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ch. 22/23 reviewing your knowledge

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    Compare the number of motor neurons in a somatic and autonomic reflex arc.
    Somatic reflex arcs have 1 motor neuron and autonomic reflex arcs have 2 motor neurons.
    Compare the effectors of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
    The effectors of somatic reflex arcs are skeletal muscles and the effectors of the autonomic nervous systems are cardiac, smooth muscle, and sweat glands.
    Two motor neurons
    parasympathetic and sympathetic
    short preganglionic axons
    long preganglionic axons
    innervates adrenal medullae
    terminal ganglia
    trunk or chain ganglia
    prevertebral ganglia
    craniosacral division
    thoracolumbar division
    activated during exercise, fighting, or fleeing
    rami communicantes
    promotes digestion
    short postganglionic axons
    long postganglionic axons
    list the components of the autonomic reflex arc. Compare with somatic reflex arc.
    Sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, 2 motor neurons, effector. They both have the same components except the autonomic reflex arc has 2 motor neurons and the somatic reflex arc has 1 motor neuron.
    Where are autonomic integrating centers located?
    The hypothalamus, brainstem, and lateral gray horn of spinal cord arc where the autonomic integrating centers are located.
    Are the autonomic integrating centers monosynaptic or polysynaptic?
    Can the autonomic integrating centers be influenced by higher brain area?
    Describe the function of sensory receptors.
    The function is to convert sensory stimuli into changes in membrane potential in the sensory neuron. If these changes are great enough, a nerve impulse will be generated in the sensory neuron.
    Name the general sensory receptors that belong to each structural class.
    a) free nerve endings
    b) encapsulated nerve endings
    a) hair root plexus, type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors, warm receptors, cold receptors, nociceptors.
    b) corpuscles of touch, type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors, lamellated corpuscles, muscle spindles, tendon organs.
    Receives input from third order neurons; sensory information is consciously perceived.
    cerebral cortex
    cell body located in spinal cord or brain stem
    second-order neuron
    gateway to cerebral cortex, location of synapse between second and third order neurons.
    neuron associated with sensory receptor.
    first-order neuron
    relays sensory nerve impulses from thalamus to cerebral cortex.
    third-order neuron
    cell body for first order neuron located here
    posterior root ganglion
    Describe correlation between tactile density of a body area and the size of the cerebral cortex receiving information from those receptors.
    The greater the density of tactile receptors in a body area, the greater the area of cerebral cortex receiving information from these receptors.
    define adaptation
    the decrease in nerve impulses generation in sensory nerves that occurs when sensory receptors are continually stimulated.
    do warm receptors adapt quickly?
    do cold receptors adapt quickly?
    define referred pain.
    a pain sensation originating in a visceral organ that is perceived in a specific region of the body surface that is innervated by the same spinal segments.
    After the subject’s elbow had been immerse in water for 2min, where was the referred pain located? Explain.
    In the class experiment, after the elbow was immersed in water referred pain was felt in the forearm and medial hand.

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