Iconography and Iconology

Naturalism is a brand of representation in which the artist
A brand of representation in which the artist retains apparently realistic elements
Icongraphy refers to
Refers to both the content, or subject, of an art work and to the study of content in art. It also includes the study of the symbolic, often religious, meaning of object, persons, or event depicted in works of art.
A widely shared Oceanic belief is _______, the spiritual power that may reside in person, places or things
The sublime is said to
in Romanticism, feelings of awe mixed with terror
Nonobjective art:
an art movement where the artworks were based on unidentifiable things; there are no identifiable objects.
Objects that are intended to stimulate a sense of beauty in the viewer are thought to be _______ rather than functional.
Jasper Johns chose to paint his image of the American flag to express:
his proclivity for things seen but not examined
Abstract art:
Art form that represents ideas using geometric and other designs instead of natural forms seeking to break away from traditional representation of physical objects. Pioneered by Kandinsky and others in the early 20th century.
According to Sayre what are the three steps in the process of “seeing”?
reception, extraction, inference
What factor contributed to the misunderstanding of African masks in the West?
performance art in which people wear mask for ritual & cultural purpose, which includes sculptures, costumes, music, & movement (dance). Inviting spirits into the community to bring harvest in fertility of land & people, also permitting rites of passage.
What is the content of a work of nonobjective art?
Art that departs significantly from the actual appearance of things.
How is naturalism in art distinct from realism?
Descriptive of an approach to portraying the visible world that emphasizes the objective observation and accurate imitation of appearances. Naturalistic art closely resembles the forms it portrays. Naturalism and realism are often used interchangeably, and both words have complicated histories. In this text, naturalism is construed as a broader approach, permitting a degree of idealization and embracing a stylistic range across cultures. Realism suggests a more focused, almost clinical attention to detail that refuses to prettify harsh or unflattering matters.
Faith Ringgold’s God Bless America features an American flag turned into a prison cell. How is the figure of the woman contradictory?
She is both patriotic and racist.
Iconoclasm is the practice of:
which is the practice of destroying religious images.
Sayre states that he believes that all people are creative, but artists possess qualities that most don’t. Which of the following best describes these qualities?
artist are critical thinkers, meaning they question assumptions and explore new directions
Rene Magritte’s The Treason of Images asks us to consider__________.
that images and words refer to things that we see, but are not the things themselves
Visual literacy enables the viewer to:
communicate the effects of a work of art.
What is the subject matter of Shirin Neshat’s Rebellious Silence?
Iran woman with writing on her face, gun held up in front of the middle of her face
What kind of reading does Kenneth Clark illustrate in his assessment that an ancient Greek statue represents a “higher state of civilization” than a West African mask?
The terms naturalistic or realistic art are sometimes used to describe
Representational Art
What key issue underlies the work of Guillermo Gomez-Pena?
relations between the United States and Mexico
Maya Ying Lin’s Memorial in Washington, D.C.
was controversial at first because of its non-traditional style.
Curator Rober Sobieszek likened Rober Mapplethrope to Vincent van Gogh because both, he suggested, sought to:
How is the politically motivated art of Guillermo Gomez-Pena and Krysztof Wodiczko similar?
socio-cultural issues
The organization of visual elements in an artwork is called
a composition
In Chapter 3, Sayre discusses two ways of valuing art. What are they?
monetary and intrinsic
Lines that create a sense of movement and direction are called
Implied lines.
Guillermo Gómez-Peña’s The Temple of Confessions can be defined as what kind of art?
performance and installation
Which institutions function largely to bring art collectors and artists together?
art galleries
Chris Ofili’s The Holy Virgin Mary displays two aspects of the artist’s life—his African heritage and what else?
his Catholic upbringing
The artist’s relation to the public often depends upon how it views
what the artist is trying to say
In House, how does Jaune Quick-to-See Smith evoke the simplicity of traditional Native American lifestyles that have disappeared?
simple black outlines and ironic messages
What specific component of the National Endowment for the Arts made works of art available to the general public?
the Arts in Public Places program
Why did Guillermo Gomez-Pena and Roberto Sifuentes pose on crosses in their work Curc-fiction Project?
To protest California’s immigration policies
In The Green Line (Sometimes doing something poetic can become political and sometimes doing something political can become poetic), Francis Alys raises questions about the conceptual line between the poetic imagination and actual politics though an invesitgation of a boundary between:
Line can be used to delineate edges of form in space, imply movement, and
create value by hatching and cross-hatching
How is Maya Ying Lin’s Vietnam Memorial similar to works by Edouard Manet and Marcel Duchamp?
All were initially misunderstood by the public.
What is it that motivates most collectors to buy contemporary art?
the pleasure of owning art and the prestige it confers upon them
Why might Giorgio Armani’s 2000-2001 exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum be considered controversial?
Historically, why do many people receive new and innovative work with reservation?
They have little context in which to view the work.
The artist Artemisia Gentileschi heightens the drama of Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes by using a technique that comes from an Italian word meaning “murky.” This technique is called
The background mountains in DaVinci’s Madonna of the Rocks provide a perfect example of
atmospheric and perspective
Mimesis is:
something specific, mimetic art in prehistoric is unusual
Artists sometimes choose to paint objects using colors that are not “true” to their optical or local colors. This is an example of the expressive use of
According to Sayre, our notion of space has changed abruptly and even become “fluid” since the beginning of the twentieth century due to:
Einsteins Theories
On Newton’s color wheel, colors that lie directly between a secondary and primary are called
intermediate colors
A picture drawn in perspective that employs a single point of vision is called
monocular vision.
When and where was linear perspective first codified (studied, organized, and written down)?
during the Renaissance in Italy
Why is the stereoscope such an effective means of describing “real” space?
It mimics binocular visions
In the 1660s, who discovered that color is a direct function of light by passing sunlight through a prism and observing the bands of spectrum of colors?
Isaac Newton
In a work of art, “content” refers to
In a work of art, content is conveyed primarily in three ways: through its symbolic references; through written materials and cultural context; and through the subject matter
In the history of art, the association of good with light and evil with dark was first fully-developed by
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
On the color wheel, blues and greens are usually thought of as
cool colors
Ideologies are:

