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Physics chapter 7

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    Metals are both good heat and electrical conductors due to
    looseness of outer electrons in metal atoms.
    A good heat conductor
    poor insulator.
    A poor conductor of heat is
    a good insulator
    Your toes feel warmer on a rug than on a tile floor because the rug
    is a better insulator than tile
    If you were caught in freezing weather with only a candle for warmth, you would be warmer in
    an igloo
    One of the main reasons people can walk barefoot on red-hot coals of wood without burning their feet has to do with
    low thermal conductivity of the coals
    A water-filled paper cup held in a flame will not catch fire because
    the paper cup cannot become appreciably hotter than the water it contains
    The process of convection occurs in
    fluids
    Warm air rises because faster moving molecules tend to move to regions of less
    pressure and density
    Hot steam that issues from a pressure cooker expands and
    cools
    Convection currents in the air near a seashore are produced by
    unequal heating of land and water
    Coastal winds shift from night to day due to
    convection
    Blow on your hand with your open mouth and you feel the warmth of your breath. Pucker your lips so your breath expands as you blow and your breath is
    cooler
    If a volume of air is warmed, it expands. If a volume of air expands, it
    cools
    When a volume of air is compressed, its temperature
    increases
    The gush of steam that issues from the escape valve of a pressure cooker is relatively cool
    above the opening where expansion is prominent
    Radiant energy emitted by our planet is
    -the result of radioactivity in Earth’s interior.
    -terrestrial energy.
    -electromagnetic.
    The higher the frequency of a wave, the
    shorter the wavelength
    The average frequency of radiant energy is directly proportional to the
    kelvin temperature of the emitter.
    The higher the temperature of an object, the
    higher frequency it radiates
    The higher the temperature of an object, the
    shorter the wavelengths it radiates
    A star that is twice as hot as another has twice the
    Fahrenheit temperature
    If an object radiates more energy than it absorbs, its
    -thermal energy and temp decreases
    -temperature decreases
    If an object radiates more energy than it reflects, its
    -temperature decreases.
    -thermal energy decreases
    Objects that are good radiators generally
    absorb radiation relatively well
    Hot water will cool to room temperature faster in a
    black pot
    Cold water will warm to room temperature faster in a
    black pot
    To minimize heat loss it is best that a teapot be
    silver
    The pupil of your eye is a net
    absorber of radiant energy.
    An object will normally be a net radiator of energy when its temperature is
    higher than its surroundings.
    If air were a better conductor than it is, nighttimes on Earth would be
    considerably colder
    If a poor absorber of radiation were a good emitter, its temperature would be
    less than its surroundings
    A good absorber of radiation is a
    good emitter of radiaton
    A good reflector of radiation is a
    poor absorber of radiation.
    The Sun’s radiant energy is composed of shorter wavelengths than the Earth’s because the Sun
    has a higher temperature than the Earth.
    The silver coating on the glass surfaces of a Thermos bottle reduces energy that is transferred by
    radiation
    Suppose you are served coffee at a restaurant before you are ready to drink it. In order for it to be the hottest when you are ready for it, you should add cream
    right away
    Suppose you want to save energy and you’re going to leave your warm house for a half hour on a cold day. You should turn the thermostat
    off
    Suppose you want to save energy and you’re going to leave your cool house for a half hour on a hot day. You should turn the temperature setting on the air conditioner
    off
    Newton’s law of cooling applies to objects that are
    -warming
    -cooling
    A friend says that a can of beverage will cool faster in the coldest part of a refrigerator. Knowledge of Newton’s law of cooling
    supports this statement
    A can of soft drink will cool faster if placed in what part of a refrigerator?
    the freezer
    A red-hot piece of iron will cool faster in a
    cold room
    Compared to a glass of ice water with ice, a glass of plain ice-cold water without ice on a warm day will warm up
    faster
    If the greenhouse effect on Earth were absent, Earth’s average temperature would be about
    -18°C.
    To say you can never change only one thing means that when you change something,
    something else changes
    Glass in a florist’s greenhouse blocks radiation of
    all frequencies
    Glass and the atmosphere are largely opaque to
    infrared light
    Transparency of the atmosphere is lowest for radiation of
    infrared light
    The interior of a greenhouse emits long-wavelength radiation due to its
    temperature
    Heating the Earth’s atmosphere is caused by energy
    -consumption
    -production
    The Earth loses heat mainly by
    radiation
    Which is not a phase of matter
    vacuum
    The molecules in a room-temperature glass of water jostle around at
    great variety of speeds
    Evaporation is a cooling process because
    the more energetic molecules are able to escape the liquid.
    To say that evaporation is a cooling process is to say that the
    water left behind cools.
    Put a saucer of water on your table. A process that occurs in the saucer is
    -condensation
    -evaporation
    The dew that forms on a cold soda can when taken from a refrigerator is due to
    condensation
    Sublimation is a change of phase from solid to gas without
    passing through the liquid phase
    A mixture of light and heavy molecules make up a sample of gas. The temperature of the gas is constant, which means all the molecules have the same average
    kinetic energy
    At the same temperature, which move with the greater speed in a gas?
    light molecules
