Ch. 2

When a researcher is successful at measuring what he or she intends to measure, this is called:
validity
Research subjects have a right to know that they are participating in a study and what the study consists of. This is known as:
informed consent
All of the following are described as golden rules of ethical conduct in social research EXCEPT:
never debrief
When one factor is said to influence another factor, we refer to this as:
association.

causality.

mediation.

–NOT: correlation.

A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as:
protected populations.
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A variable that is thought to cause a change in another variable is called the:
independent variable
An ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from research respondents is known as:
a survey
Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B, when in fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful not to make the mistake known as:
reverse causality
A variable that is thought to be influenced by another variable is known as the:
dependent variable
Mitchell Duneier’s study of homeless men on New York City’s Sixth Avenue involved hanging out with his research subjects to collect data. This type of methodology is known as:
participant observation
A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called a(n):
hypothesis
Interpretive sociologists examine meanings attached to behaviors. This leads them to use which of the following measures most commonly?
qualitative
Which of the following is more difficult to do in social science research?
to establish that something is the cause of something else
Although qualitative studies are rich in detail and offer an in-depth look at a particular population and/or phenomenon, due to their limited scope they sometimes suffer from low:
generalizability.
One of the positive outcomes of sociology’s long-term male dominance is:
the evolution of feminist methodology to complement it and add to the scientific accumulation of knowledge.
A standard yardstick measures 36 inches, but Sarah is using a “faulty” yardstick (one that measures 40 inches long) to measure the campers in her youth group. Sarah will not get a(n) ____________ indication of height, but she will have a(n) ____________ measure of height.
valid; reliable
Social research aimed at influencing public policy and society as a whole is referred to as:
historical sociology.

private sociology.

public sociology.

–NOT: feminist sociology.

A potential shortcoming of survey research is that surveys:
rely on people’s honesty and willingness to cooperate.
Sometimes a researcher may find it necessary to go against the ethical norms of informed consent and voluntary participation. Which of the following would NOT be considered one of these times?
when the researcher’s subjects are underage, incarcerated, or pregnant
Harry’s study compared how the posts on Craigslist of “men seeking women” differed from the posts of “women seeking men.” What research method was Harry using when he compared how often men and women mentioned particular characteristics (e.g., attractive, sexy, athletic, professional, educated)?
historical methods

content analysis

interviews

–NOT: comparative research

Which of the following is an example of a correlation?
People with higher levels of income tend to enjoy better overall health.
____________ is probably the best method available to the social scientist interested in collecting original data and for describing a population too large to observe directly.
survey research
Comparative research usually involves studying:
two cultures that have a good number of things in common but differ in one important dimension—this dimension becomes the subject of the study.
Jackson is using newspaper articles dating from the early 1950s to study unofficial attitudes toward working women post-World War II. Jackson is using what research method?
historical methods
Which of the following is true regarding value judgments made by sociologists conducting research?
Every sociologist makes some value judgments, even about the problems and topics he or she chooses to study.
Because they are an accessible population, sociologists sometimes use undergraduate students in their research. In relation to the concept of generalizability in science, this tendency could represent a potential defect in research because:
college undergraduates do not have the right to refuse without suffering negative con-sequences.

the experiences of college undergraduates do not provide a legitimate empirical re-source.

college undergraduates are not typical of the public at large.

–NOT: college undergraduates are not a subset of the general population.

If a field researcher cannot reveal that a study is being done for fear that this revelation might significantly affect the social processes being studied, he or she is finding out that:
it is sometimes difficult to follow the norms of voluntary participation and informed con-sent.
All of the following are strengths of the case study method EXCEPT that it is:
useful for creating large-scale generalizations.
Perhaps the most important outcome of feminist methodology is that:
the focus on women’s experiences, in addition to men’s experiences, has increased the generalizability of the research.
In establishing causation, it helps to know which variable precedes the other in time. If not, it is easy to make a mistake involving:
reverse causality.

spurious causality.

time order.

–NOT: alternative explanations.

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