Systems of abstract thought that constitute one’s deeds, expectations, and goals. A set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of society making this concept central to politics

Note–>to the individual, ideology frames their perspective of the world. Within a larger society, ideologies define what is and is not acceptable within a culture, and are constantly in flux. An example of flux is the debate on legal use of marijuana in the US.

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One of the chief tools employed by artists of the Renaissance to show the effects of light is
Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper is based on what specific type of perspective?
one point linear perspectives
In the 15th century in Italy there was a profound redefinition of space with the codification and usage of linear perspective. Some see the same thing happening today with
the increased usage and manipulation of cyberspace and virtual realities
The range of colors that an artist has preferred to use in a work is referred to as the
Mary Cassatt has manipulated light and color in In the Loge to emphasize the
division between male and female spaces.
Alexander Calder’s “mobiles,” like Untitled, move when air currents move through them, making them
Because Bernini’s David tells a story-that of David slaying Goliath-it is said to have a __________ sequence.
The surface quality of a work is known as
satin finish
Sculpture differs from painting in that it involves
What is associated with the beautifying of utilitarian objects due to its application to crafts, folk art, and women’s work?
decorative pattern
Thick paint applied to a canvas creates actual texture known as
Why are the plastic arts typically less closely associated with time and motion than are the emporal arts?
Repetition often implies monotony, yet it also creates a sense of
The dimensions of an object, in relation to some constant, such as the human figure, are known as its
In what way can a large-scale work be considered a “temporal” art form?
The spectator moves through time and space to view it.
What is a term that describes an artist’s attempt to draw our eyes to one area of a composition?
Which of the following is not an aspect of texture?
Early manuscripts such as the Lindisfarne Gospels are said to be _________ because they are elaborately illustrand and decorated.
What is involved in frottage?
a composition made by rubbing a crayon or a pencil over paper placed over a surface with a raised design
In the history of art, the association of good with light and evil with dark was first fully-developed by
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
How is naturalism in art distinct from realism?
A brand of representation in which the artist retains apparently realistic elements but presents the visual world from a distinctively personal or subjective point of view.
Because of its appliction to crafts, folk art, and women’s work, ___________ is associated with the beautifying of utilliarian objects
What was made famous by the ancient Greeks as a model of architectural proportion?
golden section or a. canon (Mixed answers from teacher).
When each side of a composition is exactly the same, it shows
absolute symmetry.
If an artist pushes the point of a burin across a metal plate, forcing the metal up in slivers in front of the burin, the process is called
Which of the following is an example of relief printmaking?
rubber stamp
What is the chief advantage of oilstick over pastels?
Oil sticks allow the artist more gestural freedom and a sense of direct engagement
For which type of drawing would metalpoint likely be best suited as a medium?
Either a precise drawing of an object or paper cutout
When and where was printmaking first developed?
In the 9th century in China
In Käthe Kollwitz’s Self-Portrait, Drawing, the artist has revealed the expressive capabilities of what medium?
All of the following EXCEPT _____________ are techniques of modeling.
Mimis can be found in
in Australian rock art represent
Where did Western artists first have ready access to pape?
in Italy in the early Renaissance
A chalk medium with colored pigment and a nongreasy binder is
The difference between liquid and dry media is in the

Dry media: generally applied directly in stick form – As the stick is dragged over suitably abrasive surface, it leaves particles of itself behind.

