Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

1) The spinal cord is part of the ________ nervous system.
A) peripheral
B) somatic
C) central
D) autonomic
E) afferent
C) central
2) The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support to the spinal cord as a component of the coccygeal ligament.
A) conus medullaris
B) filum terminale
C) cauda equina
D) dorsal root
E) ventral root
B) filum terminale
86) Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?
A) normal in newborns
B) abnormal in adults
C) a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts
D) why you close your eyes when you sneeze
E) flaring of the toes when the sole is stroked
D) why you close your eyes when you sneeze
85) Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back.

Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, where she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These results suggest that Tina has
A) injured one of her descending nerve tracts.

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B) injured one of her ascending nerve tracts.
C) a spinal injury in the lumbar region.
D) a spinal injury in the cervical region.
E) suffered no damage to her spinal cord.

E) suffered no damage to her spinal cord.
3) Spinal nerves are
A) purely sensory.
B) purely motor.
C) both sensory and motor.
D) interneuronal.
E) involuntary.
C) both sensory and motor.
84) Which statement is false regarding reflexes?
A) Reflex responses can change over time.
B) You have no conscious control or modification ability over reflex action.
C) Some reflex responses are hereditary.
D) Reflex responses can be enhanced by repetition.
E) All of the above statements are true; there are no false statements.
B) You have no conscious control or modification ability over reflex action.
4) The spinal cord consists of four regions and ________ segments.
A) five
B) twelve
C) twenty-five
D) thirty-one
E) The number varies widely among individuals.
D) thirty-one
83) In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?
A) a monosynaptic reflex
B) a polysynaptic reflex
B) a polysynaptic reflex
5) The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) synapses.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
82) The flexor reflex
A) prevents a muscle from overstretching.
B) prevents a muscle from generating damaging tension.
C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
D) usually depends on cranial neurons.
E) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.
C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
6) The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) interneurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
81) The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.
A) stretch
B) tendon
C) flexor
D) crossed extensor
E) reciprocal
D) crossed extensor
7) The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains
A) axons of motor neurons.
B) axons of sensory neurons.
C) cell bodies of motor neurons.
D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.
E) interneurons.
A) axons of motor neurons.
80) Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called
A) a crossed extensor reflex.
B) a stretch reflex.
C) a tendon reflex.
D) reciprocal inhibition.
E) reverberating circuits.
D) reciprocal inhibition.
8) The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
A) arachnoid.
B) pia mater.
C) dura mater.
D) epidural block.
E) periosteum.
C) dura mater.
79) The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ________ reflex.
A) stretch
B) tendon
C) flexor
D) crossed extensor
E) reciprocal
B) tendon
9) After age ________, the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.
A) 8
B) 12
C) 18
D) 4
E) 1
D) 4
78) All of the following are true of muscle spindles except that they
A) are found within skeletal muscle.
B) consist of specialized fibers called intrafusal fibers.
C) are found in tendons.
D) are the receptor for the stretch reflex.
E) are innervated by gamma motor neurons.
C) are found in tendons.
10) If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,
A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked.
B) output to visceral organs would be blocked.
C) the spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level.
D) the brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord.
E) sensory input would be blocked.
E) sensory input would be blocked.
77) Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following except
A) their development.
B) where information processing occurs.
C) the motor response.
D) the complexity of the neural circuit.
E) whether they are sensory or motor.
E) whether they are sensory or motor.
11) The subdural space lies between
A) the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.
B) the pia mater and the dura mater.
C) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
D) the pia mater and the subarachnoid space.
E) the endosteum and the periosteum.
C) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.
76) Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes.
A) visceral
B) innate
C) acquired
D) somatic
E) vegetative
B) innate
12) The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the
A) dura mater.
B) subarachnoid space.
C) arachnoid.
D) pia mater.
E) choroid plexus.
D) pia mater.
75) All of the following are true of neural reflexes except that they
A) are automatic motor responses.
B) are the simplest form of behavior.
C) help preserve homeostasis.
D) cannot be modified by the brain.
E) involve at least two neurons.
D) cannot be modified by the brain.
13) A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a
A) cervical enlargement.
B) lumbar enlargement.
C) spinal nerve.
D) spinal meninx.
E) spinal ganglion.
C) spinal nerve.
74) You are sitting at a Mexican restaurant waiting for your food. The waiter brings a very hot plate, telling you to be careful about touching it. You touch it anyway, producing a pain sensation in your fingers, a withdrawal of your hand, and an auditory comment of what you are thinking. This scenario represents a ________ neuronal circuit.
A) parallel
B) reverberation
C) serial
D) convergent
E) consensual
A) parallel
14) In meningitis,
A) inflammation of the meninges occurs.
B) bacteria can be the cause.
C) viruses can be the cause.
D) CSF flow can be disrupted.
E) All of the answers are correct.
E) All of the answers are correct.
15) Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?
A) It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery.
B) It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection.
C) It can provide sensory and motor anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected.
