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Combo Chap 13 & 14

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Spinal cord conducts signals up and down the body passing through gray and white matter, respectively.
False
Cervical and lumbar enlargements are wide points in the cord marking the emergence of motor nerves.
True
Each portion of the spinal cord served by a spinal nerve is called a segment of the cord.
True
Nerve fibers in a given tract in the white matter are similar in origin, destination, and function.
True
Motor signals typically begin in an upper motor neuron in the thalamus.

False
Most nerves are motor nerves.
False
A nerve fiber is enclosed in its own fibrous sleeve called perineurium
False
A ganglion is a swelling along a nerve containing cell bodies of peripheral neurons.
True
A dermatome is a nerve innervating a specific region in the skin.
True
Posterior root ganglia contain somas of unipolar neurons
True
Somatic reflexes are responses of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
False
The stretch reflex is a tendency of a muscle to stretch when it is overcontracted.
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False
A stretch reflex is often accompanied by reciprocal inhibition.
True
The tendon reflex is the inhibition of a muscle contraction that occurs when its tendon is excessively stretched.
False
The cross extension reflex is the contraction of the extensors on one side of the body when the flexors are contracted on the other side
True
The upper motor neurons that control skeletal muscles begin with a soma in
the precentral gyrus of the cerebrum.
The signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in
the corticospinal tract.
Many upper motor neurons synapse with lower motor neurons in
the anterior horns.
Which of the following sensory functions involves neurons in the posterior root ganglia?
touch
The spinal cord is divided into all of the following regions except
pelvic.
The following are all functions associated with the spinal cord except
to protect neurons in both the ascending and descending tract.
Which of the following fractures would be the least likely to cause a spinal cord injury
a fracture of vertebra L4
This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges and spinal nerves. What does
This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges and spinal nerves. What does “1” represent?
posterior root of a spinal nerve
This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges and spinal nerves. What does
This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges and spinal nerves. What does “4” represent?
arachnoid mater
Epidural anesthesia is introduced in the epidural space between ___ to block pain signals during pregnancy.
dural sheath and vertebral bones
This figure shows a cross section of the spinal cord. What does
This figure shows a cross section of the spinal cord. What does “3” represent?
anterior horn
Cerebrospinal fluid fills in the space between
arachnoid mater and pia mater.
Which of the following structures is the richest in lipid content?
white matter
Gray matter contains
neurosomas, dendrites, and proximal parts of axons of neurons.
___ carry motor commands from the brain along the spinal cord
Descending tracts
Second-order neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the
thalamus.
___ keep(s) nerve fibers insulated from one another.
Endoneurium
___ fibers innervate eyes and ears.
Special
A ganglion is a
cluster of neurosomas in the PNS.
There are __ pairs of spinal nerves.
31
This figure shows the anatomy of a nerve. What does
This figure shows the anatomy of a nerve. What does “3” represent?
perineurium
This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does
This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does “3” represent?
brachial plexus
This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does
This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does “2” represent?
the cervical enlargement
The ventral rami of the spinal nerves form nerve plexuses in all regions except
the thoracic region
The cervical plexus gives origin to the ___ nerve(s
phrenic
Which of the following nerves originates in the coccygeal plexus?
sciatic
This figure shows a dermatome map. A patient with no sensation in the left thumb would probably have a nerve damaged in
This figure shows a dermatome map. A patient with no sensation in the left thumb would probably have a nerve damaged in
C6
Which of these is an ascending tract of the spinal cord?
the gracile fasciculus
A mixed nerve consists of both
afferent and efferent fibers
Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve have somas of solely sensory neurons?
posterior (dorsal) root
The bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5 is called the
cauda equina.
Somatosensory refers to these sensory signals except the sensory signals from
the viscera.
Neurosomas of the posterior root are located in the ___, whereas neurosomas of the anterior root are located in the ___.
posterior root ganglion; gray matter
A ___ is a cordlike organ composed of numerous ___.
nerve; axons
Which one of the following best describes the order of a somatic reflex?
somatic receptor afferent nerve fiber interneuron efferent nerve fiber skeletal muscle
Which of the following groups of muscles have the most muscle spindles?
muscles of the hand
These are all properties of reflexes except
reflexes are spontaneous actions of the nervous system.
A muscle spindle contains mostly
muscle fibers.
A nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. You flinch at the pain, pulling your hand back. This is called the
flexor (withdrawal) reflex.
The quickest reflex arcs involve only two neurons, thus forming __ reflex arcs.
monosynaptic
The flexor (withdrawal) reflex employs a ____, which maintains a sustained contraction.
parallel after-discharge circuit
If a bee sting on the right thigh causes a quick involuntary reaction of the right arm, this would be an example of
an intersegmental reflex.
