative amnesias and fugues result from:
“An abused child’s thoughts occasionally drift to other, less anxiety-arousing, topics; this anxiety reduction thus serves to strengthen ‘other’ thoughts, while weakening the thoughts about abuse.” A psychologist with which theoretical background would be most likely to offer this quotation as an explanation for the development of dissociative disorders?
Which of the following hypotheses used to explain dissociative disorders is shared by psychodynamic and behavioral theorists?
They serve to help someone escape something unpleasant
Kevin studies his history notes and textbook while he is drinking beer. According to some theorists, Kevin would later do better on his history exam if he also had alcohol in his system while taking the exam. These theorists would be basing their claims on:
Just after doing well in an intramural basketball game—something which left me very happy, and in a high state of excitement—I sat down and studied for my abnormal psychology test. Research shows I would perform best on that test if, at the time of the test, I was:
happy and excited
If the state-dependent learning explanation of dissociative disorders is correct, a person may not remember stressful events because he or she is:
at a different arousal level after the stress is over
What characteristic is MOST common to both self-hypnosis and dissociative identity disorder?
the ability to escape threatening events
A child in an extremely abusive family situation often seems to become deaf to the verbal abuse, and insensitive to the physical abuse, as if the child simply wasn’t there experiencing the abuse. One explanation of this behavior is:
Just before 8 A.M. (when my first class meets), my young daughter did something that annoyed me as I was about to leave home for the short drive to campus. “Katie,” I said, “what do I always say at a time like this?” She looked at the clock, and then said to me, “What you say is, ‘Where are my keys?'” My daughter was apparently familiar with my:
A visual image that is retained so vividly that one can continue to scan it for more information is called:
an eidetic image
Psychodynamic therapy may be particularly effective in the treatment of dissociative disorders because:
psychodynamic therapy often tries to recover lost memories
People with which dissociative disorder typically do not eventually recover without receiving treatment?
dissociative identity disorder
In the treatment of dissociative amnesia, sodium amobarbital and sodium pentobarbital work by:
freeing people from their inhibitions, thus allowing them to recall unpleasant events
The usual goal of therapy for dissociative identity disorders is to:
merge the subpersonalities into a single identity
One of the subpersonalities of a person receiving treatment for dissociative identity disorder has just become a “protector.” How far along in therapy has the person probably progressed?
moderately far because a protector usually emerges before subpersonality integration
At a workshop about multiple personality disorder, a therapist says, “In my experience, once integration begins, the need for therapy is practically over, and later dissociations just don’t happen.” This therapist’s experience is:
very unusual; most successful therapies last well beyond the beginning of integration
Depersonalization ___________, while derealization ________.
refers to oneself; refers to the external world
Someone who is experiencing “doubling” is:
feeling like his or her mind is floating above him or her
Feeling that your hands and feet are smaller or bigger than usual or that you are in a dreamlike state is called:
I have just arrived in a city where I know no one, and English is not spoken by very many people. I feel as though my mind is separating from my body and I am actually observing myself do things. What I am experiencing is:
Depersonalization disorder is most common among those who are:
adolescents and young adults
A state of breathless euphoria, or frenzied energy, in which individuals have an exaggerated belief in their power describes:
Considering data from several countries around the world, which of the following is the MOST accurate statement about the percentages of adults in each country who suffer from mood disorders each year?
The percentages are over twice as high in some countries as they are in others
In the United States, the prevalence of unipolar depression in boys is:
the same as it is for girls, but the prevalence for men is lower than it is for women
Which of the following would be an emotional symptom of depression?
experiences of sadness and anger
Which of the following would be MOSTLY a motivational symptom of depression?
lack of desire to eat
A person displaying sadness, lack of energy, headaches, and feelings of low self-worth is showing all of the following symptoms EXCEPT:
A depressed person who is confused, unable to remember things, and unable to solve problems is suffering from __________ symptoms.
Which of the following would be a physical symptom of depression?
