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A&P II – FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

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    EXAM #1
    EXAM #1
    Incompatibility of one person’s blood with another results from the action of plasma anitbodies against the RBC’s antigens
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    An increased erythropoietin (EPO) output by the kidneys would lead to all of the following except:
    A. increased hypoxemia
    B. increased blood osmolarity
    C. increased RBC production
    D. increased blood viscosity
    E. increased hematocrit
    A. increased hypoxemia
    Correction of hypoxemia is regulated by:
    A. a self-amplifying mechanism.
    B. an enzymatic amplification.
    C. a positive feedback loop
    D. a negative feedback loop
    E. a cascade effect
    D. a negative feedback loop
    Type AB blood has _____ RBC antigen(s).
    A. none
    B. anti-A and anti-B
    C. anti-A
    D. anti-B
    E. A and B
    E. A and B
    These are the least abundant formed elements.
    A. Platelets
    B. Basophils
    C. Erythrocytes
    D. Neutrophils
    E. Eosinophils
    B. basophils
    The differential count of ____ typically increases in response to bacterial infections.
    A. Basophils
    B. Monocytes
    C. Erythrocytes
    D. Eosinophils
    E. Neutrophils
    E. Neutrophils
    _____ aid in the body’s defense processes by secreting histamine (vasodilator) and heparin (anticoagulant).
    A. Eosinophils
    B. Basophils
    C. Neutrophils
    D. Platelets
    E. Monocytes
    B. Basophils
    Most strokes and heart attacks are caused by the abnormal clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel. Moreover, a piece of the _____ (clot) may break loose and begin to travel in the blood stream as a(n) _____.
    A. thrombus; embolus
    B. embolism; thrombus
    C. plaque; thrombus
    D. thrombis; plaque
    E. plaque; embolus
    A. thrombus; embolus
    The pulmonary circuit is supplied by both the right and left sides of the heart.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
    The systemic circuit contains oxygen-rich blood only.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
    Blood in the heart chambers provides most of the myocardium’s oxygen and nutrient needs.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
    Parasympathetic stimulation reduces the heart rate.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    ____ carry oxygen-poor blood.
    A. Pulmonary veins and vena cavae
    B. Aorta and pulmonary veins
    C. Aorta and vena cavae
    D. Vena cavae and pulmonary arteries
    E. Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins
    D. Vena cavae and pulmonary arteries
    ____ belong to the pulmonary circuit.
    A. Aorta and venae cavae
    B. Aorta and pulmonary veins
    C. Pulmonary arteries and venae cavae
    D. Venae cavae and pulmonary veins
    E. Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins.
    E. Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins
    Pericardial fluid is found between ____.
    A. the visceral pericardium and the myocardium.
    B. the visceral pericardium and the epicardium.
    C. the parietal and visceral membranes.
    D. myocardium and endocardium.
    E. epicardium and myocardium.
    C. the parietal and visceral membranes.
    The _____ performs the work of the heart.
    A. fibrous skeleton
    B. pericardial cavity
    C. endocardium
    D. myocardium
    E. epicardium
    D. myocardium
    The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between ____.
    A. the right and left atrium.
    B. the right atrium and right ventricle.
    C. the right atrium and left ventricle.
    D. the left atrium and left ventricle.
    E. the left ventricle and the right ventricle.
    B. the right atrium and right ventricle.
    Oxygen poor blood passes through ____.
    A. the right AV (tricuspid) valve and pulmonary valve.
    B. the right AV (tricuspid) valve only.
    C. the left AV ( bicuspid) valve and aortic valve.
    D. the left AV (bicuspid) valve only.
    E. the pulmonary and aortic valves.
    A. the right AV (tricuspid) valve and pulmonary valve.
    Opening and closing of the heart valves is caused by ____.
    A. breathing
    B. gravity
    C. valves contracting and relaxing
    D. osmotic gradients
    E. pressure gradients
    E. pressure gradients
    The _____ is the pacemaker that indicates each heart beat.
    A. sympathetic nervous system
    B. autonomic nervous system
    C. sinoatrial (SA) node
    D. atrioventricular node (AV) node
    E. cardiac conduction system
    C. sinoatrial node
    This is the correct path of electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle (LV).
    A. sinoatrial (SA) node – atrioventricular (AV) bundle – atrioventricular (AV) node – purkinje fibers – cardiocyte in LV
    B. atrioventricular (AV) node – purkinje fibers – atrioventricular (AV) bundle – sinoatrial (SA) node – cardiocyte in LV
    C. atrioventricular (AV) node – sinoatrial (SA) node – atrioventricular (AV) bundle – purkinje fibers – cardiocyte in LV
    D. sinoatrial (SA) node – atrioventricular (AV) node – atrioventricular (AV) bundle – purkinje fibers – cardiocyte in LV
    E. sinoatrial (AV) – atrioventricular (AV) node – purkinje fibers – atrioventricular (AV) bundle – cardiocyte in LV
    D. sinoatrial (SA) node – atrioventricular (AV) node – atrioventricular (AV) bundle – purkinje fibers – cardiocyte in LV
    Any abnormal cardiac rhythm is called a(n) ____.
