The differences between Christianity and Catholicism are many and varied, but one way to understand them is by looking at the history behind each religion. The word “Catholic” comes from the Greek word katholikos, meaning “universal,” referring to all Christians around the world who follow Christ’s teachings and have not been excommunicated from their church. The word “Christian” comes from an ancient Greek term for followers of Christ, who were known as “Christians” only after Jesus’ death when Paul began preaching about Jesus’ life and death in order to convert people to his new faith.
Christianity can be broken down into different sects and denominations, including Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Pentecostal. Catholicism can also be divided into different sects or denominations, including Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox.
Catholics are required to believe certain things about Mary, including her Immaculate Conception (that she was conceived without original sin), Assumption into Heaven after death and bodily appearance at Lourdes (a Marian site in France). Catholics believe these doctrines as divine revelation from God through scripture and sacred tradition.
Christianity teaches that Jesus is the Son of God, while Catholicism teaches that Jesus is both human and divine.
Christianity teaches that priests are necessary for administering the sacraments (except baptism), while Catholicism does not require priests but allows laypersons to administer most sacraments as long as they have been properly prepared and have permission from a priest who has jurisdiction over them or from their bishop if no priest is available or willing to administer them.