What would be the most appropriate diagnosis for a person who experienced a major depressive episode, without having any history of mania, and is either immobile or excessively active?
Judith is currently experiencing a period of sadness that interferes with her ability to go to work and to take care of her children. It has lasted now for three weeks, and she has experienced similar episodes in the past. What type of major depression would she MOST likely be diagnosed with?
Juan is currently experiencing a period of sadness that has resulted in almost total immobility. He sits in a chair all day and almost never moves. His wife has to assist him in getting into bed at night. What type of major depression would he most likely be diagnosed with?
To receive a diagnosis of major depressive episode, melancholic, the individual must display:
almost no emotional response to pleasurable events
To receive a diagnosis of dysthymic disorder, an individual must have experienced symptoms for at least:
Jose just saw his best friend shot and killed by a gunman who was driving through his neighborhood. A month later he is in a psychologist’s office complaining that he cannot work; everything seems hopeless. There are several other symptoms consistent with these. Based on these data, the diagnosis would MOST likely be:
A woman experiences recurrent thoughts of suicide, great sadness, and sleep disturbance. These symptoms began a week after she gave birth, and have last over six months. The woman is experiencing:
A woman being treated for postpartem depression after the birth of her first child is most likely to:
have up to a 50% chance of experiencing postpartem depression with her next child
The DSM-5 has added premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) as a diagnosis given to certain women who repeatedly experience clinically significant depressive and related symptoms during the week before menstruation. Why has this been an ongoing controversy?
The diagnosis pathologizes severe cases of premenstrual syndrome
Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for unipolar depression. These studies have found:
a higher than chance rate of depression among the families of depressed patients
Recent studies show about what proportion of these experiencing major depressive disorder receive treatment for that disorder?
What are the chances that researchers will develop a specific, gene-based explanation for unipolar depression in the near future?
low —- so far, specific genes on half or more of chromosomes have been linked to unipolar depression
Seasonal affective disorder is associated with fewer hours per day of daylight during the winter months. Less daylight, or, more accurately, more darkness, may cause the release of:
One problem with analogue studies of depression is that:
one cannot be sure depression-like symptoms in lab animals reflect human depression
A person suspected of having unipolar depression has a smaller-than-normal hippocampus, although it produces a normal number of new neurons. This is:
unusual; those with unipolar depression usually have a smaller-than-normal hippocampus, causing it to produce a low number of new neurons
As a result of taking antidepressant drugs, a person is experiencing increased production of new neurons in the hippocampus. This is:
normal, and is one indication of successful treatment
Which of the following statements MOST accurately reflects current research findings?
Stress produces dysregulated immune systems, which may then produce unipolar depression
The clinician who would be MOST likely to say, “Tell me about how your parents cared for and protected you” is a:
In general, object relations theorists follow which theoretical perspective?
A baby who was separated from its mother at birth, and who subsequently became withdrawn, sad, and tearful, could be experiencing:
An older person retires and begins experiencing health problems. Consequently, the person loses contact with old friends and becomes unpleasant to be around. A behaviorist would explain the resulting depression in terms of:
loss of positive social rewards
Francoise is depressed. Her therapist asks her about her daily experiences, focusing on how often people say nice things to her. Her therapist MOST likely has a:
The type of clinician who would be MOST likely to ask, “What are some things you enjoy doing, and how often do you do them?” would be a:
Which of the following would provide the BEST evidence for the cognitive explanation for depression?
a finding that people show negative thoughts before they become depressed
A therapist describes a patient who believes her personal worth is tied to each task she performs. She draws negative conclusions from very little evidence, amplifies minor mistakes into major character flaws, and suffers from repetitive thoughts that remind her of her flaws. You conclude that the therapist holds which theoretical orientation?
Which of these statements would NOT reflect a part of the cognitive triad?
Everyone is out to get me
Which theoretical orientation would the research finding that depressed people choose more pessimistic and self-deprecating statements in a story-telling test demonstrate?