    A. ectopic focus
    B. sinus rhythm
    C. nodal rhythm
    D. heart block
    E. arrhythmia
    E. arrhythmia
    When the left ventricle contracts, the _____ valve closes and the _____ valve is pushed open.
    A. bicuspid; pulmonary
    B. tricuspid; pulmonary
    C. tricuspid; aortic
    D. mitral; aortic
    E. aortic; pulmonary
    D. mitral; aortic
    Blood flow through a capillary bed is regulated by precapillary sphincters.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Generalized vasomotion can raise or lower blood pressure throughout the body.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Increased capillary filtration, reduced reabsorption, or obstruction of lymphatic drainage can lead to edema.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Arterial flow to the lower limb comes from the external iliac artery.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    The radial artery is lateral to the ulnar artery.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    ____ have the thickest tunic media.
    A. Small arteries
    B. Small veins
    C. Large arteries
    D. Large veins
    E. Capillaries
    C. Large arteries
    The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the _____ and in large arteries and veins contains the _____.
    A. tunica media; smooth muscle
    B. tunica externa; vasa vasorum
    C. tunica externa; valves
    D. tunica intima; endothelium
    E. tunica intima;
    B. tunica externa; vasa vasorum
    Vasomotion is associated with the presence of ______.
    A. collagen and elastic tissue in the tunica media.
    B. elastic tissue in the tunica externa.
    C. endothelium in the tunica interna.
    D. smooth muscle in the tunica media.
    E. fenestrations in the tunica externa.
    D. smooth muscle in the tunica media.
    In people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by _____.
    A. an aneurysm or weak point in an artery.
    B. an aneurysm or weak point in a vein.
    C. failure of the venous valves.
    D. failure of the lymphatic valves.
    E. a ruptured aneurysm in a vein.
    C. failure of the venous valves.
    The vasomotor center of the _____ controls blood vessels throughout the body.
    A. hypothalamus
    B. medulla oblongata
    C. spinal cord
    D. cerebellum
    E. cortex
    B. medulla oblongata
    The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is ____.
    A. oncotic pressure
    B. tissue fluid oncotic pressure
    C. blood colloid osmotic pressure
    D. interstitial hydrostatic pressure
    E. blood hydrostatic pressure
    C. blood colloid osmotic pressure
    The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is ____.
    A. oncotic pressure
    B. tissue fluid oncotic pressure
    C. blood colloid osmotic pressure
    D. interstitial hydrostatic pressure
    E. blood hydrostatic pressure
    E. blood hydrostatic pressure
    _____ does not contribute to venous return.
    A. The difference of pressure between venules and the vena cavae
    B. The expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity during ventilation
    C. The suction created by the atria slightly expanding during ventricular systole
    D. Widespread vasodilation
    E. Contraction of skeletal muscles
    D. Widespread vasodilation
    These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except _____.
    A. the hepatic veins.
    B. the internal and external iliac veins.
    C. the inferior phrenic veins.
    D. the vertebral veins.
    E. the lumbar veins.
    D. the vertebral veins.
    Some antibodies against foreign antigens can react to similar self antigens causing an autoimmune disease.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Lymphatic vessels recover about ____ of the fluid filtered by capillaries.
    A. 5%
    B. 15%
    C. 25%
    D. 50%
    E. 85%
    B. 15%
    Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ____ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
    A. water
    B. glucose
    C. vitamins
    D. amino acids
    E. lipids
    E. lipids
    This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.
    A. lymph node
    B. thymus
    C. spleen
    D. pharyngeal tonsil
    E. appendix
    B. thymus
    _____ is not a cardinal sign of inflammation.
    A. Impaired use
    B. Redness
    C. Pain
    D. Heat
    E. Swelling
    A. Impaired use
    T-cells achieve immunocompetence in ___.
    A. the bone marrow
    B. the bloodstream
    C. the spleen
    D. the thymus
    E. the liver
    D. the thymus
    Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish ____ from foreign ones.