D) It can provide mainly sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected.
E) All of the answers are correct.
E) All of the answers are correct.
73) Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following except
A) convergent.
B) divergent.
C) multipolar.
D) reverberating.
E) parallel processing.
C) multipolar.
72) In which structure are sensory cell bodies located?
A) 4
B) 6
C) 5
D) 10
E) 12
D) 10
16) Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the
A) filum terminale.
B) subarachnoid space.
C) dura mater.
D) pia mater.
E) arachnoid mater.
B) subarachnoid space.
71) Which branch carries motor neurons to structures on the back of the body trunk?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 5
D) 7
E) 11
A) 1
17) The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age
A) 20 years.
B) 10 years.
C) 4 years.
D) 6 months.
E) 2 months.
C) 4 years.
70) What is the function of the structure labeled “12”?
A) somatic motor control
B) visceral motor control
C) somatic sensory input
D) visceral sensory input
E) sensory receptor for pain
B) visceral motor control
18) The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the
A) cranial meninges.
B) cranial mater.
C) spinal meninges.
D) spinal mater.
E) epidural membranes.
C) spinal meninges.
69) Identify the structure labeled “8.”
A) peripheral nerve
B) dorsal ramus
C) spinal nerve
D) ventral root
E) dorsal root
C) spinal nerve
19) Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the
A) pia mater.
B) dura mater.
C) epidural space.
D) subdural space.
E) subarachnoid space.
A) pia mater.
68) Identify the structure labeled “6.”
A) autonomic nerve
B) sympathetic ganglion
C) dorsal root ganglion
D) rami communicantes
E) ventral root
B) sympathetic ganglion
20) Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
A) dura mater.
B) arachnoid mater.
C) epidural space.
D) subarachnoid space.
E) cerebral ventricles.
D) subarachnoid space.
67) Identify the structure labeled “5.”
A) autonomic nerve
B) autonomic ganglion
C) rami communicantes
D) dorsal root ganglion
E) ventral root
C) rami communicantes
21) In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about
A) T6.
B) T10.
C) L1.
D) L5.
E) C1.
C) L1.
65) Identify the type of connection inside the structure labeled “3.”
A) preganglionic neuron
B) postganglionic neuron
C) somatic motor neuron
D) sensory neuron
E) interneuron
B) postganglionic neuron
22) Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?
A) loss of sensation in his torso
B) inability to breathe
C) problems with moving his arms
D) uncontrollable sweating of his feet
E) problems moving his legs
A) loss of sensation in his torso
66) Identify the structure labeled “4.”
A) spinal nerve
B) gray ramus
C) white ramus
D) dorsal ramus
E) ventral ramus
C) white ramus
23) The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly
A) unmyelinated axons.
B) neuroglia.
C) Schwann cells.
D) myelinated axons.
E) nodes of Ranvier.
D) myelinated axons.
64) Identify the structure labeled “3.”
A) spinal nerve
B) gray ramus
C) white ramus
D) dorsal ramus
E) ventral ramus
B) gray ramus
24) The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) nerve tracts.
B) columns.
C) meninges.
D) neuron cell bodies.
E) funiculi.
D) neuron cell bodies.
63) Identify the structure labeled
63) Identify the structure labeled “2.”
A) ventral root
B) dorsal ramus
C) spinal nerve
D) ventral ramus
E) white ramus
D) ventral ramus
25) The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) sensory nuclei.
B) somatic motor nuclei.
C) autonomic motor nuclei.
D) nerve tracts.
E) sympathetic nuclei.
A) sensory nuclei.
62) The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the following nerves except the
A) radial.
B) median.
C) ulnar.
D) musculocutaneous.
E) phrenic.
E) phrenic.
26) The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly
A) sensory nuclei.
B) somatic motor nuclei.
C) autonomic motor nuclei.
D) nerve tracts.
E) sympathetic nuclei.
B) somatic motor nuclei.
61) Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?
A) the anterior gray horns
B) the anterior gray commissures
C) ascending tracts
D) descending tracts
E) the anterior white commissures
C) ascending tracts
27) Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the
A) central canal.
B) posterior gray horns.
C) gray commissures.
D) white columns.
E) anterior gray horns.
D) white columns.
60) As the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve.
A) perineal
B) femoral
C) brachial
D) pudendal
E) sciatic
E) sciatic
28) In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as
A) nuclei.
B) ganglia.
C) columns.
D) nerves.
E) horns.
C) columns.
59) If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he
A) might be unable to breathe on his own.
B) could walk without difficulty.
C) would have full range of motion in all extremities.
D) would be in a coma.
E) would have difficulty chewing and moving the tongue.
A) might be unable to breathe on his own.
29) The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord, seen easily in microscopic spinal cord cross sections, are called
A) wings.
B) horns.
C) pyramids.
D) fibers.
E) tracts.
B) horns.
58) The ventral rami form four major plexuses, including all of the following except the ________ plexus.