All of Beck’s cognitively based explanations for depression have received research support, EXCEPT for:
the cognitive triad
ALL OF THESE explanations have received research support
Your aunt says, “I know I’m depressed, and I think and worry about my depression constantly; however, I never actually do anything about it.” She is:
making ruminative responses
Martin Seligman has developed a theory based on the idea that depression results from:
a belief that one has no control over the events in one’s life
A woman who was frequently but unpredictably beaten by her husband was finally taken to a shelter by the police. While there she did not take advantage of educational and job training opportunities. How would cognitive theorists explain her behavior?
A young woman believes that everything negative that happens to her is her own fault, that she ruins everything, and always will. The therapist diagnoses her as suffering from a learned helplessness-induced depression because she attributes negative events in her life to:
internal, global, stable factors
Which theoretical orientation would the following research finding support? “Depressed people show an internal/global/stable pattern of attribution on a questionnaire.”
Someone received treatment for depression periodically completes an Attributional Style Questionnaire, which is designed to measure the therapy’s effectiveness. The theoretical orientation of the therapist is MOST likely:
A decrease in social rewards, especially a decrease in social support, such as the support found in a happy marriage may precede the onset of depression, providing evidence for which theoretical perspectives?
behavioral and sociocultural
The type of clinician who would be MOST likely to say, “Tell me about the quality of mutual support you receive from your marriage” is a:
After a couple divorced, you learn that one of them is suffering from depression. MOST likely:
a troubled marriage led to the depression
Which theoretical orientation would support the finding that Westerners experience more psychological symptoms of depression than do others around the world?
Depression is more common in women because they experience more taxing life situations, such as poverty and menial jobs, than men. This is the:
Artifact theory differs importantly from other sociocultural theories of depression because it suggests:
concern about body weight can be both a cause and a result of depression
A woman in a middle-level manager’s job is repeatedly not promoted, no matter how hard she tries, even though she seems as qualified as the men who are promoted. If she develops depression as a result of her work experiences, the theory that BEST easily explains the onset of her depression is:
Of the following, the one MOST likely to be diagnosed with depression is a:
U.S. woman who has lived all her life on a Native American reservation
Of the following, the MOST accurate description of the symptoms of mania would be that they:
don’t include a sense of the impact of one’s actions on others
People who talk rapidly, dress flamboyantly, and get involved in dangerous activities are showing __________ symptoms of mania.
According to the DSM-5, all of the following are considered symptoms of a manic episode, EXCEPT:
On an impulse, David decides to throw a huge party. It take four days of round-the-clock work to get everything ready, then David welcomes over 200 guests. When the police stop by because David has blocked a public road to have room for the party, he flies into a rage. MOST likely, David is experiencing:
a manic phase of bipolar I disorder
The difference between bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder is:
the severity of the manic episodes
A talented artist is experiencing severe bipolar disorder. In terms of artistic output only, the BEST thing that artist could do is:
seek treatment: psychological disturbance is not necessary for good artistic output
Milder forms of bipolar disorder are known as _________ disorder.
A 12-year-old middle-school European-American girl from a middle-class socioeconomic background has been diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. Which of her characteristics is MOST unusual for those with bipolar I disorder diagnosis?
The strongest evidence for the cause of bipolar disorders BEST supports which theoretical perspective?
Although initially thought to be due to an excessive amount of a particular neurotransmitter, mania has been found to be due to low levels of which neurotransmitter?
Bipolar disorders have recently been linked to:
improper sodium transport
Which of the following risk percentage patterns would BEST support the influence of genetic factors in explaining bipolar disorder —– (1) in the general population, (2) among close relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and (3) among identical twins of people with bipolar disorder?
1 percent, 10 percent, 40 percent
There are several factors related to unipolar depression —reduced positive reinforcers, gene abnormalities, and life stress, to name a few. How do these factors related to depression? The MOST recent research shows that:
some factors may cause depression, while other factors may maintain depression
Of the following statements, which is accurate, based on current research?
Unipolar depression has several important factors; bipolar disorder has one major factor.