    A. self-immunoglobulins
    B. self-antibodies
    C. self-antigens
    D. self-interleukins
    E. self-compliment proteins
    C. self-antigens
    Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
    A. apoxia
    B. hypoxia
    C. anoxia
    D. cyanosis
    E. eupnea
    B. hypoxia
    Lymph originates in blood capillaries that pick up tissue fluid.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
    Red bone marrow is the point of origin of all immune cells of the lymphatic system.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Mucus membranes prevent most pathogens from entering the body because of the stickiness of the mucus and the presence of lysosomes.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Interleukins are chemical signals by which immune cells communicate with each other.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Humoral immunity takes care of extracellular viruses whereas cellular immunity takes care of extracellular viruses.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
    All these forces help lymph to flow except _____.
    A. rhythmic contractions of lymphatic vessels
    B. the thoracic pump
    C. the skeletal muscle pump
    D. the lymphatic node pump
    E. arterial pulsations squeezing lymphatic vessels
    D. the lymphatic node pump
    _____ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the ____.
    A. Lymphatic trunks; collecting ducts.
    B. Lymphatic trunks; subclavian arteries.
    C. Lymphatic trunks; subclavian veins.
    D. Collecting ducts; subclavian veins.
    E. Collecting ducts; subclavian arteries.
    D. Collecting ducts; subclavian veins.
    All these belong to the second line of defense except ____.
    A. the macrophage system.
    B. natural killer cells.
    C. inflammation.
    D. the gastric juices.
    E. interferon and the compliment system.
    D. the gastric juices.
    A pyrogen is a substance that causes ____.
    A. inflammation
    B. epsonization
    C. complement fixation
    D. cytolysis
    E. fever
    E. fever
    Blood in the heart chambers provides most of the myocardium’s oxygen and nutrient needs.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
    Parasympathetic stimulation reduces heart rate.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    Papillary muscles prevent the AV valves from prolapsing (bulging) excessively into the atria when the ventricles contract.
    A. True
    B. False
    A. True
    The ventricles are almost empty at the end of ventricular diastole.
    A. True
    B. False
    B. False
    EXAM #2
    EXAM #2
    The upper respiratory tract extends from the nose through the:
    A. trachea
    B. pharynx
    C. larynx
    D. alveoli
    E. lungs
    C. larynx
    Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by:
    A. the aorta.
    B. the pulmonary artery.
    C. the pulmonary vein.
    D. the inferior vena cava.
    E. the superior vena cava.
    B. the pulmonary artery.
    Which bronchus is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the opposite side?
    A. Left Segmental Bronchus
    B. Right Segmental Bronchus
    C. Right Lobar Bronchus
    D. Left Main Bronchus
    E. Right Main Bronchus
    D. Left Main Bronchus
    The heart indents into the _________ of the left lung.
    A. Oblique Fissure
    B. Hilum
    C. Apex
    D. Cardiac Impression
    E. Base
    D. Cardiac Impression
    The respiratory system contains a total of five _________.
    A. Segmental Bronchi
    B. Choanae
    C. Laryngeal Cartilages
    D. Lobes
    E. Tracheal Cartilages
    D. Lobes
    Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except:
    A. The pharynx
    B. The epiglottis
    C. The oral cavity
    D. The tongue
    E. The lips
    B. epiglottis
    In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
    A. Atmospheric Pressure
    B. Respiratory Rate
    C. Bronchiole Diameter
    D. Quantity of Surfactant.
    E. Contraction of the Diaphragm
    C. Bronchiole Diameter
    The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called:
    A. vital capacity.
    B. inspiratory reserve volume.
    C. expiratory reserve volume.
    D. residual volume.
    E. inspiratory capacity.
    B. inspiratory reserve volume.
    Vital capacity consists of:
    A. inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory volume.
    B. inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.
    C. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.
    D. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.
    E. respiratory volume + tidal volume
    D. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.
    Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except:
    A. carbaminohemoglobin.
    B. carbonic acid.
    C. carbonate.
    D. bicarbonate ions.
    E. dissolved gas.
    C. carbonate.
    During exercise which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
    A. Increased H+ level in the blood.
    B. The Bohr effect.
    C. Reduced blood pH.
    D. Reduced oxyhemoglobin.
    E. Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle.
    E. Anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle.
    Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
    A. An increase in membrane thickness.
    B. An increase in alveolar surface area.
    C. An increase in respiratory rate.
    D. A decrease in membrane thickness.
    E. A decrease in nitrogen solubility.
    A. An increase in membrane thickness.
    Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.