Liquid Media: Generally applied with a tool such as a pen or a brush.

What advantage did paper have over parchment?
it was cheaper
For what reason did Henri Matisse find scissors adventageous as compared to pencil or charcoal?
Whitfield Lovell’s Whispers from the Walls is an example of
installation art.
What was early paper in the West made of?
cloth rags
According to the text, lithography was almost dead as an art medium in the 1960s until which person almost single-handedly saved it?
June Wayne
How is Marjane Satrapi’s drawing style especially appropriate for her graphic novel Persepolis?
from the present-day capital of Iran
hat is the main advantage of linocut over woodcut printmaking?
it is easier to cut into linoleum than wood
Serigraphs use ________ as a matrix.
Matrix is.. the working surface
Serigraphy is also known as “silkscreen painting”.
Serigraphy is the only method that uses paint and ink.
Stencils are used to create the designer image.
Silk, nylon, or a fine mesh is stretched on a frame.
The stencil is applied to the screen using a squeegee
The Starry Night, by Vincent van Gogh, indicates the power of the artist’s
Expressive line
Allan Kaprow created “assemblages of events performed or perceived in more than one time and place.” He called these
One of the complex aspects of wood carving that a sculptor must pay attention to is
wood grain
Greek figurative sculpture was greatly influenced by Egyptian sculpture. What did the Greeks add?
What do Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty and the Great Serpent Mound have in common?
They are both earthworks
An artwork’s literal subject matter is its –
What is literally shown; The literal, visible image in a work of art, as distinguished from it’s content
When a sculpture is created by building up the form with a material such as clay, the process is called
Why is lost-wax casting such a popular method for creating metal sculpture?
Also known as “cire-perdue”, a method for casting metal sculptures and other objects. Positive and negative molds are built around a layer of wax that exactly duplicates the shape and size of the desired sculpture. When this arrangement is heated, the wax melts out and then molten metal is poured into the mold to replace it.
Today, multiples can be created from the process
The sculptural material most commonly associated with “modeling” or additive processes is
The material most often associated with the process of casting is
A sculptural space that you can actually enter is referred to as
An environment or installation
How does subject matter differ from content?
Subject matter is what is literally represented, while content is what an artwork means or expresses.
Which artist’s works prompted Allan Kaprow to “invent” what he called Happenings?
Jackson Pollock
Artists sometimes choose to paint objects using colors that are not “true” to their optical or local colors. This is an example of the expressive use of
Which process is an additive method of making sculpture?
Wood and stone carvings are examples of
Subtractive sculpture
Which of these best describes Frank Gehry’s design process?
It is fluid and experimental
Gerrit Rietveld’s famous Red and Blue Chair is a summation of which principle of design?
De Stijl
Frederick Olmsted conceived of what common architectural concept?
The suburb
The Romans created larger interior spaces in architecture than the Greeks because
They combined the use of the arch with the use of concrete
he Pont du Gard, in Nîmes, France, is an excellent example of which element of architecture?
Frank Lloyd Wright designed several houses that were based on the “vastness of the western landscape” and were “of the land, not just on the land.” What did he call this style of house?
The Prairie House
Johnson and Burgee’s University of Houston, College of Architecture is said to be a postmodern building because it:
Borrows from many different styles and time periods
The International Style is a type of architecture marked by
Austere geometric simplicity
The Bauhaus
Was an influential design school in Germany
Which of these previous architectural styles does Emilio Ambasz’s ACROS building most resemble?
Mesopotamian ziggurats
Le Corbusier was an architect and designer who prioritized
The manufactured and modular
Cassandre’s Dubonnet advertisement is a good example of
Constructivist design
Louis Sullivan utilized which type of construction in the late 19th century in Chicago to build increasingly tall buildings?
Steel and reinforced concrete
The Romans perfected which architectural innovation by the end of the first century bce?
The dome
Charles and Ray Eames’ Side chair, model DCM demonstrates which feature of design in the 1940s and 1950s?
Curvilinear Design
The Seagram Building, designed by Philip Johnson and Mies van der Rohe, is a perfect example of
The international style
It is thought that the sloping sides of the pyramids in Egypt were intended to mimic
The rays of the sun
Which of these is not a basic principle of “green architecture”?
Buildings that make maximum use of energy supplies like coal and nuclear power
Where was Constructivism developed?
The Anasazi cliffside caves at Mesa Verde show the roofs of what elements which are the underground spaces for ceremonial life?

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