The sensitivity of the muscle spindle is maintained by
gamma motor neurons.
The fibers that carry action potentials to cause skeletal muscle to contract are
alpha motor neurons.
You go to the movies after a long day and you begin to nod off as soon as the movie starts. Your head starts to lower a little but this reflex causes your head to rise. This is called the
stretch (myotatic) reflex.
In the patellar tendon reflex arc, the patellar ligament is stretched, which stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle of the thigh. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to
contract and the antagonist muscles, the hamstrings, to relax.
A reflex where the sensory input and motor output are on opposite sides of the spinal cord is called a(n) _____ reflex arc.
contralateral
The tendon reflex
prevents overcontraction of a muscle.
This reflex shows the least synaptic delay.
tendon reflex
Tendon organs are
proprioceptors.
Because the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found.
FALSE
The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.
TRUE
The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.
FALSE
Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves.
FALSE
The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.
TRUE
The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.
TRUE
The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia.
TRUE
Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.
TRUE
Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.
TRUE
Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually stimulatory and mediatory.
TRUE
The adrenal medulla is considered a “misplaced” sympathetic ganglion by some.
TRUE
Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.
TRUE
Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system.
FALSE
Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release.
TRUE
Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system.
FALSE
The ANS stimulates smooth and skeletal muscles and glands, whereas the somatic nervous system innervates cardiac muscles only.
FALSE
Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers.
FALSE
Autonomic ganglia are motor ganglia only.
TRUE
The craniosacral division is another name for the parasympathetic division.
TRUE
The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.
FALSE
Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.
TRUE
The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
FALSE
Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division.
TRUE
All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic.
FALSE
Splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus.
TRUE
The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control.
TRUE
Because many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic.
FALSE
β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart.
FALSE
Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.
TRUE
Cranial nerves III, VII, and IX supply the entire parasympathetic innervation of the head; however, only the preganglionic fibers lie within these three pairs of cranial nerves.
TRUE
Because parasympathetic fibers never run in spinal nerves, rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division.
TRUE
Rami communicantes are designated white or grey to indicate whether or not the fibers passing through them are myelinated.
TRUE
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
A) parasympathetic innervation
B) sympathetic stimulation
C) vagus nerve activity
D) neurosecretory substances
B) sympathetic stimulation
Which of the following does not describe the ANS?
A) a system of motor neurons that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
B) a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
C) involuntary nervous system
D) general visceral motor system
B) a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
Preparing the body for the “fight-or-flight” response is the role of the ________.
A) sympathetic nervous system
B) cerebrum
C) parasympathetic nervous system
D) somatic nervous system
A) sympathetic nervous system
The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except ________.
A) their effectors
B) their efferent pathways
C) to some degree in target responses to their neurotransmitters
D) all of the neurotransmitters
D) all of the neurotransmitters
A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
A) anticholinesterase
B) epinephrine
C) norepinephrine
D) a beta-blocker
D) a beta-blocker
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
A) ciliary ganglion
B) pterygopalatine ganglion
C) submandibular ganglion
D) otic ganglion
A) ciliary ganglion
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
A) constriction of most blood vessels
B) dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles
C) increase of heart rate and force
D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
A) V
B) VII
C) X
D) XII
C) X
The “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
The “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
A) parasympathetic division
B) sympathetic division
C) somatic division
D) peripheral nervous system
A) parasympathetic division
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
A) medulla
B) cerebellum
C) hypothalamus
D) thalamus
C) hypothalamus
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A) smooth muscle
B) cardiac muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) most glands
C) skeletal muscle
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
A) salivation
B) dilation of the pupils
C) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D) elimination of urine
B) dilation of the pupils
Which of the following statements is not true?
A) Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
B) Sympathetic ganglia are within a few centimeters of the CNS; parasympathetic are close to visceral organs served.
C) Sympathetic division has short preganglionic and long postganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers.
D) Sympathetic has extensive branching of preganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has minimal branching of preganglionic fibers.
A) Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
A) inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
C) preganglionic fibers are short
D) preganglionic fibers are long
B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebra?
A) second cervical
B) third lumbar
C) first coccyx
D) first thoracic
D) first thoracic
Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
A) an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
B) synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
D) both somatic afferent and efferent neurons
C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.
A) optic
B) oculomotor
C) trochlear
D) abducens
B) oculomotor
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) spinal nerves
D) splanchnic nerves
D) splanchnic nerves
Which of the following is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
A) cardiac
B) pulmonary
C) celiac
D) esophageal
C) celiac
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
A) visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
B) somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
D) visceral arcs do not use integration centers
C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
The parasympathetic tone ________.
A) prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B) accelerates activity of the digestive tract
C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D) causes blood pressure to rise
C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all but which one of the following?
A) synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
B) synapase with a ganglionic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
C) ascend or descend the trunk to synapse in another trunk ganglion
D) pass through the trunk ganglion without synapsing with another neuron
A) synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
The white rami communicantes ________.
A) are found only in the – cord segments
B) are unmyelinated
C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
D) carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery
C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
Beta-blockers ________.
A) increase a dangerously low heart rate
B) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
C) have widespread sympathetic effects
D) are potent antidepressants
B) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
A) is primarily under sympathetic control
B) is primarily under parasympathetic control
C) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
D) depends very little on autonomic activation
B) is primarily under parasympathetic control
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
A) regulation of pupil size
B) regulation of cardiac rate
C) regulation of respiratory rate
D) regulation of body temperature
D) regulation of body temperature
Raynaud’s disease ________.
A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
B) is induced by heat stress
C) occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
D) is frequently life threatening
A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
Autonomic dysreflexia ________.
A) is also known as autonomic areflexia
B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
C) usually precedes spinal shock
D) results from overexcitatory input from the cortex
B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
Which sympathetic fibers form the splanchnic nerve?
A) those that synapse with parasympathetic fibers
B) those that synapse in the same trunk ganglion they entered
C) those that synapse with somatic fibers
D) those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
D) those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
B) cerebral hemorrhage
C) major loss of axons
D) peripheral vascular changes
A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
A) in the head
B) in the cervical region
C) close to the visceral effectors they serve
D) in the armpit
D) in the armpit
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
A) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
B) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
D) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
A) lumbar splanchnic nerves
B) cephalic plexus
C) pelvic nerves
D) tenth cranial nerve
D) tenth cranial nerve
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
A) sympathetic trunk
B) phrenic nerve
C) vagus nerve
D) sacral nerve
C) vagus nerve
Parasympathetic functions include ________.
A) a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
B) allowing the body to cope with an external threat
C) lens accommodation for close vision
D) mobilizing storage energy sources
C) lens accommodation for close vision
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
A) lateral horn of the spinal cord
B) hypothalamus
C) lateral geniculate of the thalamus
D) inferior colliculus
B) hypothalamus
The possibility of some control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
A) split brain studies
B) stress-induced hypertension
C) biofeedback
D) nightmares
C) biofeedback
The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
A) pancreas
B) kidneys
C) parotid gland
D) gallbladder
C) parotid gland
The sympathetic division is often casually referred to as the ________ system.
fight-or-flight
Two major classes of adrenergic receptors, ________ and ________, are found in the ANS.
alpha; beta
Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.
sympathetic
The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.
parasympathetic
The two cholinergic receptor types are ________ and ________.
nicotinic; muscarinic
The ________ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate.
β1
The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the ________ splanchnic nerve.
greater
Pain from the diaphragm will be referred to the anterior cutaneous area of the ________.
neck
The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons.
acetylcholine
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
A) parasympathetic innervation
B) sympathetic stimulation
C) vagus nerve activity
D) neurosecretory substances
sympathetic stimulation
Which of the following does not describe the ANS?
A) a system of motor neurons that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
B) a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
C) involuntary nervous system
D) general visceral motor system
a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
Preparing the body for the “fight-or-flight” response is the role of the ________.
A) sympathetic nervous system
B) cerebrum
C) parasympathetic nervous system
D) somatic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except ________.
A) their effectors
B) their efferent pathways
C) to some degree in target responses to their neurotransmitters
D) all of the neurotransmitters
all of the neurotransmitters
A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
A) anticholinesterase
B) epinephrine
C) norepinephrine
D) a beta-blocker
a beta-blocker
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
A) ciliary ganglion
B) pterygopalatine ganglion
C) submandibular ganglion
D) otic ganglion
ciliary ganglion
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
A) constriction of most blood vessels
B) dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles
C) increase of heart rate and force
D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
A) V
B) VII
C) X
D) XII
X
The “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
The “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
A) parasympathetic division
B) sympathetic division
C) somatic division
D) peripheral nervous system
parasympathetic division
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
A) medulla
B) cerebellum
C) hypothalamus
D) thalamus
hypothalamus
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A) smooth muscle
B) cardiac muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) most glands
skeletal muscle
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
A) salivation
B) dilation of the pupils
C) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D) elimination of urine
dilation of the pupils
Which of the following statements is not true?
A) Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
B) Sympathetic ganglia are within a few centimeters of the CNS; parasympathetic are close to visceral organs served.
C) Sympathetic division has short preganglionic and long postganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers.
D) Sympathetic has extensive branching of preganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has minimal branching of preganglionic fibers.
Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
A) inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
C) preganglionic fibers are short
D) preganglionic fibers are long
NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebra?