    A. 1
    B. 2
    C. 3
    D. 4
    E. 5
    D. 4
    Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
    A. hemoglobin
    B. carboxyhemoglobin
    C. carbonic anhydrase
    D. bisphosphoglycerate
    E. carbaminoreductase
    C. carbonic anhydrase
    Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
    A. Apoxia
    B. Hypoxia
    C. Anoxia
    D. Cyanosis
    E. Eupnea
    B. Hypoxia
    A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is:
    A. Cor pulmonale
    B. Pulmonary hemosiderosis
    C. Emphysema
    D. Atelectasis
    E. Collapsed lung
    C. Emphysema
    Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1200 mL. your vital capacity is ______ mL
    A. 2400
    B. 3000
    C. 3800
    D. 4700
    E. 5800
    D. 4700
    Which organ system does not excrete waste:
    A. The Urinary System
    B. The Cardiovascular System
    C. The Integumentary System
    D. The Digestive System
    E. The Respiratory System
    B. The Cardiovascular System
    Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by _____ of the respiratory tract.
    A. Squamous Alveolar Cells
    B. Great Alveolar Cells
    C. The Pleurae
    D. Ciliated Cells
    E. Goblet Cells
    E. Goblet Cells
    The ________ is not an organ of the urinary system.
    A. urethra
    B. liver
    C. ureter
    D. urinary bladder
    E. kidney
    B. liver
    The medial concavity of the kidney is called the _________, which admits the renal nerves.
    A. medulla
    B. corpscule
    C. cortex
    D. hilum
    E. capsule
    D. hilum
    A renal pyramid voids urine into the _________.
    A. minor calyx
    B. major calyx
    C. renal medulla
    D. renal papilla
    E. ureter
    A. minor calyx
    The transition of an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the ________.
    A. glomerulus
    B. medulla
    C. cortical radiate veins
    D. pertibular capillaries
    E. vasa recta
    A. glomerulus
    Blood plasma is filtered in the _________.
    A. renal tubule
    B. renal corpsule
    C. renal capsule
    D. renal column
    E. renal calyx
    B. renal corpsule
    In a healthy kidney very little ________ is filtered by the glomerulus.
    A. amino acids
    B. electrolytes
    C. glucose
    D. vitamins
    E. protein
    E. protein
    Which of the following would reduce the glomular filtration rate?
    A. Vasoconstriction
    B. A drop in oncotic pressure.
    C. Vasodilation of the afferent article.
    D. Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole.
    E. An increase in osmotic pressure.
    D. Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole.
    Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen, which is released from the _________ to form angiotensin.
    A. lungs
    B. kidneys
    C. liver
    D. heart
    E. spleen
    C. liver
    Which of the following is a direct result of antidieuritic hormone?
    A. Decreased urine volume.
    B. Decreased urine molarity.
    C. Increased urine volume.
    D. Increased urine salinity.
    E. Increased urine acidity.
    A. Decreased urine volume.
    Natriuretic peptide inhibits _______ reabsorption by the collecting duct which _______ urine output.
    A. K+; increases
    B. NaCl; decreases
    C. NaCl; increases
    D. K+; decreases
    E. Ca2+; increases
    C. NaCl; increases
    Which of the following is not a method by which atrial naturetic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure?
    A. Increasing glomerular filtration rate.
    B. Inhibiting renin and aldosterone secretion.
    C. Inhibiting the action of ADH on the kidney.
    D. Inhibiting NaCl reabsorption by the collecting duct.
    E. Preventing sodium loss in the urine.
    E. Preventing sodium loss in the urine.
    Hypocalcemia stimulates:
    A. A decrease in aldosterone production
    B. Secretion of parathyroid hormone.
    C. Secretion of renin.
    D. An increase in blood urea nitrogen.
    E. Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.
    B. Secretion of parathyroid hormone.
    Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation?
    A. The collecting duct.
    B. The countercurrent multiplier.
    C. The countercurrent exchange system.
    D. Dieuretics.
    E. The length of nephrons.
    D. Dieuretics.
    Normal urine from a healthy person should not contain __________.
    A. Creatine
    B. Urobilin
    C. Glucose
    D. Ammonia
    E. Magnesium
    C. Glucose
    Which of the following is not found in the ureter:
    A. Adventia
    B. Two layers of smooth muscle.
    C. Three layers of smooth muscle.
    D. Transitional Epithelium
    E. Skeletal Muscle
    E. Skeletal Muscle
    The ________ muscle is located in the urinary bladder.
    A. Detrusor
    B. Distractor
    C. Pubococcygeus
    D. Corpus Spongiosum
    E. Corpus Cavernosum
    A. Detrusor
    The _________ is not a portion of the urethra.
    A. external urethral oriface
    B. internal urethral sphinctor
    C. prostatic urethra
    D. membranous urethra
    E. spongy urethra
    B. internal urethral sphinctor
    Micturation is another term for _________.
    A. the production of nitrogenous wastes.
    B. glomerular filtration.
    C. the countercurrent multiplier process
    D. inflammation of the urinary bladder
    E. the elimination of urine.
    E. the elimination of urine.
    True/False
    The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below.