A) brachial
B) lumbar
C) sacral
D) nuchal
E) cervical
D) nuchal
30) Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
A) anterior gray horns.
B) lateral gray horns.
C) posterior gray horns.
D) gray commissures.
E) white commissures.
D) gray commissures.
57) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the
A) endoneurium.
B) perineurium.
C) aponeurium.
D) metaneurium.
E) subneurium.
A) endoneurium.
31) The white matter of the spinal cord contains
A) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
B) bundles of dendrites with common origins, destinations, and functions.
C) sensory and motor nuclei.
D) both axons and dendrites.
E) interneurons.
A) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.
56) The ________ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm.
A) ansa cervicalis
B) lesser occipital
C) radial
D) phrenic
E) sciatic
D) phrenic
32) Identify the structure labeled
32) Identify the structure labeled “1.”
A) anterior white column
B) lateral white column
C) lateral white horn
D) median commissure
E) posterior white column
E) posterior white column
55) Each of the following nerves originates in the lumbar plexus except the ________ nerve.
A) saphenous
B) sciatic
C) femoral
D) obturator
E) genitofemoral
B) sciatic
33) Identify the structure labeled “4.”
A) posterior gray column
B) dorsal gray ganglion
C) posterior white column
D) posterior gray horn
E) anterior gray horn
D) posterior gray horn
54) The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a(n)
A) dermatome.
B) autonomic nerve.
C) lateral nerve.
D) tract.
E) plexus.
E) plexus.
34) Identify the structure labeled “10.”
A) anterior white commissure
B) anterior median fissure
C) anterior white column
D) anterior gray commissure
E) anterior white horn
D) anterior gray commissure
35) What is the function of the structure labeled “12”?
A) control of skeletal muscle
B) somatic sensory receiving
C) visceral sensory receiving
D) control of visceral effectors
E) ascending pathway
B) somatic sensory receiving
53) A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will
A) lead to skeletal muscle weakness or paralysis.
B) interfere with position sense.
C) mainly interfere with crude touch and temperature sense.
D) block autonomic regulation.
E) affect visceral motor function.
A) lead to skeletal muscle weakness or paralysis.
52) The obturator nerve is distributed to the
A) adductors of the hip.
B) skin over the perineum.
C) extensors of the hip.
D) skin over buttocks.
E) biceps femoris.
A) adductors of the hip.
36) What is the function of the structure labeled “14”?
A) control of skeletal muscle
B) somatic sensory processing
C) control of visceral effectors
D) somatic motor control
E) visceral sensory processing
C) control of visceral effectors
51) The ________ innervates the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs.
A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) dorsal ramus
D) ventral ramus
E) dermatomes
D) ventral ramus
37) Where do somatic motor neurons reside?
A) 10
B) 12
C) 13
D) 14
E) 15
E) 15
49) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the
A) perineurium.
B) epineurium.
C) endoneurium.
D) epimysium.
E) endosteum.
A) perineurium.
38) Into what spinal area would one inject a chemical whose purpose is to anesthetize the patient?
A) the subarachnoid space
B) the central canal
C) the subdural space
D) the epidural space
E) the venous dural sinus
D) the epidural space
50) Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles.
A) shoulder
B) intercostal
C) abdominal
D) leg
E) facial
D) leg
39) The outermost connective-tissue covering of nerves is the
A) endoneurium.
B) endomysium.
C) perineurium.
D) epineurium.
E) epimysium.
D) epineurium.
48) In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.
A) myasthenia gravis
B) neuronal damage
C) shingles
D) chickenpox
E) Hodgkin’s disease
C) shingles
40) The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord and carries visceral motor fibers that are myelinated form the
A) white rami communicantes.
B) gray rami communicantes.
C) dorsal ramus.
D) ventral ramus.
E) dermatomes.
A) white rami communicantes.
41) The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region with the spinal nerve and contain postganglionic fibers that innervate glands in the body wall or smooth muscles in limbs are
A) white rami communicantes.
B) gray rami communicantes.
C) dorsal ramus.
D) ventral ramus.
E) dermatomes.
B) gray rami communicantes.
47) In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?
A) cranial
B) cervical
C) brachial
D) lumbar
E) sacral
C) brachial
46) The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ________ plexus.
A) cervical
B) brachial
C) lumbar
D) sacral
E) thoracic
B) brachial
42) Postganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs are
A) dorsal rami.
B) ventral rami.
C) white rami.
D) gray rami.
E) sympathetic nerves.
E) sympathetic nerves.
44) The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back.
A) white ramus communicantes
B) gray ramus communicantes
C) dorsal ramus
D) ventral ramus
E) dermatome
C) dorsal ramus
43) Which of the following associations is incorrect?
A) 8 cervical spinal nerves
B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves
C) 5 lumbar spinal nerves
D) 5 sacral spinal nerves
E) 1 coccygeal spinal nerve
B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves
45) Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region.
A) cervical
B) thoracic
C) lumbar
D) sacral
E) coccygeal
A) cervical
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