A) second cervical
B) third lumbar
C) first coccyx
D) first thoracic
first thoracic
Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
A) an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
B) synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
D) both somatic afferent and efferent neurons
the cell bodies of motor neurons
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.
A) optic
B) oculomotor
C) trochlear
D) abducens
oculomotor
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) spinal nerves
D) splanchnic nerves
splanchnic nerves
Which of the following is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
A) cardiac
B) pulmonary
C) celiac
D) esophageal
celiac
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
A) visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
B) somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
D) visceral arcs do not use integration centers
visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
The parasympathetic tone ________.
A) prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B) accelerates activity of the digestive tract
C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D) causes blood pressure to rise
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all but which one of the following?
A) synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
B) synapase with a ganglionic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
C) ascend or descend the trunk to synapse in another trunk ganglion
D) pass through the trunk ganglion without synapsing with another neuron
synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
The white rami communicantes ________.
A) are found only in the – cord segments
B) are unmyelinated
C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
D) carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery
carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
Beta-blockers ________.
A) increase a dangerously low heart rate
B) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
C) have widespread sympathetic effects
D) are potent antidepressants
decrease heart rate and blood pressure
Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
A) is primarily under sympathetic control
B) is primarily under parasympathetic control
C) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
D) depends very little on autonomic activation
is primarily under parasympathetic control
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
A) regulation of pupil size
B) regulation of cardiac rate
C) regulation of respiratory rate
D) regulation of body temperature
regulation of body temperature
Raynaud’s disease ________.
A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
B) is induced by heat stress
C) occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
D) is frequently life threatening
is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
Autonomic dysreflexia ________.
A) is also known as autonomic areflexia
B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
C) usually precedes spinal shock
D) results from overexcitatory input from the cortex
involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
Which sympathetic fibers form the splanchnic nerve?
A) those that synapse with parasympathetic fibers
B) those that synapse in the same trunk ganglion they entered
C) those that synapse with somatic fibers
D) those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
B) cerebral hemorrhage
C) major loss of axons
D) peripheral vascular changes
clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
A) in the head
B) in the cervical region
C) close to the visceral effectors they serve
D) in the armpit
in the armpit
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
A) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
B) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
D) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
A) lumbar splanchnic nerves
B) cephalic plexus
C) pelvic nerves
D) tenth cranial nerve
tenth cranial nerve
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
A) sympathetic trunk
B) phrenic nerve
C) vagus nerve
D) sacral nerve
vagus nerve
Parasympathetic functions include ________.
A) a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
B) allowing the body to cope with an external threat
C) lens accommodation for close vision
D) mobilizing storage energy sources
lens accommodation for close vision
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
A) lateral horn of the spinal cord
B) hypothalamus
C) lateral geniculate of the thalamus
D) inferior colliculus
hypothalamus
The possibility of some control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
A) split brain studies
B) stress-induced hypertension
C) biofeedback
D) nightmares
biofeedback
The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
A) pancreas
B) kidneys
C) parotid gland
D) gallbladder
parotid gland
Regeneration within the CNS
is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes
Transduction refers to conversion of
stimulus information to nerve impulses
Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?
the number of dendritic endings present
The trochlear nerve conveys proprioceptor impulses from the ___________ to the brain.
superior oblique muscle
The cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved in regulating motor activity, starting and stopping movements, and coordination postural movements.
True
In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would _________.
extend
Which of the following is NOT an aspect of sensory perception?
quality estimation
_______________ do NOT exhibity the property of adaptation.
Tonic receptors
Choose a FALSE statement about nerves.
The majority of a nerve’s bulk is due axons.
Which receptors adapt most slowly?
nociceptors
If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or regions that nerve supplies?
a complete loss of voluntary movement
The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the __________ nerve.
tibial
All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the _______.
thalamus
Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?
The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential called a transduction potential.
Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called _______.
motor nerves
The patellar “knee jerk” reflex is an example of a(n) _________.
stretch reflex
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are _________.
afferent nerves
Why might an individual experience the phenomenon known as “referred pain”?
Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers
Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are ____________.
involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by _____________.
nociceptors
Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ____________.
exteroceptors
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?
facial
A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in _________.
sciatica
The __________ nerve is NOT a branch of the trigeminal nerve.
cervical
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ___________.
tenth cranial nerve
Autonomic dysreflexia ____________.
involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
The parasympathetic tone ___________.
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
Which of the following is responsible for the overall integration of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
hypothalamus
Oculomotor nerves are responsible for which of the following functions?
focusing the eyes on close objects
The “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system is the _________.
parasympathetic division
Which of the following is NOT an antagonistic effect of the sympathetic nervous system?
increased cognitive functioning

Cite this Combo Chap 13 & 14

Combo Chap 13 & 14. (2017, Dec 14). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/combo-chap-13-14-essay/

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