    False
    True/False
    In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
    True
    True/False
    The kidneys secrete ADH in response to dehydration.
    False
    True/False
    A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
    False
    True/False
    Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.
    False
    Osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
    A. the temperature difference between compartments.
    B. the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment.
    C. the relative volume in each compartment.
    D. the relative size of each compartment. E. blood pressure.
    B. the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment.
    What is the principal cation of the ECF.
    A. Ca2+
    B. Cl-
    C. K+
    D. Na+
    E. Pi
    D. Na+
    Hypernatremia is a plasma ___ concentration above normal.
    A. Ca2+
    B. Na+
    C. K+
    D. Cl-
    E. Pi
    B. Na+
    Hypernatremia tends to cause all of the following except:
    A. water retention.
    B. edema.
    C. hypertension.
    D. interstitial fluid accumulation.
    E. a reduction in plasma volume.
    E. a reduction in plasma volume.
    _____ is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments.
    A. Na+
    B. Cl-
    C. Ca2+
    D. K+
    E. Pi
    A. Na+
    What is the most abundant cation of the ICF?
    A. Ca2+
    B. Na+
    C. K+
    D. Cl-
    E. Pi
    C. K+
    Which of these conditions is not a result of hyperkalema?
    A. cells are more excitable.
    B. resting membrane potential is more negative.
    C. cells are partially depolarized.
    D. cells are more sensitive to stimulation.
    E. there is less diffusion of potassium out of the cells.
    B. resting membrane potential is more negative.
    Which of the following represents the complete chemical reaction for the bicarbonate buffer system.
    A. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- + H+
    B. CO2 + H2O HCO3- + H+ H2CO3
    C. H2CO3 CO2 + H2O HCO3- + H+
    D. H2CO3 HCO3- + H+
    E. CO2 + H2O HCO3- + H+
    A. CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- + H+
    The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which:
    A. supplies the buffer system with CO2.
    B. supplies the buffer system with O2.
    C. expels HCO3- produced by the buffer system.
    D. expels H+ produced by the buffer system.
    E. expels CO2 produced by the buffer system.
    E. expels CO2 produced by the buffer system.
    In acidosis, the kidneys compensate by:
    A. secreting more bicarbonate.
    B. secreting more ammonia.
    C. secreting more sodium.
    D. reabsorbing more hydrogen ions.
    E. reabsorbing more ammonia.
    D. reabsorbing more hydrogen ions.
    Breathing into and out of a paper bag for a long period of time can lead to:
    A. metabolic alkalosis.
    B. metabolic acidosis.
    C. urinary alkalosis.
    D. urinary acidosis.
    E. respiratory acidosis.
    E. respiratory acidosis.
    True/False
    The left lung is larger than the right lung.
    False
    _________ is a substance secreted by cells in the lungs that reduces surface tension.
    Surfactant
    The muscular action that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is provided by:
    A. the diaphragm
    B. internal intercostal muscles
    C. abdominal wall muscles
    D. expiratory intercostal muscles
    E. all of the above
    A. the diaphragm
    The force responsible for normal resting expiration is supplied by:
    A. the diaphragm
    B. external intercostal muscles
    C. elastic recoil of the lungs
    D. dilation of bronchial smooth muscles
    E. sternocleidomastoid muscles
    C. elastic recoil of the lungs
    The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called visceral ______.
    pleura
    Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?
    A. Proximal convoluted tubule, ascending limb of the nephron loop, descending limb of limb of the nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule
    B. Distal convoluted tubule, ascending limb of limb of the nephron loop, descending limb of limb of the nephron loop, proximal convoluted tubule
    C. Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of limb of the nephron loop, ascending limb of limb of the nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule
    D. Descending limb of limb of the nephron loop, ascending limb of limb of the nephron loop, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule
    C. Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of limb of the nephron loop, ascending limb of limb of the nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule
    Efferent arterioles lead to the:
    A. renal arteries
    B. peritubular capillaries
    C. interlobar arteries
    D. arcuate arteries
    E. glomerular capillaries
    B. peritubular capillaries
    The ________ arteriole supplies blood to the capillaries of the glomerulus.
    afferent
    Urine formation involves:
    A. glomular filtration
    B. tubular reabsorption
    C. tubular secretion
    D. all of these
    E. none of these
    D. all of these
    Glomerular filtrate is least likely to contain
    A. Plasma Proteins
    B. Glucose Molecules
    C. Amino Acid Molecules
    D. Bicarbonate Ions
    E. Water Molecules
    A. Plasma Proteins
    If a substance is transported from the plasma of the peritubular capillary into the fluid of the renal tubule, it is said to be:
    A. Filtered by blood pressure
    B. Excreted by osmosis
    C. Secreted
    D. Reabsorbed
    E. Excreted
    C. Secreted
    If a substance is transported from the fluid of the renal tubule into the plasma of the peritubular capillary, it is said to be:
    A. Filtered by blood pressure
    B. Excreted by osmosis
    C. Secreted
    D. Reabsorbed
    E. Excreted
    D. Reabsorbed
    True/False
    Glomular filtrate is nearly protein free.