    Both heavy and light molecules make up a sample of gas. On average, the faster molecules are the
    light ones
    In a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, the higher-temperature molecules are
    both the same
    In a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, the molecules having the greatest average kinetic energy are
    both the same
    In a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, the faster molecules on average are
    hydrogen
    In a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, the slower molecules on average are
    oxygen
    If molecules in a sample of gas moved so they completely missed each other, the gas’s temperature would
    remain unchanged
    A hot dog pants
    to help evaporation occur in its mouth and bronchial tract
    Pigs wallow in mud mainly to
    cool themselves by evaporation
    A soda pop can with a small amount of water is on a hot stove. Soon steam comes from its opening. When the can is quickly inverted into a pan of water, the can is crushed by
    atmospheric pressure
    Consider a steaming aluminum soda-pop can that contains a small amount of boiling water. When it is quickly inverted into a bath of cooler water, the can is dramatically crushed. This is due to the rapidly reduced pressure inside the can by
    condensation of steam inside
    The process of boiling water tends to
    cool the water
    Boiling can be thought of as evaporation
    beneath the surface of water
    Boiling and freezing can occur at the same time when water is subjected to
    decreased atmospheric pressure
    When heat is added to boiling water, the water temperature
    remains the same
    Increased air pressure on the surface of hot water tends to
    prevent boiling
    In the mountains, water boils at
    a lower temperature than at sea level
    When salt is introduced to water, the temperature at which freezing occurs is
    lowered
    Food is cooked faster in a pressure cooker because of the
    higher temperature
    If you want to cook eggs by boiling them while in the mountains, then compared with cooking at sea level you should
    boil the eggs for a longer time
    When bringing water to a boil in the mountains, the time needed to reach the boiling point is
    less than at sea level
    Melting and freezing are both
    -opposite processes
    -changes of phase
    -processes of molecular transfer
    Keep decreasing the shaking of atoms in a liquid and it will
    solidify
    When water changes to ice, water molecules
    release energy
    When ice changes phase to become water, energy is
    absorbed
    An researcher discovers a harmless and tasteless salt, which, when added to water changes its boiling point. The market value for this salt will be best if the salt
    raises the boiling point of water
    Which requires more energy?
    changing 1 gram of 100°C water to 100°C steam
    Which would burn the most?
    100 g of steam at 100°C
    Steam burns are much more damaging than boiling-water burns because steam
    contains more thermal energy
    Steam burns are more damaging than burns caused by boiling water because steam
    -has more energy per kilogram than boiling water
    -releases additional energy when it condenses
    When steam condenses to water, energy is
    released
    When a gas is changed to a liquid phase, the gas
    releases energy
    When a solid is changed to a liquid phase, the solid
    absorbs energy
    When gases change to a liquid phase, they
    release energy
    We feel uncomfortably warm on a muggy day because water molecules are
    condensing on our bodies
    We are warmed by condensation because water molecules in the air striking our bodies
    transfer some of their kinetic energies to us
    When snow forms in clouds, the surrounding air is
    warmed
    When a gas changes phase to become a solid, energy is
    released
    Suppose you walk on red hot coals with bare feet. Providing bits of coal do not stick to your feet, it would be safer if your feet are
    wet
    To melt 50 g of 0°C ice requires
    -80 calories
    -25 calories
    -50 calories
    -none of the above*
    The number of grams of ice that can be melted by 1 g of 100°C steam is
    6.75 g
    If the composition of the upper atmosphere were changed to permit a greater amount of terrestrial radiation to escape, what effect would this have on Earth’s climate?
    If more terrestrial radiation in the upper atmosphere escaped, Earth’s climate would be cooler
    Alcohol evaporates faster than water at the same temperature. Which cools your skin more: alcohol, or the same amount of water, evaporating from your skin?
    alcohol
    From best to worst, rank these materials as heat conductors: (a) copper wire, (b) snow, and a (c) glass rod.
    1. copper wire (best)
    2. glass rod
    3. snow (worst)
    From greatest to least, rank the energy needed for these phase changes for equal amounts of H2O: (a) from ice to ice water, (b) from ice-water to boiling water, and (c) from boiling water to steam.
    1. boiling water to steam (most energy)
    2. ice water to boiling water
    3. ice to ice water

    A block of ice at 0∘C is dropped from a height that causes it to completely melt upon impact. Assume that there is no air resistance and that all the energy goes into melting the ice.

    What is the height necessary for this to occur. [ Hint: Equate the joules of gravitational potential energy to the product of the mass of ice and its heat of fusion (Lf = 335,000 J/kg).].

    does answer depend on mass

    h=34 km

    no

    A 11-kg iron ball is dropped onto a pavement from a height of 100 m . Suppose that half of the heat generated goes into warming the ball.

    What is the temperature increase of the ball. (The specific heat capacity of iron is 450 J/kg ⋅ ∘C. Use 9.8 N/kg for g.).

    is answer same for iron ball of any mass?

    ΔT = 1.1 ∘C

    yes

    Quantity of heat: Q=cmΔT

    Find what heat in calories (cal) is required to increase the temperature of 60 g water from 0∘C to 60 ∘C. The specific heat capacity of water is 1 cal/g⋅∘C.

    3600 cal

    Physics chapter 7. (2018, Jan 08). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/physics-chapter-7-essay/

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