    True
    ADH is released by the posterior pituatory gland but is produced by cells in the _________.
    hypothalamus
    The stretch receptors of the micturation reflex are in the:
    A. sacral portion of the spinal cord
    B. medulla oblongata
    C. urinary bladder
    D. hypothalamus
    E. brain
    C. urinary bladder
    Cystitis occurs more commonly in women than men because the _______.
    A. female urethral pathway is shorter.
    B. male is more resistant to infections.
    C. female bladder is larger.
    D. male bladder is thicker.
    E. female is less resistant to infections.
    A. female urethral pathway is shorter.
    True/False
    The urethra transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
    False
    The bundles of interlaced muscular fibers in the wall of the urinary bladder comprise the _________ muscle.
    detrusor
    CONNECT QUIZ QUESTIONS NOT ON PREVIOUS EXAMS
    CONNECT QUIZ QUESTIONS NOT ON PREVIOUS EXAMS
    True/False
    Lymphocytes secrete antibodies, coordinate action of other immune cells, and serve in immune memory.
    True
    _____________ is the most abundant protein in plasma.
    A. Insulin
    B. Creatine
    C. Bilirubin
    D. Albumin
    E. Creatinine
    D. Albumin
    Serum is essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of __________.
    A. fibrinogen
    B. nitrogenous wastes
    C. platelets
    D. glucose
    E. albumin
    A. fibrinogen
    Myeloid hemopoiesis in adults happens in the
    A. thymus.
    B. spleen.
    C. red bone marrow.
    D. yellow bone marrow.
    E. liver.
    C. red bone marrow.
    Many RBCs die in the
    A. stomach and small intestine.
    B. red bone marrow.
    C. spleen and liver.
    D. lymph nodes and thymus.
    E. stomach and liver.
    C. spleen and liver.
    True/False
    If the SA node is damaged, nodal rhythm is sufficient to sustain life.
    True
    True/False
    Papillary muscles prevent the AV valves from prolapsing (bulging) excessively into the atria when the ventricles contract.
    True
    A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which causes ___________ and a(n) _____________ in arterial blood pressure.
    A. vasodilation; decrease
    B. vasoconstriction; increase
    C. vasoconstriction; oscillation
    D. vasoconstriction; decrease
    E. vasodilation; increase
    A. vasodilation; decrease
    How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?
    A. 1
    B. 2
    C. 0
    D. 7
    E. 4
    C. 0
    Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called ____________.
    A. heparin; histamine
    B. selectin; prostaglandin
    C. prostaglandins; selectin
    D. bradykinin; histamine
    E. histamine; heparin
    A. heparin; histamine
    Removal of the _________________ will be the most harmful of all for a one-year-old child.
    A. thymus
    B. spleen
    C. appendix
    D. lymph node
    E. palatine tonsil
    A. thymus
    Vaccination stimulates
    A. artificial specific immunity.
    B. natural passive immunity.
    C. artificial active immunity.
    D. artificial passive immunity.
    E. natural active immunity.
    C. artificial active immunity.
    In ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis.
    A. pneumonia
    B. pneumothorax
    C. dyspnea
    D. tuberculosis
    E. rhinitis
    D. tuberculosis
    The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
    A. the pontine respiratory group.
    B. the medulla oblongata.
    C. the dorsal respiratory group.
    D. the ventral respiratory group.
    E. the pons.
    B. the medulla oblongata.
    True/False
    Carbon monoxide competes with oxygen for the same binding site.
    True
    Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the __________.
    A. glomerular capillaries
    B. collecting duct
    C. proximal convoluted tubule
    D. distal convoluted tubule
    E. renal corpuscle
    C. proximal convoluted tubule
    In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, __________ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
    A. aldosterone
    B. sodium chloride
    C. azotemia
    D. angiotensin II
    E. parathyroid hormone
    D. angiotensin II
    Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the __________ of one’s nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one’s daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.
    A. loops of Henle
    B. glomeruli
    C. proximal convoluted tubules
    D. collecting ducts
    E. distal convoluted tubules
    C. proximal convoluted tubules
    Aldosterone acts on the __________.
    A. descending limb of the nephron loop
    B. medullary portion of the collecting duct
    C. distal convoluted tubule
    D. glomerulus
    E. proximal convoluted tubule
    C. distal convoluted tubule
    True/False
    Aldosterone promotes potassium excretion.
    True
    True/False
    Natriuretic peptides promote sodium and potassium excretion.
    False
    True/False
    Hypocalcemia causes muscle weakness, whereas hypercalcemia causes potentially fatal muscle tetanus.
    False
    In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?
    A. Tissue (interstitial) fluid
    B. Lymph
    C. Intracellular fluid
    D. Transcellular fluid
    E. Blood plasma
    A. Tissue (interstitial) fluid
    Most body water intake is from __________, whereas most body water lost is via __________.
    A. metabolic water; sweat
    B. drinking; urine
    C. drinking; radiation
    D. metabolic water; cutaneous transpiration
    E. drinking; cutaneous transpiration and expired air
    B. drinking; urine
    What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
    A. It stimulates angiotensin II secretion.
    B. It inhibits salivation and thirst.
    C. It stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors.
    D. It promotes water conservation.
    E. It targets the cerebral cortex.
    D. It promotes water conservation.
    Which of the following occurs when blood volume and pressure become too high?
    A. ADH release is inhibited.
    B. The kidneys produce less urine.
    C. The renal tubules reabsorb more sodium.
    D. The renal tubules reabsorb more water.
    E. ADH release is stimulated.
    A. ADH release is inhibited.
    Which of the following are macronutrients?
    A. Nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
    B. Sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorous
    C. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
    D. Sodium, potassium, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
    E. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, but not water
    C. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
    Carbohydrates function as structural components in all of the following except __________.
    A. glycolipids
    B. glycoproteins
    C. ATP
    D. nucleic acids
    E. amino acids
    E. amino acids
    Which of the following is not a function of lipids?
    A. They form myelin around nerve fibers.
    B. They form skeletal muscle fibers.
    C. They provide cushioning around soft organs.
    D. They form the structure of some hormones.
    E. They form the plasma membrane structure.
    B. They form skeletal muscle fibers.
    Where does HDL in the body come from?
    A. The small intestine
    B. The liver
    C. The gallbladder
    D. The pancreas
    E. The diet
    B. The liver
    Which of the following is a product of glycolysis?
    A. Acetyl-CoA
    B. Carbon dioxide
    C. Lactic acid
    D. Glucose
    E. Pyruvic acid
    E. Pyruvic acid
    __________ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas __________ happens in the mitochondrion.
    A. The citric acid (Krebs) cycle; mitochondrial electron-transport
    B. Aerobic respiration; anaerobic fermentation
    C. Glycolysis; pyruvic acid reduction
    D. Glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
    E. Anaerobic fermentation; glycolysis
    D. Glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
    Which of the following is true concerning oxygen in regards to aerobic respiration?
    A. It directly transfers electrons and protons to NAD+ and FAD.
    B. It directly receives electrons and protons from NAD+ and FAD.
    C. It transports electrons to the mitochondrion.
    D. It is the only substrate of aerobic respiration.
    E. It is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
    E. It is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
    Which of the following is a final product of aerobic respiration?
    A. Pyruvic acid
    B. Glucose
    C. Oxygen
    D. Carbon dioxide
    E. Lactic acid
    D. Carbon dioxide
    Sperm cells get energy to power their movement from _________ contributed by the ____________.
    A. fructose; seminal vesicles
    B. prostaglandins; prostate gland
    C. seminogelin; prostate gland
    D. sucrose; bulbourethral gland
    E. semen; seminiferous gland
    A. fructose; seminal vesicles
    True/False
    Testosterone stimulates development of the secondary sex characteristics, spermatogenesis, and libido.
    True
    Male infertility (sterility) refers to
    A. low sperm count.
    B. the inability to fertilize an egg.
    C. low levels of testosterone.
    D. a lack of seminal fluid during ejaculation.
    E. the inability to have an erection.
    B. the inability to fertilize an egg.
    FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CONNECT QUIZ QUESTIONS
    FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CONNECT QUIZ QUESTIONS
    True/False
    The proliferative phase of the uterus is driven by estrogen from the ovaries.
    True
    The ____________ is the site of attachment of the embryo.
    A. endometrium
    B. perimetrium
    C. uterine tube
    D. vagina
    E. myometrium
    A. endometrium
    _______________ act/s primarily in the uterus.
    A. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    B. Androgens
    C. Estrogens
    D. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    E. Progesterone
    E. Progesterone
    True/False
    Prolactin is secreted during pregnancy to stimulate milk synthesis so that milk will be available by the time the infant is born.
    False
    The __________ arteries rhythmically constrict and dilate causing the uterine mucosa to blanch and flush with blood.
    A. arcuate
    B .internal iliac
    C. ovarian
    D. spiral
    E. uterine
    D. spiral
    True/False
    Oxytocin stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cell of the mammary acini.
    True
    The internal female genitalia include the
    A. labia minora.
    B. labia majora.
    C. mammary gland.
    D. vagina.
    E. clitoris.
    D. vagina.
    After expelling the oocyte, the follicle becomes the ____________ and secretes __________.
    A. corpus albicans; estrogen and progesterone
    B. corpus luteum; estrogen and progesterone
    C. corpus albicans; progesterone
    D. corpus albicans; FSH and LH
    E. corpus luteum; FSH and LH
    B. corpus luteum; estrogen and progesterone
    Which of these lists the stages or structures of prenatal development in the correct order?
    A. embryo, zygote, blastocyst, cleavage, morula, fetus
    B. zygote, cleavage, morula, blastocyst, embryo, fetus
    C. zygote, embryo, morula, blastocyst, cleavage, fetus
    D. cleavage, zygote, morula, blastocyst, embryo, fetus
    E. zygote, morula, blastocyst, cleavage, embryo, fetus
    B. zygote, cleavage, morula, blastocyst, embryo, fetus
    The optimal “window of opportunity” to conceive a child is
    A. a few days before ovulation to less than a day after.
    B. a few days after ovulation.
    C. less than a day before ovulation to less than a day after.
    D. a few days before ovulation to a few days after.
    E. a few days before ovulation.
    A. a few days before ovulation to less than a day after.
    By the end of 8 weeks, the individual is considered a fetus because
    A. the neural tube and yolk sac have formed.
    B. all of the organ systems are present.
    C. the mesoderm has formed.
    D. all the primary germ layers are formed.
    E. the amniotic cavity has formed.
    B. all of the organ systems are present.
    The ___________ completely encloses the embryo and provides a stable environment for it.
    A. yolk sac
    B. amnion
    C. chorion
    D. allantois
    E. chorionic villus
    B. amnion
    In fetal circulation, the __________ bypasses the liver and the _________ bypasses the lungs.
    A. ligamentum arteriosum; foramen ovale
    B. foramen ovale; ductus venosus
    C. ductus arteriosus; ductus venosus
    D. ligamentum venosum; ligamentum arteriosum
    E. ductus venosus; ductus arteriosus
    E. ductus venosus; ductus arteriosus
    In fetal circulation, blood bypasses the lungs by flowing through
    A. the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus.
    B. the ligamentum venosum and ligamentum arteriosum.
    C. the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus.
    D. the fossa ovalis and umbilical arteries and vein.
    E. the umbilical vein and umbilical arteries.
    A. the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus.
    Which of the following major events of prenatal development happens first?
    A. bone calcification begins
    B. meconium accumulates in the intestines
    C. the body is covered with lanugo
    D. the eyes are fully open
    E. the central nervous system begins to form
    E. the central nervous system begins to form
    Oxygenated blood reaches the fetus through the
    A. maternal arteries.
    B. umbilical arteries.
    C. placental sinus.
    D. umbilical vein.
    E. maternal vein.
    D. umbilical vein.
    _______ pass(es) from the maternal blood to the fetal blood; while fetal _________ pass(es) the other way.
    A. Oxygen and nutrients; wastes
    B. Wastes and nutrients; oxygen and carbon dioxide
    C. Wastes; nutrients and oxygen
    D. Carbon dioxide and oxygen; wastes
    E. Carbon dioxide; nutrients
    A. Oxygen and nutrients; wastes
    The first 6 weeks of postpartum life constitute
    A. the premature period.
    B. senescence.
    C. the neonatal period.
    D. the transitional period.
    E. infancy.
    C. the neonatal period.
    The fossa ovalis is a remnant of the ___________ of the fetus.
    A. ductus venosus
    B. umbilical vein
    C. foramen ovale
    D. ductus arteriosus
    E. umbilical artery
    C. foramen ovale
    Which one of these organ systems shows the greatest anatomical change in the transitional period after birth?
    A. circulatory
    B. nervous
    C. muscular
    D. skeletal
    E. integumentary
    A. circulatory
    Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) is caused by
    A. production of very thick respiratory mucus.
    B. deficiency of pulmonary surfactant.
    C. overinflated alveoli.
    D. underdeveloped respiratory epithelium.
    E. pulmonary edema.
    B. deficiency of pulmonary surfactant.
    Which of these organ systems faces the greatest physiological challenge in the transitional period after birth?
    A. circulatory
    B. respiratory
    C. muscular
    D. integumentary
    E. nervous
    B. respiratory

    A&P II – FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE. (2018, Jan 25). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/ap-ii-final-exam-study-guide-essay/

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